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PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS 



War of the Rebellion 

1861 — 1865 





Gettysburg College 
Library 

GETTYSBURG, PA. 



Presented by 

PENM. STATIC LIBRARY 



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THE STORY 

OF THE 

116th Regiment 
Pennsylvania Volunteers 

IN THE 

War of the Rebellion 



THE RECORD OF A GALLANT COMMAND 



BY 

St. Clair A. Mulholland 

Colonel and Brevet Major-General 
U. S. V. 



1903 



. 5 



PRINTERS: 

F. McManus, Jr. & Co. 

PHILADELPHI.\. 



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GETTYSBURG COLLEGE j 

Cettisburg. Pa. y 

- LIBRARY - 1 



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BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL ST. CLAIR ^A. MULHOLLAND 
Colonel iiolh Pennsylvania Infantry 



DEDICATION. 

nnO the members of my Regiment, living and dead, 
■'■ these pages are dedicated with very great affection. 
To you, my beloved friends and comrades, who with 
me shared the honors, glorious triumphs and vicissitudes 
of the greatest war the world has ever seen ; to you who 
have stood with me on many battlefields, rejoicing in 
the hour of victory, sorrowing in the hour of defeat, 
whom the bond of fire has rendered nearer and dearer 
than brothers, whose joys, tears and blood have been 
mingled with my own, to you I offer and dedicate this 
book, a story of brave deeds and brave men, a tribute 
to your heroism and excellence, a chaplet of fadeless 
laurel, well deserved and nobly won, which, with great 
reverence, I lay on the graves of those of my comrades 
who are gone, and gladly place on the brows of those 
who are still with us, happy in the thought that I have 
been permitted to record their splendid valor, in the hope 
that they may live long to read in these pages their 
own honored names, so that when they, too, shall be no 
more, their children may look on it exultantly and make 
it their proudest boast that " Father was a soldier of the 
Union ". 



PREFACE. 

T Y/AR with its pomp and pageantry, glories, honors, 
^^ horrors and bloodshed has, from the beginning of 
time, entered largely into the history of nations. In 
every age, and in every clime, the story of the nation's 
brave has been the principal topic of 'the historians, the 
most sublime theme of the poet. 

In every century, since the arts became a part of 
ciAnlization, the sculptor and painter have plied the chisel 
and brush to perpetuate in marble and bronze, and depict 
on the less enduring canvas, the deeds of the heroes who, 
in the flame and tempest of battle, have stood, sword 
in hand, to defend the national honor or contend for a 
principle which they believed to be just. 

The record of a warrior is too often but that of a 
fearless man or unscrupulous conqueror, and often, whilst 
we would fain admire the dauntless bravery that made 
the soldier distinguished among his fellows, we are forced 
to condemn the cause for which he fought. But in the 
case of the men who, during the War of the Rebellion, 
formed the grand army that fought for, and preserved us, 
a nation, we can both applaud the hero and endorse the 
motive. The soldiers who gathered around our flag in 
this great war were not only heroes but patriots and 
saints as well. Theirs was the holiest, noblest, purest 
and best cause that ever summoned men to arms. Moses 
and Joshua fought to destroy and annihilate, that they 



Preface. v. 

might found a nation. Our army fought to preserve and 
secure — even to those whom they strived to conquer — 
the rights and Hberties that they themselves hoped to 
enjoy. Our soldiers fought to preserve that great legacy 
— more dear and valuable than all else gained by the 
sword on earth — the first real Republic that has ever 
existed ; to demonstrate that human freedom was not a 
myth and a dream, but a splendid reality ; to preserve 
intact, for all men who love liberty, that vast territory 
over which our flag floats, the glorious land that stretches 
from the storm-swept coasts of the Atlantic to the golden 
shores of the Pacific, that reaches from the frozen lands 
of Alaska to the orange groves of sunny Florida — the 
land that will, in the boundless future, shelter in its bosom 
so many happy homes and countless millions of freemen. 

The Army of the Union fought to keep alive that 
sacred torch of human liberty which burns brighter and 
more brilliantly as the years roll on, and which is indeed 
destined to illumine the world and shine with so resplendent 
a glory as to teach all, even the most benighted of nations, 
that men can live in peace, purity and honor without 
being subjects ; that the laws for the well-being and 
happiness of society can be well and wisely administered 
by the servants of a people who will not tolerate masters. 
It is the history of a gallant regiment, composed of these 
men, that I propose to record. 

But how many volumes it would take to tell the history 
of a regiment of more than a thousand noble men ! The 
naming of the brave deeds of any one of them would, 



vi- Preface. 

of itself, fill many glowing pages. Space, necessarily 
limited, will not suffice to allow justice being done to the 
individual — I can only write of the organization, of the 
marches, trials, triumphs and sufferings of the members 
as a body ; record the glories in which all were alike 
participants ; live over again the days of victor}^ and 
hear again the inspiring cheers of the victors, as they 
rushed over the works of the foe or hurled them back in 
defeat ; of other days, when disaster, rather than victor}-, 
was our lot, and when, maybe, our lines were forced back, 
leaving the ground strewn with dead and wounded — our 
well-loved companions ; of the midnight march and 
biiouac ; of marches in the deadly heat of summer, when 
men fell by the wayside, killed by sunstroke ; of other 
marches, during winter, when men died of the extreme 
cold ; of the camp and picket line ; of happy days in old 
Virginia, when sunshine and peace would prevail for a 
time and cause the shadows of soldier life to pass away. 

Then again, in writing this volume, I feel that I am 
but fulfilling a duty to comrades whom I have reason to, 
and do, sincerely love, so that the memory- of their noble 
deeds shall not be forgotten, but will live when they have 
gone to join those whose brave souls went out in the 
storm of battle. 

And this is truly the history of a regiment on whose 
record there is no stain or blemish, a command that never 
turned its back upon the foe, or shrank from any duty, 
no matter how dangerous ; that never failed to defend, in 
the most heroic manner, the position it was placed to 



Preface. vii. 

hold, or charge, with the highest courage and most 
reckless daring, the line of works that it was commanded 
to take — a command, the bones of whose members bleach 
on thirty battlefields ; a regiment whose colors, shattered, 
torn and bloodstained, were, after three years of arduous 
service, returned to our State with honor. 

I rejoice that I can testify to the excellence of that 
Regiment and to the heroism, devotion and gallantry of 
all its members ; and can here declare that all who touched 
elbows and marched under the flag of the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, are 
worthy of having their names inscribed herein. 

And this story of the organization is intended, not 
only as a memorial to the original members, but to all 
and everyone who, at any period of the three years, 
fought with the command ; to those who, at a later date, 
came from Allegheny, Fayette and Schuylkill Counties 
to fill the depleted ranks, and who, by their magnificent 
conduct in the Wilderness and Petersburg campaigns, 
brought so much honor and glory to the command, as 
well as to those who w^ere with us from the first, or w^ho 
fell early in the great struggle. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 

Dedication iii. 

Preface iv. 

Battles and Skirmishes xiii. 

Roll of Honor xiv. 

Chapter I i 

Organization of the Regiment. Starts for the Seat of War. 
In Washington. First Night in Camp. Assigned to the Irish 
Brigade. Harper's Ferry. The First Fight. The March to 
Fredericksburg. 

Chapter II 24 

General McClellan takes leave of the Army and is succeeded 
by General Burnside. Arrival at Falmouth. The Battle of 
Fredericksburg. Death of Lieutenants Montgomery' and Foltz. 

Chapter III. . . .• 63 

After Fredericksburg. Funeral of Lieutenant Montgomery. 
Christmas Day in Camp. The Regiment is Consolidated into 
a Battalion of Four Companies. General Hooker succeeds 
General Burnside in Command of the Army. Corps Marks 
are adopted. St. Patrick's Day in Camp. The President 
visits and reviews the Army. " Home, Sweet Home". 

Chapter IV 91 

The Battle of Chancellorsville. The Regiment saves the 
Guns of the Fifth Maine Battery-. 

Chapter V 108 

Chancellorsville to Gettysburg. General Couch leaves the 
Second Corps, and is succeeded by General Hancock. 
Company B is detailed to Division Headquarters as Provost 
Guard. General Meagher resigns and takes leave of the 
Brigade. Itinerary of the march to Gettysburg. 



Contents. ix. 

PACiB 

Chapter VI 119 

Gettysburg — the Battle of the Century. Notes on the Battle. 
Gettysburg to the Rapidan. Death of Lieutenant Bibighaus. 
Orders received to organize si.x new Companies and raise the 
Battalion to a Regiment. 

Chapter VII 162 

General G. K. Warren takes Conmiand of the Second Corps. 
Battle of Bristoe Station. Fight at Auburn, or Coffee Hill. 
General Meagher, Colonel Peel and Marshal Prim visit the 
Brigade. Reorganization of the Regiment. 

Chapter VIII 182 

The Wilderness Campaign. General Meade addresses the 
Army. The Regiment Camps on the Battlefield of Chancellors- 
ville. The Battle of May 5th and 6th. 

Chapter IX 192 

The Battle of Todd's Tavern or Corbin's Bridge. From 
Prayer-meeting to Battle. A Religious Army. The Battle 
of the Po. 

Chapter X 205 

Spottsylvania, May 12th. Lieutenant-Colonel Dale holds a 
Prayer-meeting in the darkness of early morning. Glorious 
Charge of the Regiment — among the very first to cross the 
Enemy's W^orks. Capture of a Confederate Battery, several 
Stands of Colors and many Prisoners. Colonel Dale falls 
Dead in the Hour of Victory. Death of Lieutenant Keil. 
Battle of Spottsylvania Court House, May i8th. Captain Lieb 
greatly distinguishes himself. Battle of North Anna River, 
May 24th. Fight at the Pamunkey River, May 28th. Battle 
of Tolopotomy, May 30th and 31st. Lieutenant Yocum 
distinguishes himself on the Picket Line. Colonel Mulholland 
wounded. 



X. Contents. 

Page 

Chapter XI 234 

The Bloodiest Spot on Earth :— Fredericksburg, Chancel- 
lorsville, Salem Church, The Wilderness, Spottsylvania, 
Spottsylvania Court House, Todd's Tavern, Po River, 
Bank's Ford. 



Chapter XII 253 

Cold Harbor. Severe Losses in the Second Corps. Death 
of Colonel Byrne, commanding Brigade. Losses in the 
Regiment during the Month of May. 



Chapter XIII 263 

The Command withdraws from the Works at Cold Harbor. 
March over Historic Ground. Arrival before Petersburg. 
Battle of June i6th. Splendid Charge of the Regiment. 
Death of Colonel Kelly, commanding Brigade. Battle of 
June i8th. General Bimey takes Command of the Second 
Corps. Battle of William's Faim, June 22d Severe Losses 
in the Regiment. Captain Cosslett, Lieutenant Cope, Sergeant- 
Major Burke and many of the Men captured by the Enemy. 
General Mahone tells of the Fight. The Regiment leaves the 
Irish Brigade. 



Chapter XIV 283 

First Deep Bottom, or Strawberry- Plains, July 27th and 2Sth. 
Second Deep Bottom, August 14th and 15th. Terrible 
Suffering from Excessive Heat. 



Chapter XV 291 

Battle of Reams Station. General Barlow leaves the Army 
and is succeeded in Command of the Division by General 
Nelson A. Miles. Heavy Fighting. Severe Loss in the 
Regiment. Death of Captains Nowlen and Taggart. Captain 
Crawford and Lieutenant Springer are captured by the Enemy. 
Letter of the Confederate General Heth. 



Conte7its. xi. 

Pace 

Chapter XVI 307 

Siege of Petersburg. General Hancock's Letter. On the 
Picket Reserve. Ghost Stories. Colonel Mulholland returns 
and assumes Command of the Brigade. "The Old Canteen." 

Chapter XVII 321 

Turning Movement against Lee's Right, October 27th. 
Capture of a Confederate Fort. Death of Captain Henry D. 
Price. Major Teed returns from Prison and resigns. A 
Sunday Afternoon at Petersburg. Fight at Hatcher's Run, 
December 9th. The last Christmas in the Army. Fight at 
Hatcher's Run, February 5th. The Regiment is authorized 
^ to place the Names of Nineteen Battles on the Colors. 

Chapter XVIII 335 

Spring Time again. Battles of Gravelly Run and Five Forks. 
Death of Lieutenant Brady. Fight at Sutherland Station. 
Color Sergeant Kelly wounded. The Confederate Retreat. 
Amelia Court House. Sailor's Creek. Farmville. Death of 
General Smyth. Appomattox. Ofificers who were Prisoners 
in the South return, and Major Cosslett tells of Prison Life. 
Return March to Washington. Assassination of the President. 
Lieutenant Tyrrell's Story of the Arrest of the Assassins. 
The Regiment passes through Richmond. The last Review 
in Washington. The last Muster on Gettysburg Field. 
The Roster. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Page 

President Abraham Lincoln 84 

Governor Andrew G. Curtin 2 

General U. S. Grant 192 

Lieutenant-General Nelson A. Miles 292 

Major-General Philip Sheridan 342 

Major-General George B. McClellan . . 24 

Major-General George G. Meade 122 

Major-General Ambrose Burnside 38 

Major-General Joseph Hooker 92 

Major-General Edwin V. Sumner 72 

Major-General Winfield S. Hancock 128 

Major-General Darius N. Couch no 

Major-General G. K. Warren 164 

Major-General Andrew A. Humphreys 332 

Major-General David B. Birney 272 

Major-General Francis A. Barlow 284 

Major-General John R. Brooke 242 

Brigadier-General Thomas Francis Meagher 12 

Brigadier-General Thomas A. Smyth 188 

Brevet Brigadier-General James A. Beaver 168 

Lieutenant-Colonel Richard C. Dale 216 

Captain and Brevet Major Garrett Nowlen 300 

Captain and Brevet Major Samuel Taggart 304 

Captain and Brevet Major Henry D. Price 324 

Captain George Halpin 312 

Captain George F. Leppine 98 

Lieutenant Robert B. Montgomery 66 

Lieutenant Eugene Brady 336 

Lieutenant Christian Foltz 48 

Lieutenant Robert T. McGuire 54 

Lieutenant William H. Bibighaus 160 

Wilkes Booth, and Irons Intended for President Lincoln . 398 

150th Pennsylvania Volunteers at McPherson's Barn ... 120 

The Wilderness 182 

Chancellorsville, after the Battle 106 

Spottsylvania, One Year after the Battle 222 

Bird's-Eve View of Battlefield of Gettysburg 118 

The Regimental Monument at Gettysburg 402 

Father Corby giving General Absolution on the Battle- 
field at Gettysburg 408 

Brevet Major-General St. Clair A. Mulholland . . Frontispiece 



BATTLES AND SKIRMISHES. 

Charlestown, Va October i6, 1862 

Snicker's Gap, Va November 12, 1862 

Fredericksburg, Va December 12 and 13, 1862 

Chancellorsville, \'a May i, 2, 3 and 4, 1863 

Gettysburg, Pa July 2 and 3, 1863 

Falling Waters, Md July 12, 1S63 

Auburn, Va October 14, 1863 

Bristoe Station, Va October 14, 1863 

Mine Run, Va November 28 and 30, 1S63 

Morton's Ford, \'a February 6, 1864 

Wilderness, \'a May 5 and 6, 1864 

Todd's Tavern, \'a I\Iay 8, 1864 

Po River, \'a May 10, 1864 

Spottsylvania, Va May 12, 1864 

Spottsylvania Court House, \'a May iS and 19, 1864 

North Anna River, Va May 23, 1864 

Pamunkey River, Va May 28, 1864 

Tolopotomy, Va May 30 and 31, 1864 

Cold Harbor, Va June 3, 1864 

Assaults on Petersburg, Va June 16, 17 and 18, 1864 

William's Farm, Va June 22, 1864 

Siege of Petersburg, \'a June 19, 1S64, until March 28, 1865 

Deep Bottom, \'a, July 26, 1864 

Strawberry Plains, \'a August 14 to 18, 1864 

Reams Station, Va August 25, 1864 

Hatcher's Run, Va December 9, 1864 

Dabney's Mill, Va February 5, 1865 

Gravelly Run and Five Forks, \'a March 29 to April i, 1865 

Sunderland Station, Va April 2, 1865 

Amelia Court House, Va April 6, 1865 

Sailor's Creek, Va. April 6, 1865 

Farmville, Va April 7, 1S65 

Appomattox, Va April 9, 1865 



ROLL OF HONOR. 



' Their bones are dust, 
Their good swords rust, 
Their souls are with the saints, we trust." 



(The Dead of the 116th Pennsylvania Volunteers.) 

Lieutenant-Colonel Richard C. Dale— killed at Spottsylvania, 
May 12, 1864. 

Captain and Brevet Major Garrett Nowlen— killed at Reams 
Station, August 25, 1864. 

Captain and Brevet Major Samuel Taggart— killed at Reams 
Station, August 25, 1864. 

Captain and Brevet Major Henry D. Price — killed at Petersburg, 
October 27, 1864. 

Captain George Halpin— died at close of war of disease contracted 
in Confederate prison. 

Lieutenant Robert Montgomery— killed at Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13, 1862. 

Lieutenant Christian Foltz— killed at Fredericksburg, December 
13, 1862. 

Lieutenant Eugene Brady — killed at Five Forks, March 31, 1865. 

Lieutenant Patrick Casey — died of gun-shot wound, September, 1862. 

Lieutenant William H. Bibighaus — died in Washington, June, 1863. 

Lieutenant Henry Keil — killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 

Lieutenant Robert T. McGuire— died at close of war of gun-shot 
wound received at Fredericksburg. 



Roll of Hoyior. xv. 

COMPANY "A" 

Private John S. Altemus— died December, 1863, of wounds received 

at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
Private John Corlov — died in prison (Belle Island), date unknown; 

taken prisoner at Bristoe Station. 
Sergeant Thomas Docgherty — drowned in Acquia Creek, Va., May 

I, 1864. 
Private Freeman Dyson — died at Petersburg, October, 1864. 
Private John Goldev — killed at Petersburg, November 2, 1864; 

wounded at Gettysburg. Grave 1295, Poplar Grove Cemetery, \'a. 
Paivate George Turner — killed at Gettysburg. 
Private John Woodward — died in prison (Belle Island), date unknown ; 

taken prisoner at Bristoe Station. 

COMPANY "B" 

Private Benjamin Cummings — died September 3, 1864. Buried at 

Cyp Hill Cemetery, L. I. 
Private James Carroll — killed at Petersburg, June 16, 1864. 

Private Carter— buried at Winchester, Va. 

Private Edward Fagan— killed at Spottsylvania Court House, May 18, 

1864. 
Private John S. Leguin — killed at South Side R. R., April 2, 1865. 
Private James McHugh — died July, 1863. Buried in National 

Cemeterj', Philadelphia. 
Private Manuel Martin — died July 19, 1863. Buried in National 

Cemeter)', Philadelphia. 
Private John Rodgers— killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private Charles Walting — died April 14, 1865. 
Private William H. Brooks — died May 3, 1864. Buried in Cathedral 

Cemetery, Philadelphia. 

COMPANY "C" 
Sergeant Francis Malin— killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
Sergeant Franklin B. Missimer — killed at Fredericksburg, De- 
cember 13, 1862. 
Sergeant Elhanan W. Price— killed at Fredericksburg, December 
13, 1862. 



xvi. The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Sergeant Thomas M. Rowland — killed at Fredericksburg, December 

13, 1862. 
Corporal William E. Martin — died December 13, 1862. 
Corporal Samuel J. Willauer — killed at Fredericksburg, December 

13, 1862. 
Private George W. Biddle — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 

1862. 
Private William Cawler — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private Robert A. Fulton — died December 25, 1864, at Annapolis, Md. 
Private William Gallagher— died December 29, 1862, of wounds 

received at Fredericksburg. 
Private Anthony Heffner— killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
Private A. S. Hendricks— died just after the battle of Fredericksburg. 
Private Glenn Harrison — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13,1862. 
Private John Hoop— killed at Deep Bottom, August 14, 1864. 
Private Allen Landis— died October 2, 1864. 

Private Aaron J. Landis — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private A. Landenberger — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 

1862. 
Private David E. Major — died near Falmouth, November 17, 1862. 
Private Michael Spencer — killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
Private Daniel Ulrick— killed at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863. 
Private David Whitmeyer — died September 27, 1864, at City Point, Va. 



COMPANY "D" 

Sergeant Andrew E. Ker — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13,1862. 
Sergeant William L. Lott — killed at Reams Station, August 25, 1864. 
Corporal John H. Curry (Color Guard) — killed at the Wilderness, 

May 5, 1864. 
Corporal John Hughes— died in prison, October 28, 1864 ; captured 

at Reams Station. 
Private John T. Benson— killed at battle of Wilderness, May 5, 1864, 
Private Robert Conway — killed at battle of Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Private Matthew Glasgow— died March 27, 1865. 
Private Frederick Hilcar — died on the eve of the battle of the 

Wilderness, May 4, 1864. 



Roll of Hoyior. xvii. 

Private James Hanna — died November 5, 1864 ; captured by the 

enemy at Reams Station. 
Private John Hughes— died October 9, 1864, of wounds received in 

front of Petersburg. 
Private John Huss— died November 11, 1864. in Salisbury Prison, 
Private Jacob Mills — died on the way to Gettysburg. 
Private John Morrissey — killed at Petersburg, June 29, 1864. 
Private John Myers — died in Andersonville Prison, July 22, 1864. 
Private Thomas O'Brian — died February 7, 1865. 
Private John B. Quigley— died August 29, 1864, of wounds received 

at Petersburg, June 16. 
Private George Rushworth — killed at Chancellorsville. 
Private Charles LeBos — died in Andersonville Prison, September 

30, 1864, of wounds received at William's Farm, June 22, 1864. 
Private Francis Sherin — killed at Gettysburg. 
Private John A. Smith — died July 26, 1864. 
Private Theodore A. Walker — killed at Chancellorsville, May 3, 1863. 

COMPANY "E" 

Sergeant Henry Kelly — died September, 1862. 

Sergeant John Murrey— died in Andersonville Prison, date unknown. 
Corporal Thomas Sharp — killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Corporal Aaron ToMLiNSON — died at Alexandria, Va., June 18, 1864, 

of wounds received at Cold Harbor, June 3. Grave 2181. 
Corporal Lot Turney — killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Corporal Henry Masters — died in Salisbury Prison, November 13, 

1864 ; captured at Reams Station. 
Private Richard: Barker — killed at Spottsylvania Court House, May 

18, 1864. 
Private George A. Dodd— killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private Charles Elfert— killed at the Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
Private Jacob Yard — died November 25, 1864. 

Private Frederick Lewders— killed at Deep Bottom, August 16, 1S64 
Private Hugh Laycock— died in Andersonville Prison, August 11, 1864. 
Private John Logue— died December 25, 1864. 
Private Thomas Murphy— died September 22, 1864. 
Private Albert Nelson — died in Andersonville Prison, 1864. 



xviii. The Story of the ii6th Regirnent. 

Private David Shannon — killed at Petersburg, June i6, 1864. 
Private Silus Young— wounded and captured in Wilderness, died in 

Salisbury Prison. 
Private Wilson Turpin— killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private John M. Wiley — died in Andersonville Prison, October 10, 1S64. 
Private Malchoir Zang — killed at Po River, May 10, 1864. 
Private George Adams— killed at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 

COMPANY "F" 
Corporal Daniel B. Berkheiser — killed at Reams Station. 
Corporal Chris Dieffenderfer — died in Salisbury (N. C.) Prison. 
Corporal William Moser — died June 14, 1864, of wounds received at 

Cold Harbor. 
Corporal Adam Wagner— killed at Petersburg, June 14, 1864. 
Private Henry A. Berger — killed at Po River, May 10, 1864. 
Private Johtst A. Berger — killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private John Baxter — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private James Day — died in Salisbury Prison, Decernber 20, 1864. 
Private Joshua Evely — killed at Tolopotomy River, May 31, 1864. 
Private John Freeze — died June 29, 1864. 

Private Charles T. Houck — killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private John J. Hunker— died April 20, 1864. 
Private Levi Herring — died September 13, 1864. 
Private Louis Heinback — killed at Petersburg, June 16, 1864. 
Private Peramus Hoffman — died October 14, 1864. 
Private Joseph M. Johnston — killed at Po River, May 10, 1864. 
Private Thomas Kramer— died March 13, 1865. 
Private Amos Reppert — died October 27, 1864. 
Private Charles K. Reichert— died June 20, 1864, of wounds received 

at Cold Harbor, June 3. 
Private Joseph B. Reber— died in Salisbury^ Prison, Januarj' 26, 1865. 
Private Nathan Raush — died July 22, 1864, of wounds received at 

Petersburg, June 16, 1864. 
Private Richard Shoener — killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private James White— killed in Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Private John Wagner — died January 7, 1865. 
Private John Webber— died in Andersonville Prison, September 7,1864. 



Roll of Honor. six. 

Private Joseph Wagxer— died July 17, 1864, of wounds received at 

Petersburg, June 22, 1864. 
Private William Wanner — died January 5, 1865. 

COiMPANY "G" 

Sergeant John C. Marley— killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 

1862. 
Corporal Abraham Foust— died at Richmond, Va., of wounds 

received at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Private Adam Buchner — died in Andersonville Prison, July 27, 1S64. 
Private John Barr — died May 25, 1864. 
Private John G. Cook — died November 7, 1862. 
Private Thomas Cooper — killed at William's Farm, June 22, 1S64. 
Private Henry Deitzler — died March 28, 1S65. 
Private Edward L. Gebbert — died October 16, 1864. 
Private Jacob Hummell — died in Andersonville Prison, date unknown. 
Private John Heinback — died in Andersonville Prison, October 12, 

1864. 
Private William Heinback— died in Andersonville Prison, date 

unknown. 
Private S. Heinback — died in Andersonville Prison, August 14, 1864. 
Private William Hare — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private George Kramer — killed at Fredericksburg, October 30, 1864. 
Private James Kelly — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1S62. 
Private John C. Marberger— died September 8, 1864, of wounds 

received at Reams Station. 
Private Jonathan Mover— died August 12, 1864, of wounds received 

at Cold Harbor. 
Private Frank Puffenberger— killed at Spottsylvania Court House, 

May 18, 1864. 
Private Cyrus Ruck— died in prison August 17, 1864. Grave 4,952, 

Poplar Grove Cemetery, Va. 
Private Martin V. Ryan — died July 24, 1864. 
Private Adam Sherman— killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private John Sherman— died June 30, 1864. 

Private Henry H. Trumbo— killed at Spottsylvania ^tay 12, 1S64. 
Private William Tucker— died August 5, 1S64. 



XX. The Story of the ii6th Regi7nent. 

Private Squire H. Vannatta— died December 25, 1864. 

Private Andrew Wilson— died in Salisbury Prison, February 10, 1865. 

Private Franklin Wanner— died December 25, 1864. 

Private John Walls— died of wounds received at Fredericksburg. 

COMPANY "H" 
Sergeant Henry W. Case— died August 13, 1864, of wounds received 

at Spottsylvania, May 12. 
Sergeant John Farley- killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
First Sergeant John A. Graham— killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Sergeant Frederick Shawn- died July 31, 1864, of wounds received 

at Petersburg, June 24, 
Corporal Horace Greenleaf— killed at Fredericksburg. 
Corporal George Seip— died in prison at Salisbury, N. C, November 

8, 1864 ; captured at Reams Station. 
Corporal James Slavin— killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Corporal William Wertz— killed at Spottsylvania Court House, May 

18, 1864. 
Private John Beilhartz— died in Andersonville Prison, October 14, 

1864. 
Private Rudolph Beiter— died June 23, 1864, of wounds received at 

Cold Harbor. 
Private John Door— died February 15, 1865. 

Private John S. Freidle— died in Salisbury Prison, December 25,1864. 
Private Samuel S. Gillespie— killed at Five Forks, May 31, 1865. 
Private John Haughy— died July 25, 1864, of wounds received at Cold 

Harbor. 
Private Calvin J. Lefever— died July 4, 1865. 
Private Frank Leonard — died in prison September 10, 1864. Grave 

4958, Poplar Grove Cemetery, Va. 
Private Charles McCarty — died in Salisbury Prison, January 10, 1865. 
Private Daniel McCarty— killed at Fredericksburg. 
Private C. Stetzler— died November 6, 1864. 
Private Isaac Shultz— killed near Petersburg, October 8, 1864. 
Private John Swisher — died July 31, 1864, of wounds received at Cold 

Harbor.. Buried in National Cemetery, Philadelphia. 
Private Matthias Seifritz— died September 8, 1864, of wounds 

received at Cold Harbor. 



Roll of Honor. xxi. 

COMPANY "I" 
Sergeant George Cole— killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Corporal Alexander Downey— died January 6, 1863, of wounds 

received at Fredericksburg. 
Private John Allen — died October 22, 1864, of wounds received at 

Cold Harbor. 
Private J. Carter— died March 15, 1864. 

Private Patrick Fleming — killed at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Private William Gaw — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private Hannibal Hatch — killed at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Private William C. Harvey— died October 14, 1864. 
Private Barthol W. Johnston— killed at Fredericksburg, December 

13, 1862. 
Private John Leech — killed at William's Farm, June 22, 1S64. Grave 

1521, Poplar Grove Cemetery, Va. 
Private Samuel McClcne — killed at Fredericksburg. 
Private Samuel Price — died July 11, 1864, of wounds received at Cold 

Harbor. 
Priv.-vte Edward Shea — died June 3, 1864, of wounds received at 

Wilderness. 
Private William A. Searight — died July 25, 1864, of wounds received 

at Spottsylvania. 
Private Albert J. Van Dien— killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Private Andrew Wallace — died in Andersonville Prison, July 10, 1864. 
Pri\ate John Winche.ster — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 

1862. 

COMPANY "K" 
Sergeant Daniel Root— killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1S62. 
Sergeant Edward Spence— died June 24, 1864, of wounds received at 

Petersburg, June 16. 
Sergeant Warren S. Kilgore — killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Corporal Robert J. Brownfield — died June 12, 1864, of wounds 

received at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Corporal Joseph Hudson— killed at Fredericksburg, December 13,1862 
Private C. Burkholder— killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1S64. 
Private John Burns — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. 
Private Henry J. Bell— killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 



xxii. The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Private Parks A. Boyd— killed at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 
Private Daniel C. Crawford— killed at Spottsylvania Court House, 

May 18, 1864. 
Private Michael Clemmer — killed at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Private William A. Conn — killed at Spottsylvania Court House, May 

18, 1864. 
Private Stephen H. Dean — died in Salisbury Prison, December 3, 1864. 
Private Peter Finegan — killed at Fredericksburg, December 13, 1S62. 
Private Levi Gilmore — ^died July ry, 1864, of wounds received at 

Cold Harbor. 
Private Robert Glendinning— died July 17, 1864, of wounds received 

at Spottsylvania Court House. 
Private Abraham Hull — died June 23, 1864. 
Private George W. Hanan — killed in Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
Private John Haus — died in Andersonville Prison, August i, 1864. 
Private John J. Hull — died, date unknown. 
Private Thomas J. Hanan— died March 29, 1864. 
Private Scott Hutchinson— died July, 1864. 
Private William Hall — died, date unknown. 
Private John H. Inks — died June 15, 1864, of wounds received at 

Tolopotomy River. 
Private Joshua Luckey— died April 8, 1864. 
Private Jacob Maust— died March 8, 1864. 

Private David J. Rifle— killed at William's Farm, June 22, 1864. 
Private Milton Rathburn— killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Private Danied Sickels — died in Andersonville Prison, July 9, 1864, 

of wounds received at Spottsylvania. 
Private James Smith — killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Private John W. Smith — died June 14, 1864, of wounds received at 

Cold Harbor. 
Private Joseph J. Smith — killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 
Private Benjamin Taylor — died May 5, 1864. 

Private John Tiernan — killed in Battle of Wilderness, May 6, 1864. 
Private Thomas Thorndell — killed at Five Forks, Va., March 31, 1865. 
Private Newton Umble — died in Salisbury Prison, October 19, 1864. 
Private John Williams — died February 9, 1863. 
Private Thomas Wilson — killed at Fredericksburg. 



CHAPTER I. 

JUNE, 18«>2. 

T^HE War of the Rebellion had been in progress for over 
a year. Great armies had been reorganized, and 
great battles had been fought. The theatre of operations 
had extended until it embraced a territory more vast than 
ever occupied by any war in the world's history. Tens 
of thousands of armed men were marching and fighting 
on the long battle line that reached from Washington to 
the Mississippi. McClellan, with the army of the Potomac, 
had just fought and won the battle of Fair Oaks. Grant 
had captured Forts Henry and Donaldson and, advancing 
along the Tennessee, had fought and won at Pittsburg 
Landing, and at Shiloh. 

It seemed as though the Civil War between the 
Northern and Southern States must soon end in triumph 
and final victory for the former, but peace was still far 
distant, and many thousands were yet to fall before the 
end came, and as the days passed it became evident that 
more stupendous efforts must be made by the general 
government if the union of states was to be preserved, 
so in the spring of this year (1802) a call was made for 
more troops. Pennsylvania, the Keystone State, always 
loyal and true, was prompt to respond, and the great 
War Governor, Andrew G. Curtin, whose administration 
extended over the six most eventful years of the Com- 
monwealth's history, and whose memory will ever be 
cherished in every home in all the State wherever the 
name of a soldier is honored, quickly began the work of 
organizing new regiments. 



2 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

The One Hundred and Sixteendi Pennsylvania Infantry 
was one of those then authorized. Dennis Heenan, a 
well-known and much respected citizen of Philadelphia, 
a soldier who had many years experience in the National 
Guard of the State, who had risen from the ranks through 
successive grades to that of Lieutenant-Colonel, and who 
had served in that capacity for three months with the 
Twenty-fourth Regiment during the Shenandoah \^alley 
Campaign, was chosen as Colonel. The writer of this 
was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and George H. Bardwell, 
Major. Major Bardwell had served in the beginning of 
the war as Captain on the staflf of General James S. 
Negley. He came of a long line of soldiers, his fore- 
fathers having been in every war in which the country 
was ever engaged, e^'en back to the earliest times in the 
Indian wars, when the first of his name arrived in Boston 
in IGGO. 

On the 11th of June, headquarters were opened on 
Market Street above Seventh and recruiting actively 
begun. A camp was established in a beautiful spot at 
Jones's Woods, about three miles from the city, on the 
Lancaster Pike. The first officer of the Regiment mustered 
into the service of the United States was Edmund Randall, 
First Lieutenant of Company G, the required number of 
men being secured to entitle the company to an officer 
of that grade, and on the 8th day of July Lieutenant 
Randall was sworn in and took command of the new camp. 

During the three summer months recruiting was slow, 
as many other regiments were organizing at the same 
time. In August the second battle of Bull Run, or 
Manassas, was fought in Virginia and, being a defeat to 
the Union troops and a disaster to the Union arms that 
resulted in a menace and danger to the National Capitol, 




^ /A^^^^--^^^^ 



Governor of Pennsylvania, 1S61 to 1S67. 



Forming the Regime7it. 3 

more men became an urgent necessity, and, without 
waiting for the completion of the organization, the 
Regiment, on September 1st, was ordered to the front. 
On that date only about seven hundred men had been 
enrolled and the command started for Washington with 
many of the companies incomplete. 

Camp was broken on the afternoon of September •2d 
and the Regiment, preceded by martial music, marched 
into the city and through the principal streets to the 
Cooper Shop Refreshment Saloon and, after enjoying an 
excellent meal and spending the last hour in Philadelphia 
in the most happy and agreeable manner, marched to 
the depot of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore 
Railroad and embarked for Washington. 

At the depot the crowd that accompanied the command 
through the streets slowly dispersed. Mothers, wives and 
sweethearts lingered on the platform until the very end, 
with the last warm kisses — alas ! for many, the very last 
on earth — still burning on their lips, and saw through 
their fast-falling tears the train move slowly away with 
the loved ones, many of whom would never return. 

The train arrived in Baltimore early next morning 
and, after being breakfasted by the citizens, proceeded 
to Washington, arriving there September 3d. The roster 
of the officers of the command was as follows : — 

Colonel — Dennis Heenan. 
Lieutenant-Colonel — St. Clair A. Mulholland. 
Major — George H. Bardwell. 
Adjutant — J. Robinson Miles. 
Quarter-Master — David S. Bunnell. 
Surgeon — John P. Ashcom. 
Assistant Surgeon — John W. Rawlins. 
Assistant Surgeon — Philip A. Boyle. 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Chaplain — Rev. Edward McKee. 
Sergeant- Major — George M. Book. 
Quarter-Master Sergeant — George McMahon. 
Commissary Sergeant — Daniel Reen. 
Hospital Steward — Frederick Wagner. 

COMPANY "a". 

Captain — vacant. 

First Lieutenant — William M. Hobart. 

Second Lieutenant — Henry D. Price. 



Captain — Thomas Murray. 

First Lieutenant — Timothy J. Hurley. 

Second Lieutenant — 

COMPANY "c". 

Captain — John Teed. 

First Lieutenant — Seneca G. Willauer. 

Second Lieutenant — John B. Parker, 



Captain — William A. Peet. 

First Lieutenant — Jacob Ridgway Moore. 

Second Lieutenant — George L. Reilly. 



Captain — John McXamara. 

First Lieutenant — Joseph H. G. Miles. 

Second Lieutenant — Robert J. McGuire. 



Captain — vacant. 

First Lieutenant — Joseph B. Kite. 

Second Lieutenant — Louis J. Sacriste. 




AXDRKW G. CUR11\ 
Died, 1894 



In Washington. 

COMPANY " G ". 

Captain — Lawrence Kelly. 

First Lieutenant— Edmund Randall. 

Second Lieutenant — Garrett Nowlen. 

COMPANY "h". 
Captain — John Smith. 
First Lieutenant — Francis T. Ouinlan. 
Second Lieutenant — vacant. 



Captain — vacant. 

First Lieutenant — John Stevens. 

Second Lieutenant — Robert B. Montgomery 

COMPANY " K ". 
Captain — John O'Neill. 
First Lieutenant — Patrick Casey. 
Second Lieutenant — Bernard Loughery. 



IN WASHINGTON. 

SEPTEMBER 3d, 1862. 

After a rest at the Baltimore and Ohio Depot, which 
was then at the foot of Capitol Hill, the ranks were formed. 
Officers put on their white gloves, tightened their belts, 
stepped briskly to their posts and drew their bright and 
untried swords. The men straightened up and tried to 
look their best, touched elbows toward the guide, "col- 
umn forward, guide right, march ! " and in column of 
company front the Regiment swept up the broad avenue, 
but, much to their astonishment, no one seemed to mind 
the new soldiers a bit. The martial music and fine 
marching were all wasted and thrown away. Ambulances 



6 The Story of the ii6th Regwient. 

dashed past, mounted orderlies rushed here and there, 
officers galloped in all directions, but everyone seemed 
too busy to pause and admire the new command. Xo 
crowds of interested citizens were gathered to see it pass, 
no bevies of pretty ladies waved "good-bye" — the good 
people of Washington had become accustotned to the 
music and marching. Five hundred regiments had passed 
over the same pavement within a few months, and this 
one furnished no new spectacle ; and so it moved along 
and wheeled into Seventh Street, eii route for Long 
Bridge. 

As the corner was turned, ever\- man looked back at 
the Capitol — that splendid mass of Mrginian marble tow- 
ering to the skies — the majesdc home of the Republic. 
The flag floated over the Senate and House where eight 
of the States had then no representatives. The dome was 
still in course of erection ; the colossal statue of Liberty 
had not as yet been placed in position, and the men who 
were filing across the Potomac were going there to deter- 
mine, by force of arms, whether the nation, like the 
Capitol, should sdll remain unfinished or Liberty find a 
resting place in the calm heavens high above the halls of 
Congress— whether we should remain one country, a 
single people with but one destiny and one flag, or be 
torn into fragments with one portion of the land dedicated 
to human slaverv' ! 

Over the Long Bridge into Mrginia ! A hot, sultry 
dav it was, and the dust, settHng on the new uniforms, 
dimmed the bright blue, so that by the dme a halt was 
called a dull gray was the prevailing color. 

And then the first taste of camp life, the excitement 
of getting up the tents, lighting the first camp-fire, cook- 
ing the first camp coffee, eating the first "hard tack", 



The First Taste of Camp Life. 7 

mounting- the first camp guard, and the hundred interest- 
ing incidents, so new, so fresh and so full of charm to the 
young patriots. 

Then the dress parade — "• arms stacked on the color 
line!" the sentries' monotonous tread; the "retreat" 
and, from the neighboring fort, the evening gun ; the sad, 
sweet notes of " tattoo " sounding from the many camps 
and echoing from the woods and hills, all so charming to 
the men who, until now, had only been playing soldiers, 
and who, but so short a time before, had been playing the 
more peaceful role of workmen, busy in the marts of trade, 
wielding the implements of industry in the factory or 
following the white wings of .commerce over distant seas. 
Then a comrade's welcome greeting, for in the evening 
the men from many other regiments swarmed into camp 
to meet the new comers. Ah ! now indeed, it was real 
war. Now they were in the enemy's country, among real 
veterans who had been in real battles and showed real 
scars and told wonderful tales of hair-breadth escapes and 
fierce encounters. 

One of the first visitors (Colonel McGrorty, Sixty-first 
Ohio) had been shot clean through the lungs, and the 
wound was still open, but he was on duty, and to-morrow 
he was going with an escort of cavalry to visit the battle- 
field of Bull Run to see about burying the dead. " Would 
any one like to go along?" Yes, the Major could go. 
He is the one officer of a regiment who seems to have no 
particular duty to perform and can run around and enjoy 
life — so he can go. 

But just think ! here at last, right in front of the 
enemy. Their pickets were just beyond the hill, and only 
an hour or two of a gallop and one could look on a real 
battlefield where the dead were still unburied. One of 



8 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

the men picked up a real minie-ball, and a real shell 
that had been fired by a Confederate gun. Ah, what an 
evening it was ! And how eagerly the embryo heroes 
drank in the stories of camp and field with which the 
veteran visitors regaled them. 

Night came at last. The newly made friends departed, 
the moon rose calm and serene, and the ranks lay down 
to sleep — to sleep and dream — to dream of home and 
friends, of mother's last blessing, of sister's last farewell, 
of wife and children who, in old Pennsylvania, were pray- 
ing at that same hour for the loved ones absent, of the dear 
girl that gave him the last embrace, and whom he hopes 
some day, when this cruel war is over, to call his own. 

Alas ! how many of those homes will only be seen in 
dreams again. How many mothers, sisters and sweet- 
hearts will pray always for their soldier, but will look in 
vain for his return. 

How many of the dreamers will never cross the 
Potomac again ! 

The first camp of the Regiment on the soil of Mrginia 
was established at Fort Craig, on Arlington Heights. 
Here the command remained for two days, the men greatly 
impressed with the new life and strange surroundings. 
Everywhere the evidence of active service and real war 
was visible. The earth was torn up in all directions, and 
strong forts topped ever\^ hill, a part of the immense line 
of earthworks raised to cover and protect the National 
Capitol, that was in plain view four or five miles away on 
the other side of the broad Potomac. September 6th, 
returned to Washington and drew ammunition and camp 
equipage. The arm furnished to the command was the 
" old pattern musket ", that was loaded with a ball 
(calibre 69) and three buckshot. Sixty rounds were given 



The First Taste of Camp Life. 9 

to each man. On Sunday morning, September 7th, the 
Regiment was ordered to march to Rockville, Md., and 
report to General D. N. Couch, commanding the Second 
Army Corps. Marched all day and reported as ordered, 
and immediately received orders to countermarch, return 
towards the Capitol and report to Colonel Morris, com- 
manding the defences north of Washington. September 
8th was spent in marching for the new field of duty and 
on the evening of that day the Regiment went into camp 
near Tennallytown. Here it remained until the 18th, and 
the time was well spent in drill and learning the many and 
various duties incidental to active warfare. Many of the 
men learned for the first time that the pick and spade were 
as much implements of war as the musket and bayonet. 
What astonishment was depicted in their faces, when a 
large detail for fatigue duty faced a wagonload of intrench- 
ing tools, and each one had to turn in for a long day's 
work. An officer of engineers of the regular army was in 
charge, and gave the men their first lesson in the very 
important branch of duty, "field fortifications". The 
work on which the Regiment worked for two weeks was 
a square redoubt, with abatis in front. The work, though 
of a very simple character, was most valuable to the com- 
mand in teaching the important matter of getting under 
cover quickly, and of using the earth, rocks, trees, and 
everything that nature places within reach, as a means of 
gaining the end desired. The new soldiers were quick to 
learn, and after ten days of the work, it seemed almost 
wonderful to hear how each one could talk with facility on 
the subject. Lunettes, redans and bastion forts, curtains, 
palisades, chevaux-de-frise, gabions, fascines, and many 
other military terms to which nearly all had been strangers 
a week before, became as familiar words, and were rattled 



10 The Story of the ii6th Reghnent. 

off by glib tongues in the most astonishing manner. The 
work with the pick and shovel soiled the new clothes 
somewhat, and the line did not look quite so bright on 
"dress parade", but, after becoming thoroughly accli- 
matized to Mrginia dust and mud, a little dirt was not 
regarded with horror. 

September 18th, marched to a point between Hall's 
Hill and Arlington Heights, near the Glebe House, and 
went into camp about six miles from Washington. 
Remained here until the 21st, when orders were received 
assigning the command to the Eleventh Army Corps, and 
to report to General Franz Seigel, commanding, at Fairfax 
Court House. September 23d, established camp within 
half a mile of that ancient town, and spent a week in 
vigorous work, the Regiment being drilled and instructed 
by General Steinweir, a Prussian officer of distinction. 
October 6th, the Regiment was ordered to proceed 
to Harpers Ferry and become a part of the famous 
Irish Brigade, commanded by General Thomas Francis 
Meagher. On the afternoon of that day broke camp, 
marched towards Washington, and formed camp near 
Bailey's Cross Roads. Entered Washington, e7i route, 
October 9th, and drew overcoats for the command. Left 
via Baltimore and Ohio R. R. 

ARRIVAL AT HARPER' S FERRY. 

The train carrying the Regiment arrived at Sandy 
Hook, near Harpers Ferr}^, at daybreak, October 10th. 
The men woke up and tumbled out of the cars, sore, 
sleepy and tired and formed line and, as the sun came 
over the hills, slowly moved through Harper's Ferry and 
climbed up the steep incline to Bolivar Heights. A halt 
for breakfast on the crest, and the men lit their little fires 



Arrival at Harper' s Ferry. U 

on ground that was literally covered with fragments of 
Confederates' shells, rested on the spot where Colonel 
Miles had made his stand and where he had surrendered 
to the enemy but a week or two before. Judging by the 
looks of the ground and evidence of the struggle one 
would think that he had reason to give up the fight when 
he did, the whole ground being strewn with pieces of 
shells, round shot, and debris of the battle. 

While the boys were eating and looking around at 
the magnificent scenery, a very amusing though rather 
serious incident occurred. A regiment from Maine, a new 
regiment also, came up to join the Second Corps and 
halted to prepare breakfast, and finding plenty of thirty- 
pound parrot shells lying around used them to build 
fire-places — forming four or five of the oblong bolts in a 
ring with the points up, making an excellent resting place 
for the coffee pot. But when the fire in the centre began 
to roar and crackle and the cofTee to boil, the shells began 
to explode, much to the amazement of the boys from the 
Pine Tree State. Half a dozen of the cooks were wounded, 
the coffee spilled, the whole corps had a good laugh, and 
the men of Maine had learned something. 

Whilst eating breakfast, Colonel Moorehead, of the 
One Hundred and Sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, rode up 
to shake hands and bid the men welcome. At noon the 
Regiment fell in, marched over to the headquarters of 
the Irish Brigade and reported for duty. The Adjutant 
General, Major Tom O'Neill, assigned the command a spot 
on Bolivar Heights, on a bluff overlooking the Shenandoah 
River, on which to pitch camp, and the streets were soon 
measured off and tents erected. Towards evening, when 
matters had gotten into something like order, the Brigade 
Commander, General Thomas Francis Meagher, came to 



12 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

make a visit of courtesy to his new command. He came 
in state, splendidly mounted, and surrounded by a 
brilliant staff, the members of which seemed to wear a 
deal more gold lace than the regulations called for. 
Meagher was a handsome man, stately and courteous, with 
a wonderful flow of language and poetic ideas. When the 
canteen had been passed around the conversation became 
animated, Meagher displaying a most gracious manner 
that was captivating and charming to a remarkable degree, 
forming a strange contrast to his mood at times when he 
tried to be stern and when his manner was not so affable. 
A pleasant evening it was and, when the General and his 
gorgeous staff rode away in the darkness, he left a pleasing 
impression behind him. Whilst at Harper's Ferry the 
state and national colors were presented to the Regiment 
with great ceremony, the presentation being made on 
behalf of Pennsylvania, by Samuel P. Bates, deputy 
secretary of the Commonwealth, Sergeant \Mlliam H. 
Tyrrell, of Company K, being selected to carry the flag. 
The camp at Harper's Ferry will always be remembered 
by the members of the Regiment with pleasure. The weeks 
spent there were full of enjoyment. Plenty of drills and 
work, to be sure, but still time enough for visiting through 
the camps and rambles through the old, historic town. 
The ruins of the Engine House where old John Brown 
made his last stand was a point of great interest to all. 
The magnificent scenery, the bright, sunshiny days, and 
the visit to the army of many ladies all lent a charm to 
the new life. That truly lovely woman, Mrs. General 
Thomas Francis Meagher, spent a week or two in camp, 
and many other wives of officers took advantage of the 
peaceful days to visit the army. Then there was the 
frequent target practice down by the river bank, where 




BRIGADIER-GENERAL THOMAS FRANCIS MEAGHER 



Arrival at Harper' s Ferry. 13 

the boys fired away at imaginary Confederates and filled 
trees full of buck and ball, with an implied understanding 
that the trunks were Confederate Generals ; the quiet 
picket line, three miles out towards Halltown ; the evening 
camp fire, reviews, martial music, and all the pomp and 
display of war, rendered the days pleasing indeed. 

The brigade to which the Regiment had been assigned 
was a celebrated one, renowned for hard fighting and 
famous fun. 

Instinctively one associates an Irishman with dash and 
courage, whether viewed as the presiding genius at Donny- 
brook Fair or as the leader of armies. The very name 
of this brigade was redolent of dash and gallantry of 
precision of evolution and promptness of action. It was 
commanded successively by General Thomas Francis 
Meagher (and was often referred to as Meagher's Brigade); 
Colonel Patrick Kelly, who was afterwards killed at 
Petersburg ; General Thomas A. Smyth, who lost his 
life while in command of another brigade ; and Colonel 
Richard Byrnes, who was killed in battle at Cold Harbor. 

The First Division, Second Corps, of which the Regi- 
ment had now become a part was known as Hancock's 
Division, and is celebrated as having done the hardest 
fighting and sustained the greatest loss of life. Within 
its ranks were the Irish Brigade, the Fifth New Hampshire, 
the One Hundred and Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, the 
Sixty-fourth New York and other crack regiments. The 
losses aggregated 2,287 killed, 11,724 wounded, and 4,833 
missing, making the appalling total of 18,844 men killed 
or wounded in this division during the war, yet it never 
at any one time numbered over 8,000 muskets. After 
the charge on Marye's Heights, which bloody assault it 
made under Hancock, it numbered only 2,800. Richard- 



14 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

son, its first commander, fell at Antietam. The Irish 
Brigade consisted of the Sixty-ninth, Eighty-eighth and 
Sixty-third Xew York and Twenty-ninth Massachusetts 
Regiments. The three former were Irish regiments, the 
latter like the One Hundred and Sixteenth being com- 
posed principally of Americans and placed in the brigade 
temporarily. The men quickly fraternized with the old 
regiments and were soon fast friends. There was very 
little sickness in the command and not one death during 
the time it was camped at Bolivar Heights, but in many 
other Pennsylvania regiments camped nearby there was a 
great deal of fever and many funerals. It seemed strange 
that the men of the Regiment, chiefly from the city, from 
the factory and workshop, should stand the exposure of 
the camp better than the men who came from the country. 
The farmer boys fell quickly under the new conditions of 
life and the citizen proved to have more stamina and 
better able to endure the vicissitudes of a campaign — and 
this rule seemed to hold good during the entire war. 

At Harper's Ferry the command improved rapidly in 
every duty of the soldier. The picket line near Halltown 
ran through a delightful country. Firewood and food 
were plentiful, and picket duty was a pleasure rather than 
a pain. At one point the line ran between two farm- 
houses in which resided lovers — the boy within the 
Union line and his lady-love over the border. Neither 
were permitted to communicate, but they would come as 
close to the picket as allowable and look sweet at each 
other. Happy was the officer of the day who could eat 
breakfast with the lover and then cross the line and dine 
in the house of the beloved. He was sure to fare well in 
return for any brief message that he might carry. 

While in camp at Bolivar Heights, General Edwin V. 



Arrival at Harper s Ferry. 15 

Sumner was succeeded in command of the second corps 
by General D. N. Couch, and here the Regiment first met 
that prince of soldiers, General Winfield Scott Hancock, 
then commanding the division and with whom the future 
was to be so closely linked — whom the command was to 
follow on so many bloody fields and whom all so soon 
learned to love and honor as one of the greatest of soldiers. 
On the evening of October loth orders were received to 
march at daybreak next morning on a reconnoissance down 
the Shenandoah valley to Charlestown. What an evening 
of pleasurable excitement with a dash of anxiety it was ! 
Men sat around the camp fires later than usual and talked 
of the morrow ; or rolled up in their blankets, dozed and 
dreamed of the anticipated fight, for all knew that there 
would be a meeting of some kind, as a Confederate force 
was within a few miles. Candles flickered all over the 
camp where others were writing letters home, thinking 
maybe that that would be their last night on earth. Some 
packed their knapsacks and were all ready to march hours 
before the dawn. No doubt many never slept at all, but 
sat by the smouldering embers of the camp fire in quiet 
thought, gazing at the dark mountains or listening to the 
wash of the Shenandoah's waters. One can hardly imagine 
a moment so full of subdued excitement, anticipative hope, 
fear, sadness, pleasure and all the emotions that human 
nature is subject to as the eve of a young soldier's first 
battle, and as the stars looked down on the calm, still 
night at Harper's Ferry they shone on many a beating, 
though brave, young heart ; and on the morning of that 
eventful day when the new soldiers were to hear the whistle 
of the first hostile bullet, no reveille was necessary to call 
them to arms. Every man was ready long before the time 
to move. 



16 The Story of the ii6th Regivient. 

The reconnoissance was made by the First Division, 
Second Corps, reinforced by Campbell's company of Horse 
Artillery and Tomkin's Rhode Island Battery and a 
squadron of cavalry. The column soon struck the enemy's 
picket which, after a few shots, retired towards the village 
of Charlestown. 

When within three miles or so of the town the advance 
suddenly encountered the enemy. The two batteries 
galloped to the front and the cavalry passed to the rear. 
The infantry filed into the fields on each side of the road, 
quickly formed line and advanced. (Meagher compli- 
mented the Regiment by giving it the right of the 
brigade). Summer lingered late that year. Stacks of 
hay not yet gathered into the barns were still in the 
fields. The meadows were yellow with goldenrod, and the 
regimental line was formed in a field still green with rich 
clover. Ah, how beautiful that bright October morning 
when for the first time the command formed line to meet 
the enemv, every face in the ranks beaming wuth 
patriotism, courage, enthusiasm and hope in that long line 
of young men, the best of the land, men who had risked 
their precious lives in defence of their country. The calm 
bravery with which they swept over the flowered fields on 
that Autumn morning was indicative of what was to be 
expected on many other and bloodier fields that were to 
be fought before the glorious morning of Appomattox 
was to end the battles and the marches. 

The batteries went into position near some large trees. 
Shells began to fiy and were seen bursting among the 
guns. Then the order to advance ; and when volunteers 
were called for, to go ahead and tear down the fences, 
every one was anxious to be first to rush into what would 
seem to be a dangerous duty. How they made the fences 



Arrival at Harper s Ferry. 17 

rty and clear the way ! Then the advance in the clear, 
bracing air. Oh, it was glorious war at last ! Shells 
screaming and bursting and the guns roaring and echoing. 
But while men were killed and wounded in the batteries, 
so far as the command was concerned the fight amounted 
to but sound and smoke, for not a man of the Regiment 
was hit. The force of the enemy proved to be but one 
battery of artillery supported by some cavalry which, after 
a vigorous exchange of shots, retired before the advancing 
infantry.' Column was formed again and the march to 
Charlestown resumed. When passing the spot where the 
batteries stood the men had a chance to see a litde of the 
horrors, as well as the glories, of a fight. Men were 
already digging shallow graves in w^hich to bury bleeding 
masses of human flesh and bones that a few moments 
before had been men full of life and vigor, standing by 
their guns and in turn hurling death and defiance — the 
wounded were being carried to the rear on stretchers from 
which warm blood was dripping. Mammoth trees had 
been pierced through by the shells, and the earth was 
rent and torn in all directions. The Confederates, consid- 
ering their numbers, had made a most gallant defence and 
only yielded ground when the long line of Union infantry 
advanced. The battery that had fought the Union guns 
so nobly proved to be the Richmond Howitzer Artillery, 
commanded by Captain B. H. Smith, Jr. The brave fel- 
low with his leg shot off was lying by the roadside, 
rejoicing that his guns got away safely. The division 
occiipied Charlestown without further opposition and 
about one hundred Confederate soldiers w^ere found in a 
church that had been turned into a hospital. They 
became prisoners. Lieutenant Edmund Randall, of Com- 
pany G, was detailed to take charge of and parole them. 



18 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

The Regiment bivouacked in the field where old John 
Brown had been hanged, and great interest was manifested 
when the men learned of the fact. After dark the rain 
fell in torrents, soaking everyone. Lieutenant Frank T. 
Quinlan was sent out in command of the picket and 
reported next morning that his line had been charged in 
the darkness by a flock of sheep with, it was thought, a 
serious loss of life on behalf of the latter. Remaining in 
the town until evening of the following day, the whole 
command started on the return to Harper's Ferry and 
camped in the fields near Halltown during the night. 
Quite a jolly evening it was. Everyone was in overflowing 
spirits. The camp fires crackled on all sides. Plenty of 
fence rails, and even fresh bread, seemed to come from 
somewhere, and fresh pork was plentiful. The Regiment 
had not lost a man, to be sure, but had seen a genuine 
fight, heard the scream of the shells and seen a caisson 
blown up and men knocked over. Surely it was a taste 
of real war and now everyone could almost begin to feel 
like veterans. 

While stationed at Harper's Ferry a call was made for 
volunteers to fill up the depleted ranks of some of the 
field batteries of the regular army. Twelve men of the 
Regiment volunteered and were transferred to Battery A, 
Fourth /\rtillery, where they served until the close of the 
war. Of the number, Michael Hickey, William Miller, 
Joseph Meander and John McCormack were wounded at 
Gettysburg, and Francis Tracey was wounded at Shiloh ; 
and Patrick Mullin greatly distinguished himself, at 
Gettysburg, the gallant young Captain Gushing falling 
in his arms when killed. 

October 26th tents were struck, and in the evening 
the army left Harper's Ferry, the Second Corps in the lead. 



Leaving Harper' s Ferry. 19 

The Regiment, crossing the Shenandoah Ri\-er on a 
pontoon bridge, passed around the base of Louden 
Heights into the valley, after marching three miles, and 
bivouacked — a cold uncomfortable night with a dash of 
snow, enough to whiten the ground, and a heavy frost, 
the first of the season and very early for that part of 
Virginia. Next day marched to Key's Pass where the 
command rested for a day and was mustered for pay. The 
pay-rolls sent off, moved on again, November 1st. 

November 2d, reached Snicker's Gap. Some cavalry 
were observed hovering on the left of the column, while 
the mountains of the Blue Ridge and Gap were on the 
right. It seemed improbable that the force could be a 
Confederate one, yet impossible that it could be Union 
troops, so Major Tom O'Neill, of the brigade staff', 
borrowing a guidon from one of the batteries, dashed over 
the fields to interview the strangers, Major George H. 
Bardwell galloping after him. O'Neill got there first and 
discovered, much to his annoyance, that he was a prisoner 
in the hands of a squadron of Confederate cavalry. 
Bardwell, discovering the mistake in time, wheeled around 
and made for his own column again and got away safely, 
although the boys in gray sent a shower of shots after 
him. Skirmishers were quickly thrown out and line of 
battle formed but after exchanging a few shots the 
cavalry withdrew out of sight and got awa}^ only to be 
captured by one of the Union cavalry regiments the same 
evening, Major Tom O'Neill being re-captured and 
restored to the brigade. On the afternoon of November 
4th the Second Corps reached Upperville, the cavalry in 
front having an artillery duel with some of Stuart's 
Confederate Cavalry who were trying to escape through 
Ashby's Gap. 



20 The Story of the ii6ih Regimeyit. 

Xovember 6th, arrived at Rectortown, and on the 7th 
went into camp at Warrenton. The march down the 
Louden valley had been of the most delightful character. 
The weather, after the first night out, was charming — the 
air pure, clear and bracing — and as by slow marches the 
column moved along each day through a beautiful country, 
with the mountains of the Blue Ridge blazing with all the 
brilhancy of " Indian Summer", the fields aglow with the 
flowers of Autumn, the hearts of all were filled with joy. 
The evening camp fires during this period were the most 
enjoyable. The valley, as yet, had not been denuded of 
provisions ; chickens, mutton and pork were plentiful, and 
fence rails made bright fires. Game was often added to 
the camp kettle, rabbits and partridges being in abund- 
ance, and one of the oddest incidents of the march was 
the swarms of rabbits that would go hopping over the 
fields in front of the line of battle as it swept across the 
countrv- when the enemy would appear. At the same 
time coveys of partridge would rise from the stubble and 
in bewilderment and fright fly into the men's faces. The 
negro ser^-ants caught quantities of the poor birds and 
killed thousands of rabbits. The odorous woods that 
skirted the base of the hills furnished lovely spots for the 
bivouac. The Regiment enjoyed all the good things 
perhaps with a zest greater than that of the others around 
us, for it had not as yet lost a man, and the jest, story 
and song that passed the evening hours away were not 
yet saddened by the thought of the comrade who was 
missing and whose march was done. 

At Warrenton, General McClellan left the army and 
General Burnside assumed command. On the morning 
of Xovember loth the march was resumed in the direction 
of Fredericksburg. The march was steady but with all- 



The First Death in the Regi^nent. 21 

night rests, and on the evening of the 17th the Regiment 
camped in a field within three miles of Fredericksburg. 
Shortly after dark on this evening, David E. Major, an 
enlisted man of Company C, became violently ill and died 
inside of an hour, the first death in the Regiment. His 
comrades sat around him in silence, talked of his sudden 
departure, of his boyhood, home and friends. Many of 
his comrades had been his schoolmates and all felt his 
death deeply. He was tenderly wrapped in his blanket 
and prepared for burial next day, but at midnight orders 
came to march at daybreak and so the boy had to be 
buried at once. The men of Company C were awakened 
and, forming in line, formed a silent and sorrowful little 
procession. The body was carried back for a mile to a 
little church-yard that had been passed on the road the 
evening before. The body was laid on the ground while 
his companions stood sorrowfully around. Pine torches 
lit up the woods and gave light to the men who with pick 
and shovel got ready the lonely grave. The chaplain 
said a prayer, and so at midnight the first brave boy of 
the Regiment was laid at rest, his blanket marked "U. S." 
his only shroud. The tears of his comrades sanctified 
the soil where they laid him, and though buried far from 
his home in old Pennsylvania, hands as gentle and loving 
as brothers' gave him the last sad rest. 

" No useless coffin enclosed his breast, 
Nor in sheet nor in shroud we wound him, 
But lie lay like a warrior taking his rest 
\\'ith his martial cloak around him." 

Early the next morning, November ISth, the corps 
marched on and the Regiment went into camp in the woods 
about a mile and a half from the old village of Falmouth. 
A general feeling prevailed that the year's campaign was 



22 The Story of the ii6ih Regime^it. 

ended and winter quarters were next in order. The pine- 
covered hills and undulating slopes of meadow land, 
broken up by the running brooks and rippling streams, 
furnished the most inviting sites for pleasant camps, and 
soon the dark woods were lit up by camp fires. Camp 
fires fifty feet long — whole trees cut down, piled up and 
forever kept cheerfully crackling and burning — around 
which the whole company would gather and, with their 
faces ruddy with the pleasant glow, spend the long 
evenings in uproarious fun, the day being filled up with 
marching, drilling, inspection and reviews without limit. 
Thus passed three of the most agreeable weeks ever 
remembered in the Regiment. This camp, which the 
command was destined to occupy for six months, was 
arranged strictly in accordance with regulations. The 
streets were laid out with a view of allowing the tall pine 
trees to stand, and these were the source of greatest 
pleasure, sheltering alike from sunshine and storm. The 
ground was on the rise of a hill, and generally healthful. 
A few, however, succumbed to the usual camp fever and 
sickness due to exposure. Corporal William E. Martin, 
of Company C, died a few^ days before the battle of 
Fredericksburg. He was an excellent soldier and greatly 
beloved by his comrades. Several changes took place 
in the personnel of the officers : Lieutenant J. Ridgway 
Moore, of Company D, was detailed as Aid-de-Camp on 
the staff of General David B. Birney, serving in that 
capacity until the end of the war and greatly distinguish- 
ing himself ; Lieutenant William H. Hobart, of Company 
A, was detailed to the staff of General Winfield S. Hancock 
as Provost Marshal of the division, and he never re-joined 
the Regiment, but remained until the end of the war at 
Division Headquarters. The Twenty-ninth Regiment, 



Chancres in the Regiment. 23 

Massachusetts Infantry, Colonel Pierce, was detached from 
the Irish Brigade and replaced by the Twenty-eighth 
Regiment from the same State, commanded by Colonel 
Richard Byrnes, an officer of the regular army, and who 
was afterwards killed at Cold Harbor. 



The Story of the ii6th Reghnent. 



CHAPTER II. 

FREDERICKSBURG. 

jN the early days of November, 1862, the mountains of 
the Blue Ridge looked down upon one of those scenes 
of martial pageantry, a display of force and arms and 
men in battle array, that happily our country but seldom 
witnesses. 

For hours and days the great Army of the Potomac, 
masses of gallant men, infantry, cavalry and artillery, 
more than one hundred thousand in number, veterans of 
the Peninsula, victors of Antietam, swept by in serried 
ranks, with faultless step and perfection of discipline. 
Old hero Sumner was there, and Sedgwick, whom the 
men called "Father", and Franklin, and the brilhant 
Sickles, and Averill, Reynolds, Smith, Couch, and Bayard, 
who was so soon to fall, Meade and the superb Hancock, 
and French, and Meagher, the orator-soldier from the 
Emerald Isle, and the impetuous Custer, whose golden 
locks were to fall in the Black Hills, and so in review they 
all passed by. Although the army had only a few short 
weeks before gained a glorious victory, as yet the greatest 
and most important of the war, a victory that had saved 
the National Capitol and checked the march of the South- 
ern army towards the North, yet the occasion was one of 
the deepest sorrow, the saddest hour that the army of the 
Potomac ever knew. Every heart beat with a subdued 
throb, every eye was moist, and tears wet alike the cheek 
of the white-haired Sumner and the youngest drummer 
boy, for the great soldier who had organized and made 



MAJOR-GENERAL (lEORGE B. McCLELLAN 



Fredericksburg. 25 

this an army, the General who possessed the absolute 
confidence and love of every man there, was taking his 
farewell of those corps which he had formed and taught 
and led so well. It was the last review of the noble army 
by the only General who had, as yet, shown the ability to 
lead it, and who had just relinquished the command, and 
who had been relieved at the moment when he had made 
another victory almost a certainty and the destruction of 
the army of Northern Virginia almost assured. 

The order relieving General McClellan from command 
was received on the evening of November 7th, and a most 
ungracious moment was selected for his sudden removal, a 
moment pregnant with hope for the army and the cause. 
Never had his genius flashed forth with such lustre. By 
the celerity of his movements and admirable handling of 
the army he had accomplished a most important strategic 
advantage. 

Leaving Harper's Ferry on the 26th of the previous 
month he had, by forced marching and a series of the most 
brilliant cavalry battles and skirmishes, seized the passes 
of the Blue Ridge, and masked so well the movements of 
the main armv as to completelv decei\'e General Lee as to 
his whereabouts and purposes ; and on the evening of 
November 7th, when he had concentrated the army in the 
vicinity of Warrenton, he had succeeded in practically 
severing the two wings of the army of Northern Mrginia 
— Longstreet, with his corps, was at Culpepper, and 
Jackson, with the remainder of the army, was at Millwood, 
west of the mountains, and two days' march away. 

It was General McClellan's intention to strike Long- 
street, and the early dawn of the following day would have 
found every corps in motion with that end in view, and, 
with the forces of one hundred and twentv-seven thousand 



26 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

men, full of fight and hope and reliance on their leader, 
who could doubt the result ? Longstreet would have been 
crushed before help could have reached him, and then he 
could have taken his own time to finish the work and 
Jackson. 

But, says some one, Longstreet would not have fought, 
but would have retired and formed a junction with the 
remainder of Lee's forces. Admit this, and still McClellan 
had the advantage. In order to connect with Jackson's 
corps, Longstreet would have to fall back upon Staunton, 
uncovering Richmond and leaving the road to that city 
open and clear. McClellan would then have moved 
promptly in, and the Union Flag would have floated over 
the Confederate Capitol. 

"But then", says the Comtc dc Paris, "Jackson and 
Lee had certainly projected some bold movement upon 
McClellan's rear". This is not at all probable. It is 
known now, beyond a doubt, that General Lee had no 
such intention, and was not even aware of the position 
or whereabouts of the Union Army. Yet, admitting 
the surmises of the Comte de Paris as correct. General 
McClellan would have welcomed any such movement on 
the part of the enemy with delight. It would have more 
effectually separated their forces and rendered the final 
triumph more certain. 

General McClellan had certainly succeeded in placing 
the Army of the Potomac between the two wings of the 
army of General Lee, and he could have failed only by 
the most lamentable blundering. He had placed the army 
in a position similar to that which Napoleon occupied in 
1796, when he broke through the centre of the Austrian 
Army at Montenotte, and then defeated in succession the 
two wings at Medesimmo Dego and Mondavi ; and again 



Fredericksburg. 27 

in 1809, when opposed to the Archduke Charles, he 
pierced the centre of his too-extended Hne, and defeated 
successively the Austrian forces at Abensburg, Echmuhl 
and Ratisbon. 

But, by his removal from the command of the army 
at this time the great advantages secured by General 
McClellan to the army and the nation were forever lost. 

At noon, on November 11th, with the torn battle-flags 
drooping to do him honor, and the most enthusiastic 
demonstration of affection by all the troops, General 
George B. McClellan, bidding adieu to the army, and 
saying " We shall ever be comrades in supporting the 
Constitution of our country and the nationality of our 
people", left, and the soul of the army seemed for a time 
to go with him. 

Not, indeed, that victories were not afterwards gained, 
nor that the army ever failed to respond to every call. 
Under Burnside, the men without a murmur marched to 
death in a most hopeless contest. With Hooker they 
fought in a way that would have earned success had the 
head not failed. With Meade they hurled back the enemy 
from Gettysburg and covered the battalions with new 
glory, and under Grant they stood up day after day, in 
batde after battle, with stubborn, unflinching courage, 
while brigades, divisions and corps were literally wiped 
from the face of the earth ; but never again from that day 
until the end did the hearts of all the members of the army 
beat in sympathetic unison with that of the commander. 

Then General Burnside, the gallant soldier and honor- 
able gentleman, protesting against the responsibility forced 
upon him, with unsteady hand gathered up the reins and 
inaugurated the campaign that was to terminate in the 
impotent, useless and sanguinary disasters of Fredericks- 



28 



The Stoyy of the ii6th Regimeyit. 



burg. The six corps were organized in three grand divi- 
sions, under Sumner, FrankUn and Hooker ; and with 
Sumner and the Second Corps in the lead marched for 
the Rappahannock. 

On the evening of November 17th, the head of the 
column struck the river near the old Virginia town of 
Falmouth. On the opposite bank could be seen a battery 
of four guns, which promptly opened. General Sumner 
ordered Pettit's Battery to the front, and in just eight 
minutes from the time that Pettit fired his first shot the 
enemy had ceased firing and the four guns stood silenced 
and abandoned. Sumner, whose seventy-two years had 
not dampened the ardor of youth, carried away by the 
enthusiasm of the moment, called for troops to ford the 
river, seize the guns, and occupy the city. 

The Irish Brigade had bivouacked in a field hard by 
and were cooking coffee and resting after a hard day's 
march, but in three minutes after receiving the order the 
brigade was going to the river on a run. Then Sumner, 
remembering that he had orders not to cross, and being too 
old a soldier to disobey, stopped the movement and sent 
back to General Burnside, asking permission to occupy 
the city, and the answer came, a peremptory " No ! ". So 
the army was compelled to look at the prize without 
grasping it. 

How very odd the official report of this affair by 
General Lee when read along with the plain facts. He 
says : " The advance of General Sumner reached Falmouth 
on the afternoon of November 17th and attempted to cross 
the Rappahannock, but was driven back by Colonel Ball, 
with the Fifteenth Mrginia Cavalr}% four companies of 
Mississippi Infantry, and Lewis's Light Batter}'". 

Why the army did not cross the river and push on to 



Fredericksburg. 29 

Richnioncl lias often been told, bluiKlerinjj;- by somebody 
and no pontoons ready. By and by, however, the pontoons 
arrived, but too late. Lee and Jackson and Longstreet 
had also put in an appearance, and from the blufifs one 
could see them busy, very busy indeed. Every day gave 
new e\'idence of their industry. Every hour saw new 
earthworks rising in front — redoubts, lunettes and bas- 
tioned forts, rifle-pits and epaulments for the protection 
of artillery arose in rajsid succession until the terraced 
heights, which ran jxirallel to the city and two miles 
below and nearly a mile to the rear of it, were crowned 
with artillery, bristling with bayonets, and so formidable 
as to make an attempt to carry the place an act of insanity. 
The coming fight was to be an assault upon an intrenched 
position rather than an open battle. 

Sometime about the first week in December a council 
of war was held at headquarters, at which General Burn- 
side and the grand division and corps commanders were 
present. It is difficult at this day to tell just what was 
determined at this council. As one of those present 
afterwards remarked, they talked to General Burnside at 
arm's length. There would seem to have been a total 
absence of that harmony and unity of purpose so necessary 
to success between the commanding general and his 
lieutenants. A painful uncertainty, a vagueness of purpose, 
hung over these meetings, but it was evident, however, 
that a flank movement by way of Skenker's Neck, twelve 
miles below the city, was discussed and determined upon, 
and the council adjourned, believing this to be the program. 
A few days after this, General Burnside sent for one of 
the corps commanders, General W. F. Smith, and invited 
him to ride with him along the high blufifs (Spofford 
Heights) that skirted the river in front of the city. He 



30 The Story of the ii6th Regbnent. 

there told him that he (Burnside) had determined to 
change the order of battle and to cross and fight at the 
city, and gave as one of his reasons, that Colonel Hunt 
had called his attention to the excellent opportunity that 
Spofford Heights offered for the employment of all our 
artiller\'. The general officer in question, after being 
warned by General Burnside not to communicate the fact 
of the change to anyone, left him with a sinking heart 
and dark forebodings of the coming storm. 

General Burnside, in a letter to General Halleck, dated 
December 19, 1862, a few days after the battle, confirms 
the idea that the original intention, known to not only the 
grand division and corps commanders, but also to General 
Halleck and the President, was that of turning Lee's 
flank, and in this letter he magnanimously takes all the 
responsibility for the change and failure upon himself. 
He savs : " I have the honor to offer the following reasons 
for moving the Army of the Potomac across the Rappa- 
hannock sooner than was anticipated by the President, 
the Secretary' of A\^ar, or yourself, and for crossing at a 
point different from the one indicated to you at our last 
meeting at the President's." 

" This contemplated flank movement was discovered 
by the enemy, and General Lee, to be prepared for it, had 
sent General Hill's division to the vicinity of Skenker's 
Neck, and the balance of Jackson's corps was stationed 
so as to support him". This fact of Lee's army having 
been partially separated seems to have been the only 
reason for General Burnside altering, unknown to any of 
his subordinates, the plan of operations. He thought 
that by rapidly throwing the whole army across at 
Fredericksburg and striking a vigorous blow he could 
pierce the extended and weakened line and divide the 



Frcdiricksbun^. 31 

forces of the enemy which were down the ri\-er from those 
on the crest in the rear of the town. 

The nijjfht of December lOth found the army in mcjticjn. 

"The niidniglit brought the signal sound of strife, 
The morn, the marshalling in arms — the day, 
Hatlle's magnificently stern array." 

The roads leading- to the front were filled with troops 
marching- in silence to the fray. Camps deserted, the 
camp fires burning dim, the woods pouring out their 
thousands, everyone, everything moving towards the 
river; the inf;intr\- massing in rear of the bluflfs by the 
stream, and the chief of artillery. Colonel Hunt, covering 
those heights with one hundred and forty-seven cannon. 
The pontoniers were hurrying the boats, planks and 
bridge material to the water's edge. Working rapidly, 
swiftly, but so noiselessly that those within one hundred 
yards of the enemy's pickets, who were lined on the 
opposite shore, were not heard, the pontoons were brought 
down and quietly let into the water. Great piles of 
planking arose, a multitude of spectral men were hurrying 
to and fro, cannon were gotten into position and more 
than one hundred thousand cavalry and infantry massed 
at hand. Yet there was no confusion, no clashing, so 
perfect the discipline, and the silence was profound — no 
audible sound save the lapping of the waves on the prow 
of the pontoons, and the moaning of the wind in the 
forest trees, and so the night wore on. 

Two regiments of engineers, the Seventeenth and 
Twentieth New York, stood prepared to build the bridges, 
and two regiments of Hancock's division, the Fifty- 
seventh New York, Colonel Chairman, and the Sixty-sixth 
New York, Colonel Bull, were on hand to cover and 
support them. 



32 The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

Towards dawn the work began. Swifdy fastening 
the boats to the bank, getting others into position, lashing 
them together, putting down the planking — so the work 
for a few moments went on. Then the sharp crack of a 
rifle broke the stillness of the night. A pontonier dropped 
his burden, fell forward into the dark, cold water, and 
went floating down with the tide, the first victim, the first 
corpse of the fight. More shots and balls went whistling 
through the fog. Then two loud reports of heavy 
ordnance pealed from Marye's Heights, echoed along the 
Valley of the Rappahannock and reverberated among 
the hills, the signal for the concentration of the Army 
of Northern Virginia, and the battle of Fredericksburg 
began. The firing became heavier, volleys of musketry, 
the rifle balls rattled on the planks and the boats were 
riddled. Many, very many of the pontoniers fell and 
went floating away. 

It was so dark and the fog so dense that one could see 
but a few yards from the edge of the shore. Men went out 
on the bridge in the darkness and never returned. The 
fire was hot and deadly, but the men stuck to their work 
gallanth'. Every moment the numbers of the artificers 
became less. Bull and Chapman returned the fire, but 
they were shooting at random and into the dark, while the 
enemy knew by the sound of the bridge-building where to 
throw their iron. Colonel Bull was killed ; Chapman fell 
w^ounded, and the losses were so great that the engineers 
fell back and for a time gave up the attempt. Again they 
tried it and again they failed ; a third time they rushed at 
the work, but found it impossible to continue, and the 
brave little band fell back, leaving the bridge half finished, 
slippery and saturated with blood. 

Then daylight appeared. The work must be pushed. 



Frcdcriiksburir. 33 

The hridLTc must be finished. The rillemen that cheeked 
the work must be driven out oi their shelter, and for that 
purpose General Burnside decided upon treatinj^ the army 
to one of those rare and ma^^nihcently grand sj)ectacles of 
war — the bombardment of a city ; so the order went forth 
to batter down the town, and about ten o'clock twenty-nine 
batteries, one hundred and forty-seven guns, opened. 
Then for an hour or two tiie firing was incessant, the 
sharp crack of- the riHed guns and the heavy boom (jf the 
larger ordnance mingling with the echoes from the woods 
and hills until separate sounds could no longer be distin- 
guished and the roar became continuous. Clouds of 
sulphurous smoke rolled back from the masked artillery ; 
the air became loaded, suffocating, with the odor of gun- 
powder. The fog still lay heavy in the river ; the water 
margins and the lowlands and the city were almost hidden 
from view. One of the church spires shot up through 
the mist, glittering in the morning sun, and a few of the 
tallest chimneys and buildings struggled into sight. Tons 
of iron were hurled into the town. Shells, solid shot, 
shrapnel and canister raked and swept the streets. One 
could not see, but could hear, the walls crumbling and 
timbers crashing ; then a pillar of smoke rose above the 
fog ; another and another, increasing in density and 
volume, rose skyward and canopied the doomed city 
like a pall. Flames leaped high out of the mist. The 
city was on fire. Again the engineers made an attempt 
to finish the bridge, but they found Barksdale with his 
Mississippians still at their posts and their fire as accurate 
as ever, and the effort was finally abandoned. Then 
Colonel Hunt suggested an idea that a party be sent 
over in pontoon boats to drive the sharpshooters from 
the opposite shore. Strange that the simple device was 



3i The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

not thought of before. Historic examples to suggest it 
were plenty. So late as 1799, this was successfully 
employed by Massena in the passage of the Limmat, 
where the bridges and boats were started simultaneously, 
and in three minutes from starting, six hundred French 
troops were landed, had captured the enemy's pickets 
and the bridge was then finished without further molesta- 
tion. But better late than never. A dozen of the boats 
were lying by the river bank and plenty of volunteers 
were ready to man them. The Seventh Michigan and 
Nineteenth Massachusetts rushed down the steep bank, 
launched the boats and were ofi. The oarsmen pulled 
lustily, the Southern marksmen redoubled their fire, many 
in the boats were killed and wounded, but in a few 
minutes the further shore was reached. The men, leaping 
out, forming in line and dashing through the smoke and 
fire, drove the sharpshooters from their shelter. Soon 
more boat-loads of men crossed over, the river front was 
soon in possession of the Union troops, and the work of 
building the bridges progressed to completion. 

But the city was not yet captured. The first troops 
that crossed over the bridges thus constructed, had to 
fight for every foot of ground, and it was not until after 
dark, and after a sharp contest through streets, lanes and 
alleys, met at every step by the fire of Barksdale's men, 
from windows, roofs and every available point, that the 
Union line finally halted for the night on Carolina Street. 

The dead were everywhere, in the street, on the 
cellar-doors, in yards of the houses, in the gardens by 
the river. Some few of the citizens had remained during 
the bombardment, taking refuge in the cellars, and two 
of them were killed, a man named Jacob Grotz and a 
negro woman. 



Fredericksburg. 35 

On the k'lt, half a mile l)clt)\v the city, where I-'raiikhn 
was to cross, hut httle (hthcuhy had been met, and he had 
finished his hridtfes early in the morning". 

It was then more than tweU'c hours since the signal- 
gun of General Lee summoned his di\'ided army to 
concentrate and, as tiu- sole ho])e of success on the part of 
General Burnside rested on being able to cross the river in 
force and take the enemy by surprise, it would look as 
though the Union cause had already sustained a heavy 
l)low in this unfortunate delay. Moments were precious, 
yet the whole night of this day was suffered to pass with- 
out a move, and the Union troops did not begin crossing" 
in force until the morning of the 12th, and by five o'clock 
of that day the grand division of Sumner had crossed into 
the city and that of Franklin had crossed on the lower 
bridges. 

It was a cold, clear day, and when the Regiment filed 
over the bluffs and began descending the abrupt bank to 
cross the pontoons into the town, the crash of two hundred 
guns filled the valley of the Rappahannock with sound 
and smoke. 

The color-bearers of the Irish Brigade shook to the 
breeze their torn and shattered standards : 

"That old green flag, that Irish flag. 
It is but now a tattered rag, 
But India's store of precious ore. 
Hath not a gem wortli that old flag." 

The Fourteenth Brooklyn (" Beecher's Pets ") gave the 
brigade a cheer, and the band of Hawkin's Zouaves struck 
up " Garry Owen " as it passed. Not so pleasant was the 
reception of the professional embalmers who, alive to 
business, thrust their cards into the hands of the men as 
they went along, said cards being suggestive of an earlv 



36 The Story of the ii6th Reghnent. 

trip home, nicely boxed up and delivered to loving friends 
by express, sweet as a nut and in perfect preservation, etc., 
etc. The boys did not seem to be altogether pleased with 
the cold-blooded allusions to their latter end, and one of 
them from the Emerald Isle called out to a particularly 
zealous undertaker : " D'ye moind thim blankets. Well, 
only that we are in a bit of a hurry, we'd be after giving yez 
the natest koind av a jig in the air, and be damned to yez". 

Then the Regiment passed over the river and was 
massed on an old wharf by the bank of the stream and 
rested during the afternoon and night of the 12th. 

The streets were strewn with the dead. Some had been 
killed with the fire of the artillery and their bodies were 
shapeless masses of flesh, torn and mangled out of all 
resemblance to human beings. Others killed by a rifle 
ball appeared as natural as life. Numbers of Barksdale's 
men lay where they had fallen whilst disputing the 
passage of the river. One group had an almost fascinating 
interest to the young men of the Regiment, because every 
one of the party was boyish and handsome. They had 
fought in a garden by the riverside, where they had been 
somewhat sheltered from the fire, and had died just where 
they had been placed. There was not a sign of a struggle 
near the spot, and, singular to say, no indication of blood 
or wounds. They all had been shot through the body, 
and each had quietly dropped as he fired. The bodies 
were frozen hard, and all retained the appearance of life — 
eyes were open, faces placid and calm ; and one bright 
looking youth seemed to smile in his sleep. Gazing upon 
these brave Southern boys as they lay amid the frozen 
leaves and decaying flowers of the garden one's mind was 
apt to wander to the Southern homes where the sun was 
still shining and the roses still blooming, and the mournful 



Fndericksbtirg. 37 

Christmas there would lie in main' a far off Mississippi 
home whose soldier lad would never return again. 

In the river by the wharf where the Reg-iment 
bivouacked some barges laden with tobacco had been 
sunk. The boys succeeded in fishing up great quantities 
of the weed and lined their blouses with it. After the 
fight one heard of many of the men whose lives had been 
saved by the solid plugs of tobacco stopping the ball 
intended for their heart, still there was no tangible 
evidence of the fact. The fellow whose Bible stopped a 
deadly minie was around in every camp, and he had his 
testament to show for it, but the plug of tobacco that stood 
between the soldier and death was chewed in to nothing, 
or the evidence went up in smt)ke. The night of the 12th 
was exceedingly cold and dismal, and, when morning 
came, the sun had a long struggle with the chilling fog 
before full daylight filled the valley. The men chewed on 
their hardtack and resumed their pastime of fishing up 
tobacco, and listening to the shells that passed over their 
heads in countless numbers. 

The night of the 12th was to the men of the Regiment 
one of the most dismal and miserable ever experienced. 
The cold was bitter and penetrating. The troops massed 
so close that there was not even room enough for the men 
to lie down on the ground, and it was a fortunate man 
who could secure a cracker box to sit upon during the 
weary hours. Sleep was impossible, it was so cold and 
chilly. Groups of officers occupied the parlors of the 
fashionable residences, spending the night in song and 
story ; and Southern pianos played accompaniments to 
"Hail Columbia" and the "Star Spangled Banner". 
Fires still lit up portions of the town. The firmament was 
aglow with a magnificent Aurora Borealis, and the artill- 



38 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

erists strove to rival the glories of nature and illumined 
the sky with scores of shells whose trailing fuses filled the 
air with streams of light. 

When daylight came a few^ small fires were lit and some 
of the men enjoyed a cup of coffee, but many chewed 
their hardtack without a warm drink to comfort them. 

The long hours of the night had slipped away and the 
morning of December 13th broke chill and cold. It was 
now thirty-six hours since the movement against Freder- 
icksburg began, giving General Lee ample time to get his 
corps together, destroying any virtue that might have 
existed in General Burnside's plan of attack and rendering 
it absolutely abortive. Owing to the delay in forcing the 
passage of the river the enterprise had been stripped of 
its only hope and the failure was complete. The only 
alternative was to withdraw the army or adopt an entirely 
new plan of battle. To retire was not thought of ; the 
fight must proceed. The evil genius of General Burnside 
seemed to irresistibly beckon him on to destruction. The 
silver lining of the cloud that was gathering was a sug- 
gestion that originated with General Franklin : " That the 
battle should be fought on the left : that a column of thirty 
or forty thousand men should be formed and at daylight, 
on the morning of the 13th, make the main assault on 
the Confederate right with this body". 

In preparation for this movement General Burnside 
visited the left at 5 P. M. of the 12th and discussed with 
Generals Franklin, Smith and Reynolds this order of 
battle, and at dark left them with the full understanding 
that it was adopted by him, promising to send the orders 
for carrying it into execution before midnight, thus giving 
time enough to General Franklin to get the troops into 
position during the night. 




MAJOR-GENERAL A. E. BURNSIDE 



Fredencksburi^. 39 

Had this attack in I-Vanklin's front been carried out it 
would most likely have been successful and General 
Burnside would have gone down to posterity as a j^reat 
General. But it was not to be, and instead of pushing- 
the preparation for the only movement that contained a 
ray of hope, General Burnside went back to his head- 
quarters and went to bed, leaving Franklin, Smith and 
Reynolds anxiously awaiting orders that were to insure 
a victory. And how patiently they waited with their 
respective staffs, sitting up all night, thinking, wondering, 
trying to conceive what important event must have 
happened to prevent the arrival of the expected orders. 
At 7.30 o'clock, next morning, December 13th, General 
Hardie handed to Franklin directions for a new plan of 
battle, not that which was discussed the night before, but 
the most remarkable, incongruous, disjointed plan of 
action, with the least possible hope of success, that ever 
emanated from the brain of a commander : "That Franklin 
should keep his whole command in position for a rapid 
movement down the old Richmond road. That he should 
send out a division to seize the enemy's heights at Captain 
Hamilton's, on the extreme right of the enemy's line". 
He also ordered another column of a division or more 
from the command of General Sumner to seize the heights 
in the rear of the town. Two isolated attacks by light 
columns, on distant positions, rendered almost impregnable 
and held by the flower of the Confederate Army ! 

Franklin selected the Pennsylvania Reserves for the 
almost superhuman task, for the reason that the division 
at the moment lay nearest the point of attack. General 
Meade, their commander, was one of the most discreet 
and able officers in the service, and the division was one 
of the most reliable. The selection was most admirable. 



40 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

The line of march to reach the heights to be carried 
was across a level plain, over which hung a thick haze 
The Reserves had been encamped here for some time the 
year before when attached to McDowell's forces and knew 
ever}" inch of the ground to be marched over and fought 
for. So, having gotten his instructions, Meade started the 
division into the fog and into a fight that was to cover 
with glory himself and his command, though with the 
cost of nearly half their number, the objective point, the 
heights at Hamilton's, in a direct line two miles away. 

The division was formed with the First Brigade on 
the right, the Third on the left, and the Second in support. 
Hardly had the march commenced when the enemy began 
firing. Although they could not see the Union lines they 
seemed to feel that something was going on, and solid 
shot and shells went flying over the fog-shrouded plain. 
Meade rode along the lines giving words of encourage- 
ment to each regiment. As he passed Colonel McCandless 
he said, alluding to a possibe promotion, " A star this 
morning, William ? " To which McCandless replied : 
" More likely a wooden overcoat". Then a shell passed 
through the horse ridden by McCandless, and he did the 
rest of his fighting for that day on foot. And so for a 
half hour the march went on. Then young Confederate 
Major Pelham, of Stuart's Horse Artillery, from a point 
on the Port Royal road, opened a telling fire on Meade's 
left flank, enfilading his whole line, and became so annoy- 
ing as to cause him to halt. The line paused, and the 
four light batteries of the Reserves returned Pelham's 
fire so vigorously as to cause him to withdraw suddenly. 

Stuart, with his cavaln,-, made threatening demonstra- 
tions, and General Doubleday deployed on Meade's left 
to check him. Franklin instructed Gibbons to support 



Fredericksburg. 41 

Meade's rij^-ht, and a^ain the column moved forward. 
To meet the attack General Lee had arranj^^ed Jackson's 
Corps in the woods at Hamilton's with A. V. Hill's 
division in front, Karly's and Taliaferro's divisions com- 
posing his second line, and D. X. Hill's division in reserve. 
The division of A. P. Hill, f(3rming the advanced line, 
was composed of the brigades of Archer, Lane and 
Pender, with the brigades of Gregg and Thomas directly 
in their rear. 

As Meade neared the enemy's line the fog suddenly 
lifted, giving the Confederate artillerists a clear view of 
the advancing lines. Three batteries, those of Wooder, 
Bra.xton and Carpenter, that had been pushed out on the 
skirmish line in front of Lane's Brigade, and five batteries 
of Lieutenant-Colonel Walker's command, opened, using 
shell and canister, damaging the Union alignment con- 
siderably. The four light batteries of the Reserves replied 
energetically, and Meade pushed on. General Smith 
(Baldy), seeing the trouble from afar, directed the hre of 
his Sixth Corps guns upon the three batteries first named 
and compelled their withdrawal. The crowd of skirmishers 
that covered the advance struck and droxe in those of 
the Confederates. 

The battle wa.xed hot, but Meade, oblivious to the nxir, 
impetuously rushed on. With a great crash his infantry 
struck that of the enemy. The fighting, for a few 
moments, was extremely earnest. The men vied with 
each other in acts of noble daring. Many prisoners were 
taken, and one regiment, the Nineteenth Georgia, was 
captured entire, young Charles C. Upjohn, Company K, of 
the Second Reserves, tearing from the hands of the color- 
bearer the flag of that regiment. The I'nion men drove 
Lane's Brigade back across the railroad into the woods, 



•12 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

and crushing: through the interval between the brig-ades of 
Archer and Pender flanked both their hnes and compelled 
them to fall back. Then up the wooded crest with a rush 
so sudden that General Maxey Gregg, the Confederate 
commander of the second line, could not believe that the 
advancing troops were the Union line and fell dead while 
trying to prevent his South Carolinians from firing, but 
his men, discovering the error, poured a withering fire into 
Meade's line. At this moment the divisions of General 
Early and Taliaferro swept forward at a double-quick, 
striking Meade with irresistible force and overpowering 
numbers, enveloping his flank and endangering his whole 
command. 

The situation became most critical, the surroundings 
awfully grand. The woods echoed and re-echoed every 
shot until the roar was appalling. Great shells went 
screaming through the forest, cutting down giant trees, 
and the crash of the falling timber added to the deafening 
sound. In the midst of the tumult the Resen^es fell back 
and were soon out again on the open plain. In one short 
hour they had known the thrilling ecstasies of victory and 
disastrous defeat. 

Meade halted after re-crossing the railroad, and 
re-formed the division, but he was not allowed much time 
to rest. Early pushed after him, and the brigade of 
Atkinson and Hoke struck with vigor at the shattered 
ranks, forcing him to fall back rapidly and with some 
confusion. Franklin, foreseeing the difficulty, had ordered 
Bimey's division to the front, and he arrived just in time 
to check the advancing enemy and save what was left of 
the reser\^e. While Meade was moving on Hamilton's the 
troops in the city were prepared to strike. 

About nine o'clock, whilst listening to the roar of 



Fredericksburg. 43 

battle on the left, the order to " Fall in " was given, and 
then until noon the command stood in line on one of the 
streets near the river and parallel with the stream. It was 
a trying ordeal for all. Shells were screaming overhead 
and frequently striking among the houses of the city, 
scattering the bricks and stones and wounding many. 
Although the noise of the artillery, flying shells and 
crumbling buildings was appalling, the silence in the 
ranks and the perfect order maintained was most 
admirable. 

The wounded went past in great numbers and the 
appearance of the dripping blood was not calculated to 
enthuse the men or cheer them for the first important 
battle. A German soldier, sitting in a barrow with his 
legs dangling over the side, was wheeled past. His foot 
had been shot of^ and the blood was flowing from the 
stump. The man was quietly smoking, and when the 
barrow would tip to one side he would remove the pipe 
from his lips and call out to the comrade who was pushing : 
"Ach, make right"! It seemed ludicrous and some of 
the men smiled, but the sight was too much for one boy in 
the Regiment, William Dehaven, who sank in the street 
in a dead faint. The incident occurred just as the Regi- 
ment moved ofT to go into the fight and the poor boy was 
left lying in the street. He recovered his senses to find 
his Regiment gone, yet the brave fellow picked up his 
musket and ran out alone onto the field and joined his 
company. And so the Regiment stood — under arms, 
listening to the sounds of the fight on the left and waiting 
patiently for their turn to share in the strife, while General 
Thomas Francis Meagher, mounted and surrounded by 
his staff, addressed each regiment of his (the Irish) brigade 
in burning, eloquent words, beseeching the men to uphold 



44 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

in the coming struggle the mihtary prestige and glory of 
their native land. 

Green box-wood was culled in a garden near-by and 
Meagher placed a sprig in his Irish cap. Ever}^ officer and 
man followed his example, and soon great bunches of the 
fragrant shrub adorned the caps of everyone. Wreaths 
were made and hung upon the tattered flags, and the 
national color of the Emerald Isle blended in fair harmony 
with the red, white and blue of the Republic. 

At noon, Meade not having yet reached Hamilton's, 
General Couch ordered French and Hancock to the assault. 
French moved first, closely followed by "The Superb". 
As the troops wheeled into the streets leading towards the 
enemy they were in full view of the frowning heights and 
the march of death began. Nearly a mile away arose the 
position that the troops were expected to carry, and though 
not yet clear of the city they felt the pressure of the foe, 
the lire of whose batteries concentrated to crush the heads 
of the column as it debouched upon the plain. Solid shot, 
fired with light charges, ricochetted on the frozen ground, 
caromed on the pavement, and went tearing through the 
ranks, traversing the entire length of the streets and 
bounding over the river to be buried in the opposite bluff. 

To charge an enemy or enter a battle when one knows 
that there is no hope of success, requires courage of a 
much higher order than when the soldier is sustained by 
the enthusiasm born of hope. It is recorded that a 
commander once gave to a subordinate the order to " Go 
there and die"! The reply was: '^Yes, my General". 
When the Union troops, debouching from the town, 
deployed upon the plain in front of Marye's Heights, 
every man in the ranks knew that it was not to fight. It 
was to die. 



Fteiicricksbiox. 46 

As they nioxcd out H;iii()\c'r Street, tlu' cit\' scemiiiLT 
so dosertecl, and in a manner ([iiii't, the men sjioke in low- 
whispers and earnest tones. A lone, solitary pussy eat sat 
on a g-ate-post mewing- dolefully. Shells began dropjiing 
with destruetive elTeet. One striking- in the I'2ighty- 
eighth New York j)laced eighteen men /lors dti coDihal. 
The men of the Regiment will ever remember the first one 
that burst in the ranks, severely wounding- the g-allant 
Ct)lonel, and eutting off the head of Sergeant Marley and 
killing three others. The men were struck by the instan- 
taneousness of the deaths. 

The column had halted for a momiMit. A sharj) 
report, a pulf of smoke, and four men lay stark dead, 
their faces calm, their eyes mild and life-like, lips un- 
moved, no sign of suffering or indication of pain. 
Sergeant Marley had not fallen, but dropped upon his 
knees, his musket clasped in both hands and resting upon 
the ground. 

Out in the open fields in the rear t)f the town the 
Regiment, still marching in column of fours, soon reached 
the canal, to find that the bridge on which it was to cross 
had been shot away, only the stringers remaining. Some 
of the men plunged into the ice-cold water, others stepped 
quickly over the few remaining planks of the broken 
bridge. The shells still fell and now the whistle of the 
minie was heard mingling with their scream. Lieutenant 
Robert Montgomery, of Company I, as he stepped on the 
broken timbers of the bridge, fell over into the stream, 
mortally wounded. 

After crossing the stream a sharp rise in the ground hid 
the Regiment from the enemy and gave the men a chance 
to take breath and to dress the ranks and prejoare the 
column of attack, which was led by brigade front. General 



46 . The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Kimball's brigade in the lead, followed by those of Colonel 
J. W. Andrews and Colonel Palmer. Hancock's division 
came next, with the brigades of Zook, Meagher and 
Caldwell in the order named. Here the thought occurred 
" How different is the real battle from that which one's 
imagination had pictured". After the readings of boy- 
hood, with heads filled with Napoleon and his marshals, 
and harrowing tales of gory fields of yore, with what 
realistic feeling one can see the wild confusion of the 
storm-swept field, charging cavalry, hurrying artillery, the 
riderless steeds madly rushing to and fro, their shrill 
neighing mingling with the groans, shrieks and screams 
of the wounded. Here there was no disorder. The men 
w^ere calm, silent, cheerful. The commands of the officers, 
given in a quiet, subdued voice, were distinctly heard and 
calmly obeyed, and the regiments manoeuvred without 
a flaw. 

In this trying moment the guides were ordered out and 
the alignment made as perfect as on dress parade. The 
destruction of human beings is done with order and system. 
Yet it was terrible enough ; the very absence of confu- 
sion and excitement but added to the dreadful intensity 
of the horror. As for the screams and shrieks, no one 
ever heard anything of that kind, either on the field or in 
the hospitals. It may be that soldiers of other nations 
indulge in cries and yells. The men of the War of 1861 
took their punishment without a complaint or murmur. 

Just before moving from this spot one of the young 
officers of the Regiment, a brave boy from Chester County, 
Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Seneca G. Willauer, was badly 
torn by a shell which stripped the flesh from his thigh and 
left the bone, for four or five inches, white and bare. He 
approached the regimental commander and, holding the 



Fredericksburg. 47 

bleeding- limb for inspection, said, with the most |T^entle 
manner and placid voice, " Colonel, do you think that I 
should go on with my company or go to the hosj^ital ? " 
No doubt had he been told to go on with his company he 
would have done so. 

Then the advance was sounded. The order of the 
regimental commanders rang out clear on the cold 
December air, " Right shoulder, shift arms, battalion 
forward, guide centre, march". 

The long lines of bayonets glittered in the bright sun- 
light. No friendly fog hid the Union line from the foe, 
and as it advanced up the slope it came in full view of 
the Army of Northern Virginia. 

The noonday sun glittered and shone bright on the 
frozen ground and all their batteries opened upon the 
advancing lines. The line of the enemy could be traced 
by the fringe of blue smoke that quickly appeared along 
the base of the hills. The men marched into an arc of 
fire. And what a reception aw^aited them ! Fire in front, 
on the right and left. Shells came directly and obliquely, 
and dropped down from above. Shells enfiladed the 
lines, burst in front, in rear, above and behind ; shells 
everywhere. A torrent of shells ; a blizzard of shot, shell 
and fire. The lines passed on steadily. The gaps made 
were quickly closed. The colors often kissed the ground, 
but were quickly snatched from dead hands and held aloft 
again by others, who soon in their turn bit the dust. The 
regimental commanders marched out far in advance of 
their commands and they too fell rapidly, but others ran 
to take their places. 

Of^cers and men fell in rapid succession. Lieutenant 
Garrett Nowlen, who had just taken Willauer's place in 
command of Company C, fell with a ball through the 



48 The Story of the ii6th Regimcyit. 

thigh. Major Bardwell fell badly wounded ; and a ball 
whistled through Lieutenant Bob McGuire's lungs. Lieu- 
tenant Christian Foltz fell dead, with a ball through his 
brain. The orderly sergeant of Company H wheeled 
around, gazed upon Lieutenant Quinlan, and a great 
stream of blood poured from a hole in his forehead, 
splashing over the young officer, and the sergeant fell 
dead at his feet. Captain John O'Neill, Company K, was 
shot in the lungs, the ball passing completely through his 
body. 

But on, still onward, the line pressed steadily. The 
men dropping in twoes, in threes, in groups. No cheers 
or wild hurrahs as they moved towards the foe. They 
were not there to fight, only to die. 

Onward, still forward, the line withering, diminishing, 
melting away, every man knowing the desperation of the 
undertaking, but no one faltering or turning back. Still 
in good order the Regiment pushed forward until five 
hundred yards of the long half-mile that lay between it 
and Marve's Heights were passed with the sharp whiz of 
the minie joining the loud scream of the oblong bolts. 
Soon the men forgot the presence of the shells in the 
shower of smaller missiles that assailed them. The 
hills rained fire and the men advanced with heads bowed 
as when walking against a hailstorm. Still through the 
deadly shower the ever-thinning lines pressed on. The 
plain over which they had passed was thickly spotted 
with the men of the Second Corps, dead, in twoes and 
threes and in groups. Regiments and companies had 
their third or fourth commander, and the colors were 
borne to the front by the third or fourth gallant soul who 
had raised them. The gaps in the lines had become so 
large and so numerous that continued eftorts had to be 




\u^ ^^ 



LIEUTENANT CHRISTIAN FOLTZ 
Killed at Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862 



Fredericksburg. 49 

made to close them, and the command " guide centre " 
was frequently heard. French neared the entrenchments 
of the CtMifederates' first line and, the enemy redoubling 
their efforts, the storm rose to greater fury. The struggle 
was hopeless. The attacking line waved, recoiled, then 
broke, and the shattered mass fell back amid the shouts 
and cheers of Cobb's and Kershaw's Confederate Brigades 
that lined the trenches in their front. Now Hancock, 
with the division that never lost a gun or a color, swept 
forward and, being joined by many of the gallant men 
of French's command, made the most heroic effort of the 
day. Passing the furthest point reached by the preceding 
troops, he impetuously rushed on, past the brick house 
so conspicuous on the field. On, on, until his flags waved 
within twenty-five paces of the fatal stone wall. Then, 
with a murderous fire everywhere around, he realized the 
full absurdity of the attempt to accomplish an utter 
impossibility. His men had not yet fired a shot, and had 
only reached the spot where the work was to begin. 
Forty per cent, of the force had already fallen. No 
support within three-quarters of a mile. In front, line 
after line of works followed each other up the terraced 
heights to the very crest which was covered with artillery. 
To carry the assault further would be extreme madness. 
Even should the force take and occupy the first line it 
would simply be to meet the fire of the second and third. 
To fight the host in front was not possible. The men 
were here only to be shot down without being able to 
return the btow. The Irish Brigade had reached a point 
within thirty yards of the stone wall and began firing 
All the field and stai? officers of the Regiment were 
wounded. The color sergeant, William H. Tyrrell, was 
down on one knee (his other leg being shattered), but 



50 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Still waving the flag on the crest. Five balls struck him 
in succession ; a dozen pierced the colors ; another broke 
the flag-staff, and the colors and the color sergeant fell 
together. The orders to retire passed down the line and 
the command began falling back. All the color guard 
was down, and the flag in the grasp of young Tyrrell was 
still on the fire-swept crest. It was soon missed, and that 
fearless soldier. Lieutenant Francis T. Quinlan, ran back 
to save it. A hundred fired at him, but quickly seizing 
the broken flag-staff he threw himself on the ground and, 
with the flag tightly clasped to his breast, rolled back to 
where the command had halted, a noble deed, well done. 
But Hancock would not be driven from the field and, 
halting where the formation of the ground afforded some 
shelter to his hard-tried command, he remained until 
relieved at nightfall and then withdrew to the town. It 
was a long, dreadful afternoon that awaited the thousands 
wounded, who lay scattered over the sad and ghastly plain. 
The only place of cover was the brick house out near 
the stone wall. To this, hundreds of the wounded 
dragged themselves and a great mass of sufferers huddled 
together and struggled to get nearer the house that they 
might escape the fire. All around the great heaps of dead 
bore testimony to the fierceness of the combat. Near by, 
a color sergeant lay, stark and cold, with the flag of his 
regiment covering him. Just in front of the stone wall 
lay a line of men of the Irish Brigade, with the green 
box-wood in their caps, and the two bodies nearest the 
enemy were those of Major William Horgan and Adjutant 
John R. Young, both of the Eighty-eighth New York, 
It was not yet one o'clock when the assaulting column 
retired, and the wounded had nearly five hours to wait 
for darkness. 



Frcdericksburir. 51 

The sharpsliooters of the enemy soon j^ot a j^osition 
from which they could enfilade the brick house, and when 
anyone moved amonj^ the mass of bleeding- men it was 
the signal for the rifle balls to whistle around. Few 
expected to live until night, and but few did. Keeping 
very quiet, hugging the ground closely, the stricken men 
talked together in low tones. The bullets kept whistling 
and dropping, and every few moments some one would 
cease talking never to speak again. Quietly they passed 
away from the crimson field to eternity, their last gaze on 
their waving fiag, the last sound to reach their ears the 
volleys of musketry and their comrades' cheers. 

What a cosmopolitan crowd these dead and wounded 
were — Americans from the Atlantic Coast and the Pacific 
States, from the prairies, from the great valleys of the 
Mississippi and the Ohio ; Irishmen from the banks of the 
Shannon and Germans from the Rhine and the blue 
Danube ; Frenchmen from the Seine and Italians from the 
classic Tiber mingled their blood and went down in death 
together that the cause and that the Union might live. 
Every little while other columns emerged from the city, 
deployed upon the plain, marched forward, but never got 
so far as the brick house. The appearance of these troops 
would draw the fire of the batteries on the hills and 
hundreds of deadly projectiles would go screaming over, 
and could be seen bursting in the midst of the advancing 
lines. Evening came at last ; the sun went down behind 
the terrible heights and the wounded anxiously watched 
the shadows lengthen and steal across the field of blood, 
creeping slowly over the plain, throwing the houses of the 
city in the shade, then up the church tower until the only 
object that reflected the rays was the cross of burnished 
gold which sparkled a moment against the purple sky, 



52 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

and then the twihght deepened until it was difficult to 
discern objects. It was thought that the battle was 
ended when, through the gathering darkness, loomed up 
the divisions of Hooker. Nobly they went to the work, 
with empty muskets and orders to earn," the positiojQ with 
the bayonet. The dark mass passed the brick house and 
almost to the point that Hancock had reached. They had 
come in the gloaming unseen, and surged against the 
base of Mar\'e's Heights. 

Again the hills flashed fire, shook, rocked, roared and 
belched forth more tons of iron on the red plain — more 
minutes of useless carnage. The sombre wave rolled 
back, the last and most absurd attempt of the disastrous 
day had come to naught and seventeen hundred more had 
been added to the ponderous list of casualties. Clouds 
overshadowed the skies, and, guided by the lurid fires 
still smouldering through the ebony darkness, the immense 
crowd of wounded began crawling, struggling, dragging 
themselves towards the city, those who were slightly hurt 
assisting the others who were more seriously injured ; 
those with shattered limbs using muskets for crutches, 
many fainting and falling by the way. And when in the 
town, how hard to find a spot to rest, or a surgeon to bind 
up the wounds. More wounded than the city had inhab- 
itants, every public hall and house filled to overflow, the 
porches of the residences covered with bleeding men, the 
surgeons busy everywhere. In the lecture-room of the 
Baptist church eight operadng tables were in full blast, and 
the floor was densely packed with men whose limbs were 
crushed, fractured and torn. Lying there in deep pools 
of blood they waited, very patiently, almost cheerfully, their 
turn to be treated ; there was no grumbling, no screaming, 
hardly a moan ; many of the badly hurt were smiling and 



Fredericksburg. 63 

chatting', and one — who had both legs shot off — was 
cracking jokes with an officer who could not laugh at the 
humorous sallies, for his lower jaw was shot away. The 
cases here were nearly all capital, and amputation was 
almost always resorted to. Hands and feet, arms and legs 
were thrown under each table, and the sickening piles 
grew larger as the night progressed. The delicate limbs 
of the drummer boy fell along with the rough hand of the 
veteran in years, but all, e\ery one, was brave and 
cheerful. Towards morning the conversation flagged, 
many dropped of^ to sleep before they could be attended 
to, and many of them never woke again. Finally the only 
sound heard was the crunching of the surgeons' saws and 
now and then the melancholy music of a random shell 
dismally wailing overhead. Few the prayers that were 
said, but the soft voice of a boyish soldier, as he was lifted 
on the table, his limbs a mass of quivering, lacerated flesh, 
was heard as he quietly said " O my God, I ofTer all my 
sufferings in atonement for the sins by which I have 
crucified Thee". 

Outside, the members of the Christian Commission 
were hard at work relieving all within reach, and the 
stretcher carriers were hurrying the wounded from the 
field. A few chaplains were quietly moving among the 
suffering thousands, giving them comfort and soothing 
their dying hour. Out on the railroad at Hamilton's 
lay the body of the fearless commander of the Third 
Brigade of the Pennsylvania Reserves, General C. Fager 
Jackson, and at the Bernard House, where he had been 
carried, died at midnight the youngest general officer, and 
one of the most beloved of all that fell. General George 
D. Bavard, of the cavalry. While conversing with some 
other officers early in the day a shell struck the group, 



54 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

passing through the overcoat of Captain H. G. Gibson, 
destroying his sabre. It crushed General Bayard's thighs 
and carried away a portion of his abdomen. He Hved 
fourteen hours after being hit, and passed the time in 
quietly giving directions and in dictating letters to his 
friends. In one to Colonel Collum he said, " Give my 
love to General McClellan and say my only regret is that 
I did not die under his command ". He was to have been 
married on the following Wednesday, and the bride 
awaited her cavalier who never came. Bayard, sans peur 
et sans 7'eproche ! The losses in some of the commands 
were unusually severe. The Eleventh Pennsylvania 
Reserves lost six color-bearers inside of a few^ moments, 
and Company C, Twelfth Reserves, lost forty of the forty- 
nine present. 

But the most appalling loss was in the division of 
General Hancock. Of the five officers composing his 
personal staff three were wounded and four horses were 
killed under them. The general himself was struck by a 
rifle-ball, but not seriously hurt. Of the sixteen officers of 
the Sixty-ninth New York, every one was killed or 
wounded, and the regiment lost seventy-five per cent, of 
the enlisted men, and left the field with its fourth com- 
mander, three having been disabled. The Fifth New 
Hampshire lost seventeen out of twenty-three officers, and 
had five commanding officers during the fight. The One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers had all the field and staff and many of the line officers 
killed or wounded, and was taken off the field by the 
fourth officer in command during the fight. The Eighty- 
first Pennsylvania lost twelve out of sixteen officers and 
seventy-five per cent, of the enlisted men. The fourth 
commanding officer brought the regiment off the field. 




LlEUl ENANT ROBERl' T. McGUIRE 
Died at close uf War, nf wimnds received at Battle of Fredericksburg 



Ft edcricksbiirc;. 55 

The Fifty-seventh New York lost nine out of the eleven 
officers present. The Sixty-sixth New York had four 
commanders during the battle, the three first having been 
killed or wounded. Many other regiments of the division 
suffered almost as severely, yet, on the morning of the 
following day, notwithstanding great loss, when ordered 
to support the Ninth Corps, the command fell in, ready 
and willing, to join in the contemplated assault with the 
Ninth Corps, led by General Burnside in person — from 
which he was happily dissuaded by Generals Sumner and 
Hooker at the moment that all was ready to make the 
attack. During the fourteenth, the Regiment rested in 
the streets of the city. Sergeant Abraham Detwiler, of 
Company C, begged to be allowed to carry the colors and 
he was accorded the honor. Well did he fill his position, 
and bore the fiag during the Chancellorsville and Gettys- 
burg campaigns until he was promoted Lieutenant of his 
company. Lieutenant Edmund Randall was conspicuous 
in his eiltorts to rescue the wounded and get them over 
the river to a place of safety. He did noble work, and 
bursting shell and falling walls had no terrors for him 
where a man of the Regiment could be saved. During 
the battle the Regiment held the left fiank of the Irish 
Brigade. The Regiment and the Irish Brigade reached 
a point within thirty yards of the stone wall, and the 
bodies that lay nearest the enemy's line were those of 
the Regiment and Brigade and, by actual measurement, 
within twenty-five paces of the Washington Artillery 
(Confederate). Lieutenant William E. Owens, of that 
famous corps, in his history of the Washington Artillery 
tells us, "That a soldier of the Irish Brigade was the 
nearest body to the stone wall, and by actual measure- 
ment it lav within twentv-five feet of the wall ". A 



56 The Story of the ii6th Regiinent. 

British line officer, writing on the campaign of Fredericks- 
burg (pubHshed by Keegan & Co., London), writes in 
laudation of the foreign-born soldier in America during 
the great Civil War. We quote his account of the attack 
of the Irish Brigade on December 13th, 1S62: "Fifteen 
minutes passed and another division, Hancock's, five 
thousand strong, rushed forward from the town. Zook's 
brigade led the way, but quickly recoiled, beaten back 
by that terrible artiller}\ Not so its successor. Under 
cover of the further bank of the ravine the Irish Brigade, 
composed of the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts, the Sixty- 
third, Sixty-ninth and Eighty-eighth New York, and the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania, under General 
Meagher, threw ofl their haversacks and blankets and 
deployed into line. Resolutely they breasted the slope 
and faced the death-dealing storm ; swiftly they passed 
the limit marked by three solitary colors and, shoulder to 
shoulder, their own green flag and the blue and scarlet 
of the Union standard waving above them, swept forward 
against the low wall which skirts the base of Mar\^e's Hill. 
So determined was their advance that Colonel Miller, 
commanding the Confederate Brigade confronting them — 
for General Cobb had already fallen — ordered his men to 
hold their fire for a space. And now occurred a strange 
and pathetic incident. Though high was the courage 
of that thin line which charged so boldly across the 
shot-swept plain, opposed to it were men as fearless and 
staunch ; behind that rude stone breast-work were "bone 
of their bone, and flesh of their flesh" — the soldiers of 
Cobb's Brigade were Irish like themsehes. On the 
morning of the battle General Meagher had bade his men 
to deck their caps with sprigs of evergreen, " to remind 
them", he said, "of the land of their birth". The symbol 



Fredericksburg. 57 

was recognized by their countrymen, and "Oh, God, what 
a pity ! Here comes Meagher's fellows" ! was the cry in 
the Confederate ranks. One hundred and fifty paces 
from the hill the brigade halted and fired a volley, while 
the round shot tore fiercely through the well ordered 
line. Still no sign from the wall, looming grim and 
silent through the battle smoke ; and again the battalicjns 
moved swiftly forward. They were but a hundred yards 
from their goal, unbroken and unfaltering still ; they had 
reached a point where Walton's gunners, unable to depress 
their pieces further, could no longer harass them. Victory 
seemed within their grasp, and a shout went up from the 
shattered ranks. Suddenly a sheet of flame leaped from 
the parapet and twelve hundred rifies, plied by cool and 
unshaken men, concentrated a murderous fire upon the 
advancing line. To their glory, be it told, though scores 
were swept away, falling in their tracks like corn before 
the sickle, the ever-thinning ranks dashed on. 

" The charging blood in their up-turned faces 
And the Hving fill the dead men's places". 

But before that threatening onset the Confederate 
veterans never quailed ; volley on volley sped with deadly 
precision, and at so short a range every bullet found its 
mark. For a while the stormers struggled on, desperate 
and defiant ; but no mortal man could long face that 
terrible fire, scathing and irresistible as the lightning, and 
at length the broken files gave ground. Slowly and 
sullenly they fell back ; fell back to fight no more that 
day, for beneath the smoke-cloud that rolled about Marye's 
Hill the Irish Brigade had ceased to exist. Forty yards 
from the wall where the charge was stayed, the dead and 
dying lay piled in heaps, and one body, supposed to be 
that of an otiicer, was found within fifteen vards of the 



S8 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

parapet. The Adjutant-General of Hancock's division, 
who witnessed the attack from the town, said that at the 
time he could not understand what had happened ; the 
men fell in such regular lines that he thought they were 
lying down to allow the storm of shot to pass over them. 
General Ransom, commanding one of the divisions which 
held Marye's Hill, reported that this assault was made 
" with the utmost determination ", and the eloquent words 
of the London Times special correspondent, who was 
present with the Confederates, record the admiration of 
those who beheld that splendid charge. " Never", wrote he, 
*' at Fontenoy, Albuera or Waterloo, was more undaunted 
courage displayed by the sons of Erin ; the bodies which 
lie in dense masses within fifty yards of the muzzles of 
Colonel Walton's guns are the best evidence what manner 
of men they were who pressed on to death with the daunt- 
lessness of a race which has gained glory on a thousand 
battle-fields, and never more richly deserved it than at the 
foot of Marye's Hill, on December 13th, 1862 ". During 
Sunday, the day after the battle, no assistance could be 
given to the wounded who lay in great numbers out on 
the plain, but after dark on Sunday evening, many of the 
men made heroic efforts to bring them in, although the 
enemy were vigilant and fired at every object seen moving 
against the sky. Sergeant Sheridan, of Company G, 
Eighty-eighth New York, lay far out on the field with a 
fractured leg, and four of his comrades determined to go to 
his relief. Working themselves out on their stomachs, 
they succeeded in reaching him, but found him very low. 
As he had a compound fracture of the leg, it seemed 
impossible to move him, his agony was so great. The 
men dared not stand up, and were at their wits' ends 
to know what to do, when Sergeant Slattery came to the 



Fredericksburg. 59 

rescue. Said he, " Begob, boys, did yez ever see rats 
trying to get away with a goose ^<g'g ? One rat lies down, 
the others roll the ^'g^ on top av him, he holds it in place 
wid his four paws, and then they pull him off by the tail. 
Now I will lie down on my back, you lift Sheridan on top 
av me and I will do my best to kape his leg even ". The 
suggestion was adopted. The men would push themselves 
on a couple of feet, then pull Slattery, with his precious 
load, up to them, and so on until, before daylight, they all 
reached the city and had Sheridan attended to, and his 
leg amputated ; too late, however, to save the poor fellow's 
life. He died from exhaustion. The clothes were literally 
ground off Sergeant Slattery's back, and his cuticle so 
sore that he was unable to do duty for a week afterwards. 

A gallant soldier of Company B, John Dempsey, had 
almost as rough an experience as Sheridan. His leg was 
fearfully shattered and he fell far out on the field by the 
stone wall. Feeling that he would die if he remained on 
the field he threw the crushed leg over the good one and 
then dragged himself on his stomach for nearly a mile 
until he reached the town. Some stretcher bearers found 
him in the evening and carried him over the river, but the 
surgeons were busy and he did not have the limb ampu- 
tated until after four days, but he lived and got well. 

On every battlefield there are amusing incidents, and 
Fredericksburg furnished its share. As the Regiment 
was advancing on Marye's Heights under a heavy fire, 
two Irishmen in Company H began to quarrel. One had 
pushed the other a little and, whilst they still kept their 
places in line, belabored each other with their tongues. 
"Wait till Oi get up on top av the hill", said Dempsey, 
"and Oi'll knock you down wid me potstick " ! (meaning 
his musket). " Bad luck to ye, Oi'll poke me bayonet 



60 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

down yer troat"! And so they kept on until they 
reached the crest, where both were killed. Some one 
asked Captain O'Neill where he was hit. " I'm wounded 
all over ", replied the gallant Captain ; and when one 
thinks for a moment of a ball smashing a fellow's ribs, 
passing through his lungs and whistling out somewhere 
in the vicinity of his backbone, it seems but natural that 
he should feel "wounded all over". 

The day of the 14th passed without a renewal of the 
contest, but was made remarkable by an episode verv 
unusual on such occasions. The flags of the regiments of 
the Irish Brigade had been torn to ribbons during the 
many contests in which it had participated, and the citizens 
of New York had procured others to present in their place. 
The standards arrived during the battle, and with them 
came a committee, who brought a very generous supply 
of the good things of earth wherewith to celebrate the 
presentation, and a banquet was determined upon. A 
concert hall in one of the upper streets was selected for 
•the feast. Here the tables were spread and decorations 
improvised. Invitations were sent out, and at noon two 
or three hundred officers assembled to do honor to the 
event and toast the new banners. For two or three hours 
the hall teemed with wine and rang with wit and eloquence, 
and the flags were baptized amid speeches by Generals 
Couch, Hancock, Sturgis, Meagher and many other 
distinguished and gallant of^cers. The enjoyment and 
festivities ran high, the enthusiasm was great, but the loud 
cheers drew the fire of the Southern batteries, and the 
enemy, envying perhaps the good time our friends were 
having, sent their compliments in the shape of shells, one 
of which, passing through the ceiling of the room, knocked 
the plaster down among the viands, and was suggestive 



Fredericksburg. 61 

of an early adjournment ; so the company separated with 
rather unceremonious leave-taking — not on account of 
the shell, certainly not ! but as some of the gentlemen 
remarked : " it being Sunday, they thought it well to close 
the feast a little early that they might attend divine 
service ". During the night of this day and on Monday, 
the loth, the troops lay on their arms waiting the next 
event. After dark a rumor spread that the army was to 
move to the left and strike the enemy again the following 
morning, but soon the columns began marching over the 
river and through the storm and gloom back to their 
camps. Shortly after daylight, on the 16th, the last 
regiment, the Sixty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers, filed 
across the pontoons. With sturdy blows the pontoniers 
severed on the city side the lashings of the bridge which 
swung around with the current of the stream, landing on 
the other shore, leaving to the mercy of God and the 
enemy, the killed and many of the wounded of the gallant 
army. The battle was over ; the result, a graveyard. 

Save one regimental flag, no trophies of the fight 
remained. Yet the field was redolent with acts of noble 
daring. The troops that marched on Marye's Heights 
more than equalled, in the grandeur of their bravery, the 
gallant six hundred immortalized by the poet laureate, 
while by their sacrifice, though they did not gain a victory, 
they raised a monument more enduring than marble or 
brass to the valor and heroism of our times and our people; 
and in other ages, when the memories of the contest will 
have been mellowed by the lapse of centuries, in the blood- 
shed will be seen a holocaust at the altar of freedom in 
the smoke of the battle, sweet incense at the shrine of 
human liberty. The Union troops failed — so did Leonidas 
of Sparta, yet what son of Hellas but shares even to this 



62 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

dav in the glory of old Thermopylae, and what American, 
even to the most remote period of the future, but will share 
in the glories that cluster around the plain of Fredericks- 
burg ? Those fields, resplendent with the great deeds of 
our people, where the verdure and every blooming flower 
is nurtured and enriched by martyr blood, will ever be 
hallowed places in the land, around which will crystallize 
the warm, full gratitude of a nation saved. 



After Fredericksburg. 63 

CHAPTER III. 

AFTER FREDERICKSBURG. 

"\\/HEN the battle was over and the troops once more 
on the North side of the Rappahannock, each 
command quietly marched back to the camp-ground that 
had been vacated a few days before. Fortunately, nearly 
all the wounded of the One Hundred and Sixteenth were 
brought over the river before the evacuation of the town, 
but their sufferings were intolerable. A cold dismal rain 
fell on the men as they lay on the wet ground, but as 
quickly as possible they were moved off to temporary 
hospitals and cared for. Orders to build winter quarters 
were issued, and soon the men were slashing trees and 
erecting huts in which to pass the winter. Four or five 
logs cut the proper length, were piled one on the other, 
the intersections filled with mud, and over all a shelter 
tent spread for a roof. A fire-place was made at one 
end, and a chimney constructed of sticks and mud — a 
chimney, by the way, which frequently caught fire and 
threatened to burn up the household. In these dwellings, 
arranged in streets and forming regimental camps, the 
great army spent the winter. Immense camp-fires blazed. 
Wood, for the time, was plenty, and when the building 
of the huts was finished, many an evening was spent by 
the men sitting in long lines, enjoying the heat and light, 
and chatting of the fight, recalling scenes in the city of 
Fredericksburg and the field beyond. There were plenty 
of incidents to fill the long evenings with interesting 
talk. Every comrade who had fallen was remembered, 
and each one's lovable characteristics recalled, nor were 
the wounded forgotten. 



64 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

Not only were the dead and wounded comrades in 
arms, but, in many instances, they were near relatives. 
Allen Landis, of Company C, mourned for his brother, 
Aaron J. Landis, of the same company, who fell by the 
stone wall ; and Lieutenant Willauer, also of Company 
C, was sent home terribly wounded to carry to his aged 
parents the sad news of his younger brother's death, 
Corporal Samuel Willauer. First Sergeant Richard Ker, 
of Company D, left his brother, Sergeant Andrew E. Ker, 
dead on the field, shot through the head before he was 
seventeen years of age. And these were not the only 
members of this family who served their country as 
soldiers. Another brother, William W. Ker, was a gallant 
Captain in the Seventy-third Pennsylvania Infantry ; and, 
still another, George J. Ker, served until the end of the 
war in the Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry, coming out as a 
full Captain and Brevet-Major, only to die of his wounds. 
Then there were Alexander and Daniel Chisholm, 
brothers, in Company K, the only pair of brothers who 
got through without a scratch ; and Colonel Mulholland 
and his brother, Captain Charles Cosslett, of Company E. 
Sergeants Jacob and Jefferson Carl, of Company C, were 
brothers, and two other brothers of the Carl boys, Henry 
and William, were enlisted in other regiments. Captain 
Henrv D. Price, Company C, who was killed in front 
of Petersburg, had a brother, Abraham D. Price, a Major 
in the Sixth Cavalry; and another brother, Joseph D. 
Price, was a Lieutenant in the same regiment, while 
Sergeant Elhannan W. Price, who was killed at Freder- 
icksburg, was a full cousin to Captain Henry D. Price. 
James Collins, of Company K, had a brother an Adjutant 
of the One Hundred and Forty-second Pennsylvania 
Volunteers who was killed on the second day at the 



After Fredericksburg. 63 

Wilderness. Jim learned of George's death next morning, 
but never asked an hour off duty in consequence. He 
marched along in silence for some days, but fought nobly 
to avenge his brother's fall. 

The brother of Captain Lawrence Kelly, of Company 
G, was killed by his side ; and Lieutenant Kite, of Com- 
pany F, had his son a private in his company. Henry 
and George Wilt, of Company C, were brothers ; and 
also, Thomas and Robert Scarlett, of Company A. Also, 
Daniel and ^^'illiam Price, of Company B. In Company 
G, there was a young boy named H. M. Seitzinger. who, 
at Cold Harbor, when Color Sergeant T. A. Sloan was 
shot, rushed forward, seized the flag, and waving it over 
his head led the charge, calling to his father, James Vl. 
Seitzinger : " Go in Pop, I'm coming". 

There were numbers of others in the Regiment, but it 
was not exceptional. Whole families went to the war ; 
some returned and others fell, in many instances all were 
killed. In a quiet spot in Massachusetts there are five 
brothers sleeping side by side, the youngest seventeen, 
the eldest twenty-eight, and all fell within a few months 
of each other. When the President learned of the death 
of these five brave boys, his great heart went out to the 
mother and he sent her the following : 

Executive Mansion, 

Washington, November 21, 1S64, 
Mrs. Bixby, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Dear Madam: I have been shown in the files of the War Department 
a statement of the Adjutant General of Massachusetts that you are the 
mother of five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel 
how weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt 
to beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot 
refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in the 
thanks of the Republic they died to save. I pray that our heavenly 



f^?^<i 



66 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave you only 

the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that 

must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of freedom. 

Yours very sincerely and respectfully, 

Abraham Lincoln. 

In Lycoming County, in our State, there are five noble 
boys named Rankin, side by side, all killed in battle. 
Lieutenant Willauer's brother died a very heroic death. 
He was first shot through the hand, then through the 
body, the ball passing near the heart, then both feet were 
cut of^ by a shell ; he was still living, when, after dark, 
the stretcher-carriers took him from the field to the 
hospital where he died during the night. He was aged 
just twenty years and one month. 

Lieutenant Robert B. Montgomery, who was killed in 
battle, was a very noble gentleman, of an amiable and 
gentle disposition, a man whom every one loved, and who 
was ever ready to sacrifice himself for the good of the 
service. He lived for some days after being wounded, 
the ball still lodged in his body, and died resigned, saintly 
and heroic. His body was sent home to Philadelphia, 
and buried in Machpelah Cemetery, corner Tenth and 
Washington Avenue. The funeral was on Sunday after- 
noon, December 28th and tens of thousands of citizens 
lined the streets as the cortege passed. He was buried 
with full military honors. 

The following is from the Philadelphia Inquirer of 
Monday, December 29th, 1862 : 

THE FUNERAL OF LIEUTENANT ROBERT B. MONTGOMERY. 

"The body of Lieutenant Robert B. Montgomery, formerly of 
Colonel Heenan's One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, was interred yesterday afternoon, about four o'clock, at 
Michpelah Cemetery, Tenth Street and Washington Avenue. 




LIEUTENANT ROBERT B. MONTGOMERY 
Killed at Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862 



After Fredericksburg. 67 

The Lieutenant died on the 14th inst., at the Patent Office Hospital, 
Washington, D. C, of wounds received at the battle of Fredericksburg. 
He was in the thirty-fourth year of his age. His remains were brought 
from Washington at the expense of his former fellow-workmen in the 
Navy Yard. A large military escort was in attendance, including a 
portion of the Thirtieth Massachusetts and Arsenal Guards and Captain 
Rockafellow, together with the members of the Hoj^e Hose and Steam 
Fire Engine Company, a number of the workmen of the Navy Yard, and 
a detachment of the police force of the Third Division. 

The funeral took place from the residence of Mr. John Paul, No. 228 
Saratoga Street. Dr. Brainerd, of whose church he was formerly a member, 
officiated. His remarks over the grave of the deceased soldier were 
very impressive. ' Of the evils of war in general,' the doctor said, ' they 
are legion, and only to be tolerated now in order to avoid the worse evils 
of universal anarchy and international strife and bloodshed likely to follow 
the breaking \\\) of a great nation. We suffer war as a choice of great 
evils. War cannot last always. Over the graves of our country's martyrs 
we can say that the cause ennobles the victim. A life sold, not lost.' Of 
the battle of Fredericksburg, Doctor Brainerd said : ' It was a fearful time 
and disastrous to thousands. Other generations will shudder at its 
details. It unfolds to us the strength of that treason which we have to 
combat. It develops a love of country seldom surpassed. It has disci- 
plined a great army to appalling dangers and linked thousands of bleeding 
hearts more closely to the cause of freedom. It has created in all Christian 
lands, among true men, a deeper loathing of the treason which has 
shed this blood, and a deeper abhorrence of the Northern semi-traitors 
who aided the rebellion. It will tend to lift from the high places the 
mean, the mercenary and the craven-hearted, and give prominence in the 
cabinet and field to men willing to suffer and die for their country.' 

Of Lieutenant Montgomery the doctor said : ' He was a young man 
of excellent character and noble impulse. A native of Virginia, with his 
property and all his relatives there, he was like Abdiah, 'faithful among 
the faithless found.' He preferred his whole country to the State of his 
birth. On the battlefield he fought bravely, and fell. He was a true 
man, a citizen and a jiatriot.' 

After the closing of the remarks by the reverend doctor, the usual 
honor was paid to his memory by the military, and the multitude in the 
vicinity slowly and quietly dispersed." 

Thirty-two years after a little group gathered once 
more around the grave of the beloved Lieutenant and the 
remains being raised and fully identified, were with 



^ The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

tender care taken to the National Cemetery at German- 
town. The same paper of February 3d, 1895, finishes 
the story began more than a quarter of a century before. 

VETERANS' TRIBUTE TO A DEAD HERO. 

THE REMAINS OF LIEUTENANT MONTGOMERY WILL BE TAKEN OUT TO 
GERMANTOVVN — A ROMANCE OF THE WAR — GENERAL MULHOLLAND, 
DEPARTMENT COMMANDER EMSLEY AND COLONEL EDMUND RAN- 
DALL SEE THAT A COMRADE WHO DIED IN BATTLE IS GIVEN 
FITTING RESTING PLACE — FOUR HUNDRED MORE BODIES WILL 
FOLLOW. 

Three honored veterans stood around in the snow storm in Machpelah 
Cemetery yesterday morning and watched while the remains of a one-time 
comrade, who had died under their eyes in battle, were lifted up and 
made ready for shipment to the Soldiers' Cemeterj' at Germantown. 

Around the event is a most interesting story. The dead man was 
Lieutenant Robert B. Montgomer\-, of Company I, One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, of which General Mulholland, now 
Pension Agent, was then Lieutenant-Colonel. In marching out of the city 
the Colonel was wounded and Mulholland took active command. When 
the regiment went gallantly into the battle of Fredericksburg on December 
13th, 1862, Lieutenant Montgomery received his death wound. 

The ball, which entered his groin, and crushed his bones in a terrible 
manner, struck him as he was leading a charge across a frail bridge over 
the canal. As he was hit he toppled over into the water. His comrades 
pulled him out and he was sent to a hospital, where he died a few days 
later. 

Buried with Honors. 

General Mulholland was wounded soon after and was at his home in 
this city when the body of Lieutenant Montgomery- was sent on here for 
burial. The funeral was held on Sunday, December 28th, 1862. On the 
occasion the crowds on the streets were immense. The young Lieutenant 
was interred with full military honors, Captain Rockafellow's command 
firing the salute. 

Lieutenant Montgomery had few friends here, as he was a Virginian 
by birth, and at one time a slave-holder. On the outbreak of the war, 
however, he had abandoned everything and joined the Union army. He 
had several brothers in the Confederate army. 

When the removal of the bodies from Machpelah Cemetery was 
begun General Mulholland thought of these events of thirty years ago, and 



After Fredericksburg. 69 

determined to see that the body of the brave soldier was fittingly cared 
for. He hunted up the records of the cemetery, but in them he could not 
find any trace of the Lieutenant's interment. But the General protested 
that the body was there, and went on to point out the grave. The owner 
of the lot was hunted up and tlie General's memory was found to be 
correct. 

The Remains Identified. 

Yesterday, in company with Department Commander Emsley, who 
was also in the One Hundred and Sixteenth, and Colonel Edmund Ran- 
dall, General Mulholland went down to see the coffiin opened, and the 
remains made ready for shipment. The coffin was found in good condi- 
tion, and the skull and clothing were well enough preserved to make 
identification positive. The army buttons were taken from the coat and 
preserved by Colonel Randall. The remains will be buried with honors 
in the National Cemetery. 

The bodies of four hundred other soldiers rest in Machpelah Ceme- 
tery. Man)- of their graves are marked with government tombstones. 
Through the agency of General Mulholland these will all be taken to the 
National Cemetery at Germantown for interment. 

Lieutenant Christian Foltz was killed instantly, being 
shot through the head ; his body was left on the field, and 
buried, after the fight, in front of the stone wall. He 
came from near Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania, was of 
German descent, a brave, unassuming. Christian soldier, 
and though a man advanced in years, he was as full of 
patriotic feeling and ever as ready to share in the hard- 
ships and dangers as the youngest. 

Many of the officers wounded in the battle never 
returned. Colonel Dennis Heenan suffered severely for 
months and finally lost the use of his right hand. Major 
George H. Bardwell also lost the use of his right hand, the 
ball having broken every bone. He was afterwards breveted 
lieutenant-colonel for his gallantry on the occasion. 
Captain O'Neill was shot through the right lung, the ball 
making a terrible wound from which he never fully 
recovered, and finallv caused his death. He was a veteran. 



70 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

having served some eight years in the regular army before 
joining the regiment ; the wound received at Fredericks- 
burg was his third. Lieutenant Robert T. McGuire was 
also shot through the lungs, and in the thigh, and died of 
the wounds shortly after the close of the war. He was a 
brave and most lovable officer. He was born in Philadel- 
phia of Irish parents, and educated in the public schools 
of that city. 

A few days after the battle, the thanks of the President 
was read to the regiments on " dress parade," and received 
by all with evident pleasure : 

Executive Mansion, 

Washington, December 22d, 1S62. 
To the Army of the Potomac : 

I have just read your Commanding General's report of the battle 
of Fredericksburg. 

Although you were not successful, the attempt was not an error, 
nor the failure other than an accident. The courage with which you in 
an open field maintained the contest against an entrenched foe, and the 
consummate skill and success with which you crossed and re-crossed the 
river in the face of the enemy, show that you possess all the qualities 
of a great army, which will yet give victory- to the cause of the countn,- 
and of the popular government. 

Condoling with the mourners of the dead, and sympathizing with 
the severely wounded, I congratulate you that the number of both is 
comparatively sO small. I tender you, officers and soldiers, the thanks 
of the nation. Abraham Lincoln. 

The winter of 1862 and 1SG3 seemed long to the men 
in camp on the Rappahannock. The cold was not intense, 
but the atmosphere damp and penetrating. The ground 
became frozen and sodden by turns, and when a few warm 
da3's would come and draw the frost out of the earth, the 
mud would become so deep that moving around was 
impossible. There was little chance for drill, and the 
days and nights in camp seemed very long. Ofttimes 



After Fredericksburg. 71 

the doctor's call in the morning would be the only sound 
to disturb the camp. The guard would be changed with- 
out music, and the picket detail formed and marched off 
in the rain or snow in grim silence. During the winter the 
picket duty was extremely severe and the detail large. 
The men of the Regiment had to march three miles to the 
picket line which ran along the north bank of the Rappa- 
hannock, near the old town of Falmouth. Most of the 
march was through slush and mud, and by the time the 
detail reached the ground every one was wet and chilled, 
and in that condition began the turn of duty. No fires 
were allowed on the line and frequently none on the 
reserve. After standing the two hours on the river 
bank, shivering in the wintry blast, or with the back to a 
blinding snow-storm, the men found scanty comfort when 
on the reserve. How cheerful and cozy the little hut seemed 
when, after the turn of duty on picket, they returned to 
camp ! But the picket line, although so cold and trying, 
was not without its attractions. The river was narrow 
enough to permit the men of each army to see the other 
and often converse. Little or no firing was indulged in, 
and' the men of both sides stood in full view of each other. 
Of course, during the darkness of night every one was 
vigilant and watchful, but during the day there was 
nothing to do but stand and let the hours go by. 
Contraband trading was carried on to a very great extent 
after dark, the men wading the river where fordable, and 
the Confederates visiting in return. Union cofl'ee for 
Confederate tobacco constituted the principal commercial 
transactions. No harm resulted from the trade, and the 
officers, when patrolling the line, would manage to look 
some other way, and fail to observe any visitors from the 
other side of the river who might happen to be among the 



72 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Union men. Had they recognized the Confederate they 
would have been compelled to arrest him, but it was 
difficult to distinguish colors after nightfall, it being so 
very dark and the blue and the gray were so much alike. 
It was just the same on the other side. The officers and 
men acted honorably, and not one of the boys who 
crossed the river with his little bag of cofifee was ever 
detained. 

The regimental chaplain. Reverend Edward McKee, 
resigned December 24th. He had proven himself a brave 
and fearless officer, but his health gave way under the 
hardships of campaigning and he was compelled to return 
to private life. 

Christmas Day, 1862, was celebrated in the camp, 
many boxes of good things from home were received, 
and shared by the recipients with comrades less fortunate. 
Some of the boys were a little homesick, to be sure, but 
enough were sufficiently light of heart to drive dull care 
away. A large Christmas tree was erected in the centre 
of the camp, and peals of laughter and much merriment 
greeted the unique decorations, tin cups, hardtack, pieces 
of pork and other odd articles being hung on the 
branches. At night the camp fire roared and blazed, the 
stars shone above the tail pines, the canteen was passed 
around, and care banished for the hour. It must have 
been a sad Christmas, however, to those at home whose 
friends had fallen by Marye's Heights and Hamilton's 
Woods. New Year's Day came and passed, and on 
January 16th an order was received to prepare for another 
march, the celebrated movement known in history as the 
"Mud Campaign". It was the last effort of General 
Burnside to justify himself and give battle to the enemy, 
but nature and the elements protested. On the twentieth 




MAJOR-GENERAL EDWIN V. SUMNER 
Commanded Second Corps, March 13th to October 9th, 1862 



After Frcderickshirg. 7? 

the army broke camp and moved, or rather tried to move, 
but the downpour of rain upon the soaked earth was so 
copious and incessant, and the mud so deep that no 
movement was possible. No sooner had they left their 
different camps than men, trains and artillery became 
stalled in the mire, and it became a question of getting 
them extricated and back to their quarters, rather than 
one of striking the enemy. The members of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth never left the camp ground 
during this period, as it was intended that the Second 
Corps should be the last to move. And the men found 
great consolation in the fact, especially when they saw the 
condition of the bedraggled infantry and mud-covered 
artillery, that was sunk hub-deep in the §ea of liquid 
clay that was once a road. January 26th, that splendid 
old soldier, General Edwin V. Sumner, retired from 
command of the Right Grand Division, bade the army 
farewell, and shortly afterwards died. It is told of 
Sumner that, at Antietam, he was sending his son on an 
errand of great danger, and after giving him the order, 
the young man was about to gallop off when the general 
called him back and kissed him ; then said, " Go on, 
my boy". January 26th, 1863, the Regiment was con- 
solidated with a battalion of four companies, and the 
following officers retained in command : 

Major commanding — St. Clair A. Mulholland. 
Adjutant— Lieutenant Garrett Nowlen. 
Quarter-Master — Lieutenant Richard Wade. 
Surgeon — William B. Hartman. 
Sergeant- Major — George Roeder. 
Quarter- Master Sergeant — George McMahon. 



74 The Story of the 116th Regivient. 

COMPANY "a". 
Captain — Seneca G. Willauer. 
First Lieutenant — William M. Hobart. 
Second Lieutenant — George Halpin. 

COMPANY " B ". 

Captain — Francis T. Quinlan. 

First Lieutenant — Francis E. Crawford. 

Second Lieutenant — Thomas A. Dorvvart. 

COMPANY "c". 
Captain — John Teed. 
First Lieutenant — Henry D. Price. 
Second Lieutenant — William H. Tyrrell. 

COMPANY " D ". 
Captain — William A. Peet. 
First Lieutenant — Jacob R. Moore. 
Second Lieutenant — Louis J. Sacriste. 

The consolidation of the Regiment became necessary 
because of the fact that the command had not been 
recruited to the maximum strength at the beginning, and 
had lost heavily by death, sickness and detail. It was 
understood, however, that six new companies should be 
added to the command as soon as practicable. This was 
not effected until a year after the consolidation, and the 
command fought as a " battalion " at Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, Mine Run and Bristow Station. The super- 
numerary officers were honorably discharged, some 
entering the service again in other commands. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Mulholland was compelled to lose the rank of 
lieutenant-colonel and accept that of major, knowing 
that it would be but for a short time, or until the new 
companies were organized. Lieutenant Edmund Randall 



After Fredericksburg. 75 

was one of the officers retained, hut he tendered his 
resignation, and in April, Captain Francis T. Quinlan did 
hkewise. These two young, brave and talented officers 
left the Regiment, and their going was much regretted 
by the commanding officer and all their comrades. They 
were promising officers and had a brilliant future before 
them. 

Shortly after the failure of the ludicrous fiasco, the 
"Mud Campaign", General Joseph Hooker succeeded 
General Burnside in command of the army of the Potomac, 
and the change for the time had a most happy effect. 
New life seemed to be given to every organization, and 
fresh vitality to every department. Many changes took 
place in the organization and personnel of the army. 
The grand division idea was definitely abandoned, and 
the corps-mark, or badge, was adopted. This feature 
consisted of a distinct emblem by which the division and 
corps to which every man belonged could be recognized. 
The emblem was worn on the cap, and the corps was 
designated by the emblem itself, and the division by the 
color. Red, white, and blue indicated the first, second 
and third divisions. The badge of the Second corps was 
the trefoil or clover-leaf, and as the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth belonged to the First Division the badge of the 
Regiment w^as red. The "corp badges", worn on the 
cap, became very dear to the troops, a source of pride 
and an incentive to emulation. They proved to be of 
great convenience to all, enabling every one to identify 
corps and divisions on the march or on line of battle 
without inquiry. The men of the Irish Brigade added to 
the red clover leaf an emblem of the same form, though of 
a different color — a small, green shamrock, this denoting 
the brigade organization as well as the division and corps. 



76 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

February 2Sth Captain Peet resigned and Lieutenant 
Xowlen was soon after promoted to Captain of Company 
D, and Lieutenant Sacriste became Adjutant. 

During February, March and April of this year, 1863, 
camp fever was prevalent, and many deaths occurred in 
the army, but the Regiment was remarkably fortunate in 
the small number of cases of sickness and the very few 
fatalities. Every moment of fair weather was taken 
advantage of to drill and discipline the command, and at 
no time before or afterwards did the Regiment attain such 
perfection in all that pertains to the movements as a body 
under arms, or develop such a degree of excellent disci- 
pline of the individual soldier. Not only did the battalion 
gain unstinted praise on brigade, division and corps 
drills and reviews, but every man seemed to vie with each 
other in trying to outdo his comrade in personal appear- 
ance and soldierly accomphshments. The " reviews ", 
"dress parades" and "guard mounts'', and other 
occasions of ceremony were all admirable, and the rigid 
inspections told well for the personnel of every one. 
Every man was clean and neat, beyond anything that 
could be expected under the circumstances. Private 
Jacob Lutz, Company B, was awarded the credit of having 
the cleanest musket. Lutz, in fact, was a crank on the 
subject of cleanliness. His musket, however, was his 
especial pride and constant care. The boys used to say 
that he would sleep without cover on a wet night in order 
that he might wrap the piece in his blanket and thus 
shelter it from the dampness. 

On the morning after the batde. Sergeant Abraham L. 
Detwiler, Company C, was promoted to be Color Sergeant, 
vice Tyrrell, who had been severely wounded and who 
was shordv afterward commissioned. Sergeant Detwiler 



After Fredericksburg. 77 

had behaved with great bravery in the fight and was the 
first to jump out of the ranks and volunteer to carry 
the flag when a new color sergeant was called for. He 
was not only a fearless man but intelligent, and filled the 
position with ability. He carried the colors at Chancellors- 
ville, Gettysburg, Auburn, Bristovv Station and Mine Run 
and was promoted to a lieutenancy in November, 1863. 

ST. PATRICK'S DAY, 1863. 

St. Patrick's Day in camp was celebrated with the 
usual gayety and rejoicing by the men composing the 
Irish Brigade. This time-honored national anniversary 
was observed with all the exhaustless spirit and enthusiasm 
of Irish nature. For days previous vast preparations 
had been made, a race-course marked out, and on every 
side, written in large, bold characters, was the following 
announcement : 

Grand Irish Steeple-Chase, 
"To come off the 17th of March, rain or shine, by horses, 
the property of, and to be ridden by, commissioned officers 
of that brigade. The prizes are a purse of $500 ; second 
horse to save his stakes ; two and a half mile heat, best two 
in three, over four hurdles four and a half feet high, and 
five ditch fences, including two artificial rivers fifteen feet 
wide and six deep ; hurdles to be made of forest pine and 
braced with hoops." 

The quarter-master was sent to Washington for 
liquors and meats, and brought for the banquet that was 
to follow the race the following moderate supply, which 
constituted the fare : Thirty-five hams, and a side of an ox 
roasted ; an entire pig stuffed with boiled turkeys ; an 
unlimited number of chickens, ducks and small game. The 
drinking materials comprised eight baskets of champagne, 
ten gallons of rum, and twenty-two of whiskey. A 



78 The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

splendid bower was erected, capable of containing some 
hundreds of persons, for a general invitation was issued 
to all the officers of the Army of the Potomac. 

The evening previous to the races a committee was 
held on " punch ", as to who was the best qualified to mix 
that important compound. It was unanimously agreed 
that the General and staff were the best judges, and 
therefore the most proper to undertake it. It was ruled 
that the matter be left entirely in their hands. Captains 
Gosson and Hogan were voted masters of ceremonies, in 
which they labored so diligently that before the mixture 
was complete both felt overpowered by their labors and 
had to be relieved from duty. 

The morning commenced with religious ceremonies, 
after which the different riders proceeded to dress them- 
selves. The dresses were showy, but some rather 
incongruous. One officer appeared mounted in scarlet, 
the top of his head crowned with a green velvet smoking 
cap, the present of his lady-love. The reason he assigned 
for his peculiar taste was, he was from Galway, and his 
family had hunted with the Galway Blazers' Club, and 
dressed similarly. 

At eleven o'clock the grand stand was crowded with 
distinguished generals, officers, and about a dozen ladies. 
A large concourse of at least thirty-thousand officers and 
soldiers had assembled to participate in the fun. Previous 
to starting, the course was the object of attraction for 
spectators. Large crowds of soldiers were congregated 
in the vicinity of the interesting points, which seemed to 
be, in their estimation, where the leaps were highest and 
the ditches deepest. The nature of the ground was 
favorable — a gently rolling stretch of land, over which the 
course ran for a mile and three-quarters in length — and at 



After Fredericksburg. 79 

points about equal distances from each other, eight leaps 
had been erected or excavated. From the ground 
whereon the stand was, and where the flags marking the 
tracks waved, the hills, here and there crested with a 
growth of oak or cedar, sloped away towards the Rappa- 
hannock. The bluest of blue skies looked down on the 
gayly-dressed and eager crowds, on the dashing horse- 
men, whose steeds pranced l)y the side of others on which 
were riding gay and brilliant women, on the quiet hills, 
the peaceful river, the two hostile armies, and seemed to 
shower its blessings and its beauties on the festive throng 
assembled for enjoyment and sport commemorative of 
the national holiday of old Ireland. 

The start was named for eleven o'clock — ten minutes 
before that hour the Commander-in-chief of the Army of 
the Potomac, Major-General Hooker, attended by all the 
members of his staff not detained at headquarters or else- 
where on duty, and accompanied by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Bentley, and Captain John C. Lynch, of the Sixty-third, 
both of whom had waited on General Hooker earlier in 
the day, arrived on the ground. On the appearance of 
the Commander-in-chief he was greeted by warm cheers, 
which he gracefully acknowledged as he took his place 
on the grand stand. Before attempting to describe the 
sports of the day, it may be as well to notice some of the 
more prominent and distinguished of the invited guests. 
And let us first speak of the ladies, who added much, by 
their vivacity and their picturesque costume, by their 
brilliancy and witchery, to the entertainments and amuse- 
ments of the day. Fortunate citizens, dwelling in their 
quiet homes, and having before their eyes, every hour of 
the day, graceful and lovely women, can have no idea of 
the chivalrous emotions which swell the hearts of even the 



80 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

roughest soldier, seeing on rude camp-covered liills the 
figures, the fair faces, which it may be, have not been 
looked on in these regions and by these men for many, 
many months. If the reader has any conception of these 
things, he can easily imagine with what deep, yet sub- 
dued, gladness the ladies were greeted by all. 

When a fitting opportunity oftered, in recognition of 
the hospitable greeting that was accorded him, General 
Hooker proposed three cheers for " General Meagher and 
his Irish Brigade, God bless them ". 

The following horses only, out of a larger number 
entered for the first race, open to the officers of the Irish 
Brigade, started : 

General Meagher's gray horse — "Jack Hinton " ; rider — 
Captain John Gosson ; dress — crimson jacket, sleeves, breeches 
and white cap. 

Captain Hogan's bay horse — " Napper Tandy" ; rider — 
Lieutenant Ryder; dress — bluejacket, white breeches, green cap. 

Captain Martin's bay mare — "Kathleen Mavourneen " ; 
rider — Captain Martin ; Solferino jacket, white breeches, maroon 
cap. 

Captain Langdon's black horse — "Nigger Bill" ; rider — 
Lieutenant Byron ; plaid jacket, white breeches, pink cap. 

Quarter-Master McCormick's bay horse-^" Sharpsburg " ; 
rider — Lieutenant O'Connor; red jacket, white breeches, blue cap. 

Colonel Mulholland's chestnut horse — "Major" ; rider — 
Quarter-Master Wade ; blue jacket, white breeches, red cap. 

Judges : Colonel Von Schaick, Seventh New York Volun- 
teers ; Colonel Frank, Fifty-seventh New York \^olunteers. 

Umpire : Brigadier- General Caldwell. 

Clerk of the Course : General Meagher. 

A few minutes before eleven o'clock the bugle sounded 
to the post, the horses were uncovered, and the eager riders 



After Frcderickshirg. 81 

mounted. Precisely as the hand denoted the hour, the 
clerk of the course waved his whip, another sweet, inspiring 
note from the bugler, and they were ofT. Six horses, 
six gallant riders, the course, the leaps, innumerable 
throngs of spectators, met the eyes of those standing on 
the platform. The first leap was a hurdle almost five feet 
high. They came to it ; and cleared it beautifully ; two 
saddles were emptied ; the bay mare bolted, but was 
spiritedly and scientifically brought to it, and flew over 
magnificently. With varying fortune the other leaps and 
spaces were taken and passed over, the rider of the gray 
drawing towards him the attention of the throng by the 
tnasterly manner in which he handled his horse. The 
home-stretch was reached, the gray, hard pressed by the 
bay, gained the winning post, and the umpire declared him 
the winner of the first heat. A wild, enthusiastic cheer 
went up from the jubilant throng. The start on the 
second heat was according to the formula of the first. All 
the horses cleared hurdle number one in fine style ; the run 
home was headed by the gray again, this time the little 
black closing tightly on him, and the gray was declared the 
winner, amid thunders of applause for his dashing rider. 

To this race succeeded a sweepstakes, open to all, and, 
as usual, all the incidents of an old-fashioned course 
happened. Eight horses contested for the prize, which 
was won by a fine chestnut, ridden by, it is said, a 
descendant of the Blucher of Waterloo fame. 

It was one o'clock when General Meagher announced 
that all further operations would be postponed for half an 
hour, and invited the ladies, the generals present, and 
stafis, to a collation, prepared and awaiting destruction at 
his quarters, and thither the goodly company proceeded. 
In front of the quarters two Sibley tents had been pitched. 



82 The Story of the ii6th Reghneiit. 

separated by a space of ten yards, which space was enclosed 
by an awning. In and under these the guests thronged. 
Mountains of sandwiches disappeared, no doubt filling up 
those voids which nature is said to abhor. With the 
precision and promptitude of file-firing, pop, pop, went 
explosions that preceded copious draughts of rich wines. 
In and out, in fact ever\-where, went the attentive officers 
of the brigade, attending to their visitors. \\^hat attracted 
most attention, however, and gratified every appreciative 
palate were potations of spiced whiskey-punch, ladled by 
Captain Hogan, the Ganymede of the occasion, from an 
enormous bowl, holding not much less than thirty gallons. 
The following amusements followed : — 

First. A foot-race, one-half mile distance, best of heats ; 
open to all non-commissioned officers and privates, the winner to 
receive $7, and the second $3. 

Second. Casting weights, the weights to weigh from ten to 
fourteen pounds ; the winner to receive $3. 

Third. Running after the soaped pig — to be the prize of 
the man who holds it. 

Fourth. A hurdle-race, one-half mile distance, open to all 
non-commissioned officers and privates ; the winner to receive 
$7, the second, $3. 

Fifth. The wheelbarrow race — the contestants to be blind- 
folded, and limited to six soldiers of the Irish Brigade ; the 
winner to receive S5 ; distance to be decided on the ground. 

Sixth. Jumping in sacks to the distance of five hundred 
yards ; the winner to receive S5. 

Seventh. A contest on the light fantastic toe, consisting of 
Irish reels, jigs, and hornpipes ; the best dancer to receive $5, 
the second best S3, to be decided by a judge appointed by the 
chairman. 



After Fredericksburg. 83 

The amusements of the day were followed by a grand 
entertainment at ni^ht, theatricals and recitations. Many 
a health was drank, many a friend was toasted, flowing 
bumpers, loving glances at the fair ones, songs and 
toasts went freely round. Captain Hogan presided at the 
nectarean mixture, which floated like a spiced island in a 
huge barrel. Captain Jack Gosson, in his most recherche 
uniform, bespangled with lace, aided and assisted. 
Around them were a lot of drummer-boys and soldiers. 
These Captain Jack dispersed in the most dignified manner, 
while they looked most longingly at Captain Hogan, as 
he ladled out the punch, 

A poetical address was read by Dr. Lawrence Reynolds, 
of his own composition, giving a history of the career of 
the brigade. Dr. Lawrence, of the Sixty-third Regiment, 
was the poet laureate of the brigade. 

THE PRESIDENT VISITS THE ARMY. 

In the latter part of April the President visited and 
reviewed the army. The One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Battalion never looked better than on this occasion. The 
great review took place on the plains back of Spoftord 
Heights, and occupied two whole days. Corps after corps 
filed past, one hundred and twenty thousand men ; 
infantry, cavalry and artillery, composing as General 
Hooker, in "grandiose" style, named it, "the finest 
army on the planet". Every organization and every 
individual looked their best. But, although a joyous 
occasion, Mr. Lincoln wore that air of thoughtful sadness 
that every one recalls so well. While at Army Head- 
quarters in the morning, surrounded by Generals and 
brilliant company, he seemed cheerful and full of life and 
gayety, but, as hour after hour he rode along the line of 



84 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

troops, he appeared like a man overshadowed by some 
deep sorrow. No doubt he thought of the coming 
campaign, of the great battle in the near future, and of the 
many who would fall. On the second day of the review 
he seemed more overcome than usual, and his strong, 
rugged face bore visible traces of his inmost thoughts. 
During the afternoon he became unusually silent, and 
rode for an hour without exchanging a word with the 
brilliant stafT that galloped behind him. At one time his 
gait became very slow, and finally he reigned up his 
horse in front of a Pennsylvania regiment, and looking 
into the faces of the young soldiers who stood silently in 
line at a "present arm", he let fall the lines on the 
horse's neck, and reaching out his arms towards the 
ranks, exclaimed, " My God, men, if I could save this 
country by giving up my own life and saving yours, 
how gladly I would do it". As he spoke, the tears 
stole down his furrowed cheeks, and his great heart 
seemed bursting. Then he slowly passed on — but who 
can forget the scene? It was an episode called forth by 
the circumstances, the occasion and the man. 

Abraham Lincoln had a heart overflowing with kind- 
ness and love for all mankind. Xo human being was too 
lowly to be an object of his tender thought and solicitude. 
On one occasion a sorrowful woman waited all day in 
the ante-room at the White House, anxious to secure an 
inter^'iew with him. The crowd of visitors was so great 
that it was almost evening before her turn came, and 
when she was finally admitted into the reception room it 
was to find many still ahead of her. Shrinking and over- 
come with grief, she sat alone in a corner quietly sobbing. 
Mr. Lincoln, standing at his desk, received one after 
another, attending to the business of each and dismissing 




ARRAHAM LIN-COLN 



After Fredericksburg. 85 

them in succession, but every once in a while he would 
glance at the veiled figure sitting motionless in the corner. 
When the last visitor had departed he walked over to the 
poor soul and, holding out both his large hands, said : 
*' Now, my poor little woman, what can I do for you " ? 
The " poor little woman " had a son who was to be shot 
in the morning, for desertion. He had not meant to 
desert, but he was only a child and had gone home to see 
his mother. Well — he was not shot, but lived to prove 
himself a good soldier. The tears of the " poor little 
woman ", friendless and alone, were as potent, and had as 
much influence on the great heart of Lincoln as an appeal 
from the grandest potentate on earth. One can scarcely 
conceive how, after a long day full of business and 
anxiety, interviewed by a host of eminent men on all sorts 
of important and pressing business, the President could 
have a moment left to give to a poor widow, yet, she 
received as much, and even more, consideration, as the 
greatest man in his audience, giving his hand and heart 
to the sorrowing mother with all the gentle tenderness of 
a great and noble nature. It was the crowning act of a 
well spent day, and how few days of Lincoln's life were 
not rendered sweet and sacred by such deeds. No doubt 
these incidents softened the habitual sadness that seemed 
to o\'ershadow the life of the President. While ever full 
of sympathy and kindness for every one else, he never 
seemed to enjoy happiness himself except in the exercise 
of some good action. 

On one occasion a committee of ladies called to plead 
with him to send the thousands of wounded from the 
hospitals around Washington to their own States, so that 
they might be near their homes. " Do this, Mr. Lincoln", 
said one of the ladies, " and the good deed will make you 



86 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

happy ". He issued the order, but said quietly to himself : 
" I will never be happy again ". 

The sadness that seemed to overshadow Mr. Lincoln 
during the afternoon of the review continued to a great 
extent during the evening, and the brilliant company of 
ofhcers and ladies gathered at General Sickles's head- 
quarters was influenced in a great measure by the 
President's apparent sadness. A shadow seemed to rest 
on everyone, and while Mr. Lincoln made an effort to 
be cheerful his smile was full of pathos and his gayety 
evidently forced. As the evening progressed the situation 
became embarrassing. The gallant commander of the 
Third Corps, seeing that something must be done to 
relieve the situation and banish the gloom, thought of 
a plan that had an immediate and happy effect but 
threatened, for a time, most unpleasant consequences. 
Among the ladies present was the Princess Salm Salm, 
a dark-eyed, attractive little woman, the wife of the 
commander of the Eighth New York, a soldier of many 
wars, who was afterwards killed in the Franco-Prussian 
War of 1870. 

General Daniel E. Sickles, taking her aside, suggested 
that in order to put life in the company and chase away 
dull care she should get the ladies to form a surprise 
party and each one kiss the President. There were ten 
or twelve ladies present, wives of the corps and division 
commanders, and visitors who had come to see the 
review. The Princess at first shrank from the suggestion, 
but finally, in a spirit of mischief and humor, consented. 
After quietly persuading the others to enter into the 
scheme, she approached Mr. Lincoln who was standing 
by the fire, his tall form towering above everyone in the 
room, but how to reach up and kiss the lips so far above 



After Fredericksburg . 87 

« 

her was a momentous question. Not for long, however ; 
" Mr. Lincohi, let me whisper something," she said, and 
the tall form leaned over unsuspectingly to hear the secret, 
when a hearty kiss was delivered instead. The effect 
was electrical. The clouds passed away, and while the 
other ladies, amid much laughter and merriment, pushed 
forward to follow the example of the Princess, the whole 
company joined in the spirit of the thing. 

A most enjoyable evening followed, but there was one 
good lady who evidently did not appreciate the good- 
natured joke of General Sickles and the Princess. Mrs. 
Lincoln was extremely angry and made no effort to 
conceal her feelings in the matter and, as far as General 
Sickles was concerned, the situation became very strained 
when, on the following day, he received orders to escort 
President and Mrs. Lincoln back to Washington. Mrs. 
Lincoln was fully aware that the author of the mischievous 
proceedings of the preceding evening was the gallant 
General, and she took pains to manifest her displeasure. 
Mr. Lincoln tried by every means in his power to smooth 
the thing over, but without success. 

At dinner he was specially gracious and full of wit 
and jest, but nothing could remove for an instant the 
grim expression on Mrs. Lincoln's face. She never once 
recognized or spoke to the brilliant commander of the 
Third Corps. Finally the President turned to him and 
exclaimed : " Sickles, they tell me that you have become 
very religious of late". This statement took the General 
by surprise who, not knowing whether the President was 
serious or still joking, replied : " Well, I cannot say that 
I am more so than usual. I am naturally of a religious 
nature". "Why", retorted Mr, Lincoln, "I hear that you 
not only have Psalms at your headquarters, but, also 



88 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

Salm Salms !" This sally disarmed Mrs. Lincoln. She 
burst out laughing, the kissing episode was forgiven, 
and Mrs. Lincoln and General Sickles were friends until 
she died. 

As the spring approached, and the weather became 
better, picket duty on the river bank was not so trying, 
and in the balmy days of April and May became most 
desirable. It was picturesque and beautiful along the 
daisy and buttercup pied banks of the Rappahannock, 
and the fishing after dark was excellent. Then it was 
interesting to look over the river and speculate on what 
the enemy was doing ; for the men were in full view and 
their drills and reviews could be seen. 

Fredericksburg was always a point of deep interest. 
There was not a lady in our whole army, but many could 
be seen promenading the city streets and groups of children 
could be seen at play, recalling scenes at home. The 
music of the Confederate camps came softly floating over 
the still water, and crowds of citizens would gather on 
the opposite bank and on the city wharves, listening to 
the playing of the Union bands. On one sweet spring 
evening a band on the Union side of the river played 
" Hail Columbia", and was promptly answered from the 
Confederates with "Bonnie Blue Flag". Then for an 
hour the songs of the Union and the Confederacy followed 
each other in answering harmony. Finally the Union 
musicians began playing " Home, Sweet Home ". No 
derisive answer came to that tender chord, but the camps 
were quickly hushed, and on the calm of evening the air 
that touched every heart, both North and South, came 
echoing back from the Southern hills. It was a delightful 
episode, calling farth prayers and tears, and thoughts of 
dear and loved ones far away. One evening, during the 



After Fredcrickshirg. 89 

siege of Sebastopol, the band of an English regiment 
played the sad and tender air of "Annie Laurie". The 
sound was taken up by others, the men of the whole army 
joined, and the chorus rose and swelled as forty thousand 
sons of the British Isles, in the trenches, united their 
voices in the song, 

" And for bonnie Annie Laurie, 
I would lay me down and die." 

The effect must have been touching indeed, but only 
" Home, Sweet Home" could ever have joined the North 
and the South together in heart, song and sentiment just 
at this time. 

The Rappahannock's stately tide, aglow with sunset light. 
Came sweeping down between the hills that hemmed its 

gathering might. 
From one side rose the Spofford slopes, and on the other shore 
The Spottsylvania meadows lay with oak groves scattered o'er. 
Hushed were the sounds of busy day ; the brooding air was hushed, 
Save for the rapid-flowing stream that chanted as it rushed. 
O'er mead and gently sloping hills, on either side the stream, 
The white tents of the soldiers caught the sun's departing beam — 
On Spofford's Hills the Blue, on Spottsylvania's slopes the Gray : 
Between them, like a unsheathed sword, the glittering river lay. 
Hark ! Suddenly a Union band far down the stream sends forth 
The strains of " Hail Columbia ", the prean of the North. 
The tents are parted ; silent throngs of soldiers worn and grim. 
Stand forth upon the dusky slopes to hear the martial hymn. 

So clear and quiet was the night that to the farthest bound 

Of either camp was borne tlie swell of sweet, triumphant sound. 

And when the last note died away, from distant post to post 

A shout, like thunder of the tide, rolled through the Federal host. 

Then straightway from the other shore there rose an answering 

strain. 
" Bonnie Blue Flag " came floating down the slope and o'er 

the plain. 
And then the Boys in Gray sent back our cheer across the tide — 
A mighty shout that rent the air and echoed far and wide. 



90 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

" Star-spangled Banner ", we replied ; they answered, " Boys in 

Gray ' ' . 
While cheer on cheer rolled through the dusk, and faintly 

died away. 

Deeply the gloom had gathered round, and all the stars had come, 
When the Union band began to play the notes of " Home, Sweet 

Home". 
Slowly and softly breathed the chords, and utter silence fe-11 
Over the valley and the hills — on Blue and Gray as well. 
Now swelling and now sinking low, now tremulous, now strong, 
The leader's cornet played the air of the beautiful old song ; 
And, rich and mellow, horn and bass joined in the flowing chords, 
So voice-like that they scarcely lacked the charm of spoken words. 
Then what a cheer from both the hosts, with faces to the stars ! 
And tears were shed and prayers were said upon the field of Mars. 
The Southern band caught up the strain ; and we who could 

sing, sang. 
Oh, what a glorious hymn of home across the river rang ! 

We thought of loved ones far away, of scenes we'd left behind — 
The low-roofed farm-house 'neath the elm that murmured in 

the wind ; 
The children standing by the gate, the dear wife at the door, 
The dusty sunlight all aslant upon the old barn floor. 
Oh ! loud and long the cheer we raised, when silence fell again ; 
And died away among the hills the dear familiar strain. 
Then to our cots of straw we stole, and dreamed the livelong night 
Of far-off hamlets in the hills, peace-walled, and still, and white. 



Chanccllorsville. 91 

CHAPTER IV. 

CHANCELLORSVILLE. 

T^HE movement that culminated in the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville began on April 27th. 

On that day the Fifth, Eleventh and Twelfth Corps 
left the camps at Falmouth and began their march to 
Kelly's Ford, twenty-seven miles above Fredericksburg. 
The Irish Brigade broke camp also, on that same morning, 
and led the advance of Second Corps. Colonel Kelly 
with the Sixty-third and Eighty-eighth New York, halting 
at Bank's Ford, General Meagher with the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth Regiment, Sixty-ninth New York and 
Twenty-eighth Massachusetts, pushing on to United 
States Ford. 

There is a charm and a dreamy balminess in the 
spring atmosphere of Virginia, and on one of the sweetest 
of mornings imaginable, the Regiment left the old camp 
ground and moved for the ford, to cross the Rappahannock 
and strike the enemy once again. 

The path of the column lay through virgin forests, 
blossoming and beautiful, and the perfumed air of the 
woods seemed laden with hope and promise. Many of the 
wounded of Fredericksburg had returned to the ranks. 
The men had, in a measure, forgotten that mournful field. 
The change of commanders had a most salutary effect 
upon all, and the morale of the army was excellent. A 
new life had taken possession of that army which, 
though often defeated, was never dismayed, destroyed nor 
conquered. 

The dav was a beautiful one and the march, for some 



^2 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

reason, exceedingly slow, with many halts and frequent 
rests. The road was lonely. Not a strange face was seen 
during the day, but the men were glad to leave the camp 
where they had spent the long drear}' winter, and enjoyed 
the sunshine and fresh sweet odor of the deep woods 
through which they leisurely strolled. Towards evening 
the Regiment arrived at United States Ford. Looking 
over the river one could see the Confederate pickets on 
the further side, and the usual compliments, " Hello, 
Yank", "How are you, Reb?" were exchanged, but no 
firing took place. The boys across the stream seemed 
puzzled to know what the Union men were doing or why 
they had come, and as the picket line was in full sight of 
theirs, they talked together and wondered still more. 

The woods along the river abounded in game. Rabbits 
hopped around in hundreds. Coveys of partridge and quail 
rose and with a loud whirr, flew further into the brush. 
A deer or two crashed through the timber and went flying 
past. The temptation to shoot was great, but the orders 
*' not to fire" were imperative and not a shot was fired. 
Many of the men secured a good supper, however, by 
knocking down a stray rabbit with a stick. 

Darkness fell, leaving the men to wonder why they had 
been sent to this lonely spot. Morning came and found 
them no wiser, and the day of the twenty-eighth passed, 
and another night and morning, and still the mystery 
remained, but towards dusk, on the twenty-ninth, Hancock 
and the balance of the division came up, and it was 
learned that three of the corps had crossed the river 
twenty miles above and that they were then coming down 
the opposite bank of the stream. 

On the morning of the thirtieth, the pontoons were 
brought to the river's edge, the engineers began building 



^•-i*^a 




MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH HOOKER 



Chayicellorsville. 9-^ 

the bridge, the enem3''s pickets quickly withdrew without 
offering any resistance, and at 3.30 p. m. two divisions of 
the Second Corps began crossing. It was almost dark 
when the turn of the Regiment came and it crossed the 
river in the dusk. The enemy in retiring had left evidence 
of their hasty flight, the road for some distance being 
strewn with picks, spades and abandoned intrenching 
tools. 

After marching a short distance, the Irish Brigade 
turned sharply to the left, and was put into position to 
cover a road leading to Bank's Ford. The regimental line 
ran through a swamp that skirted the edge of a dark wood. 
The darkness became dense. The ankle-deep ooze made 
lying down impossible and standing up most inconvenient, 
so fallen trees as roosting places were in great demand, 
some sitting and trying to balance themselves on a ragged 
tree stump with feet drawn up to avoid the wet. Water- 
snakes crawled around in great numbers, frogs croaked, 
and hundreds of whip-poor-wills filled the trees and made 
the long night more dismal by their melancholy calling. 
The long hours passed without alarm, and when daylight 
came the snakes went back to their holes, the frogs ceased 
croaking and the whip-poor-wills became silent. Looking 
around the men saw, not ten yards away, a beautiful dry 
ridge where they could have spent the night in comfort, 
had they but known it. 

During Friday, May 1st, the Regiment, together with 
three others of the brigade, maintained the same position, 
facing Bank's Ford, and in line, with the right reaching 
towards the plank road that runs from Fredericksburg 
to Chancellorsville and the left reaching out towards 
the river. It was a peaceful day for the Regiment. Not 
an enemv was seen, but one could hear the crash of 



94 The Story of the ii6th Reginient. 

musketn' from time to time on the right and front, as the 
Union troops were pushing towards Fredericksburg. A 
long day it seemed, with ever\- ear Hstening anxiously for 
news that was so difficult to obtain. 

W^hen evening came it was learned that the army was 
falling back to take up a new line and fight a defensive 
battle. Next morning, Saturday, May 2d, the brigade was 
moved to the extreme right of that line, to a point called 
Scott's Mills, and placed there to occupy, and tr\^ to 
fill, the gap that reached from the right flank of the army 
to the river. 

The day was spent in listening to the roar of the 
musketr}-, which echoed and re-echoed through the dense 
woods, making sounds deafening and appalling, and in 
slashing timber to form revetements and abatis. The 
old buildings were loop-holed and turned into block- 
houses, and towards the end of the day the line was well 
prepared to give a cordial greeting to an enemy should 
he appear. 

From time to time, during the afternoon, rumors of a 
column of the enemy moving across the front of the 
Union line to strike the right were heard and all felt 
anxious and nervous. General Meagher came down to 
the right of the brigade, where the Regiment was 
stationed, addressed the men and begged them to make 
a good fight. 

The line of works had just been completed and, with 
a strong abatis in front, all felt confident of being able to 
hold it. But the flank of the One Hundred and Sixteenth 
was in the air, nothing between it and the river, and the 
situation was grave enough. A line of pickets was out 
in front and extending well to the right, but not enough 
men could be spared to carry it to the river. Just as 



Chanccllorsville. 95 

Meagher was speaking Sergeant Halpin ran in from the 
picket to report that the enemy's skirmishers were 
ach'ancing. A deer came crashing through the abatis, 
leaped the works and went bounding to the rear, but, 
before the men had time to recover from their astonishment 
at the unusual incident, a tremendous storm of musketry- 
broke out on the left. Stonewall Jackson's twenty-six 
thousand men had struck the right fiank of the Union 
Army. More minutes of suspense, terrific peals of 
musketry, the roar rising, swelling, filling the woods with 
sound and fury — every man in the ranks standing at 
" ready ". A soldier was halted as he tried to run to the 
rear. Another soon arrived, then five, ten, fifty. Hundreds 
of them came running back, frightened, demoralized. 
They were stopped in crowds by the men of the Regiment 
(a part of the Eleventh Corps had given away). They 
got tangled up in the abatis, every one of them panic- 
stricken, frantic, almost insane, their only desire to get to 
the rear. 

The Regiment, with the others of the brigade, stood 
calm and firm, stopping the fugitives in crowds. Meagher 
quickly changed direction of the left regiment of the 
brigade, so as to cover the main road, the better to check 
the disorderly flight. The darkness was gathering, the 
volleys of musketry coming nearer. The scene was one 
of awful confusion and dismay, and withal, no man in the 
line of the Regiment or brigade seemed to be even 
excited. As the sound of the firing came nearer, the 
fugitives were quickly gathered into squads, forced to the 
rear, and the front of the line was cleared for action. But 
the hour was growing late — darkness filled the forest. 
Another and final burst of musketry, a stream of whistling 
balls passed over, a random shell burst in the tree tops, 



96 The Stojy of the ii6th Regiment. 

the leaves and branches came showering down, " silence ", 
"and the day was done ". The picket line was rectified. 
Arms were stacked. The men lit little fires, cooked their 
coffee, and settled down to sleep as quietly as though at 
home in old Pennsylvania. Not a shot had been fired by 
the Regiment, but a day full of anxiety had been passed. 

At daybreak, on Sunday morning, May 3d, the battle 
was on again, and by five o'clock the continuous roar of 
artillery and volleys of musketry told that the fighting 
was fierce and deadly. The men cooked coffee, fried 
pork and enjoyed breakfast, calmly awaiting the next 
event. The presence of the Irish Brigade at Scott's 
Mills was no longer necessary, as the First Corps had 
extended the line of battle to the right and covered, in a 
manner, the vacant ground between the right flank of the 
army and the river. 

By ten o'clock it was learned that the Union Army was 
falling back to a new line of battle which the engineers 
had prepared during the night, and shortly afterwards an 
order came for the Irish Brigade to move out to the 
Chancellorsville House and join the balance of the division 
which was at that time beating back the Confederate 
divisions of McLaws and Anderson (then under the 
personal direction of General Lee). The brigade started 
for the front, passing along the road that ran from the 
United States Ford to the Chancellorsville House, with the 
Regiment on the left. As it passed along the evidence of 
the struggle soon became manifest. Streams of wounded 
men flowed to the rear. Men with torn faces, split heads, 
smashed arms, wounded men assisting their more badly 
hurt comrades, stretchers bearing to the rear men whose 
limbs were crushed and mangled, and others who had no 
limbs at all. Four soldiers carried on two muskets, which 



Chancellor sville. 97 

they held in form of a litter, the body of their Lieutenant- 
Colonel who had just been killed. The body hung over 
the muskets, the head and feet limp and dangling, the 
blood dripping from a ghastly wound — a terrible sight 
indeed. Wounded men lay all through the woods ; and 
here and there a dead man rested against a tree, where, in 
getting back, he had paused to rest and breathed his last. 
Shells screamed through the trees and, as the Regiment 
approached the front, the whir of the canister and 
shrapnel was heard and musket balls whistled past, but 
the men in the ranks passed on quietly and cheerfully, 
many of them exchanging repartee. During a moment's 
halt, with the shells falling and exploding around him, 
Sergeant Bernard McCahey looking back, waved his hand 
to the earth and air and in the most ludicrous manner 
exclaimed, " Good boi wurreld ". Another son of Erin said 
to his companion, "What are we going in here for, Jimmy?" 
"To be after making history, Barney, to be sure". 

The field officers were ordered to dismount and move 
up the road on foot. As the writer walked at the head of 
the command, Major John C. Lynch, of the Sixty-third 
New York, walked by his side, and he chatted cheerfully 
and was full of gayety and life. Approaching the 
Chancellorsville House the brigade went " on the right 
by file, into line", along the edge of the road with the 
left (the One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers) resting on the plateau in the middle of which 
the Chancellorsville House stands. As the writer passed 
to the left, he bade his friend, Major Lynch, " Good 
morning". A moment afterwards Lynch fell dead, a 
shell driving his sword through his body, killing him 
instantly, and the handsome, noble fellow who had walked 
up the road so full of life and happiness, lay b}^ the 



98 The Story of the Ii6ih Regiment. 

wayside, an unrecogiiizable mass of quivering flesh and 
bones. 

By the time the brigade had formed on the road all 
the army, except Hancock's division of the Second, and 
Gear\"s division of the Twelfth Corps, had gone to the 
rear to fonn on the new line. The men lay down along 
the edge of the wood and hugged the ground closely to 
avoid the shells. 

In order to gain time and hold the enemy in check 
until the new line was secure, General Couch sent the 
Fifth Maine Batter}- to take position to the right of the 
Chancellorsville House and to the left of the Regiment. 
The brave young commander of that battery, Captain 
Leppine, came dashing up the road, followed by his five 
guns. Quickly placing them in line among the 
blossoming apple trees of the orchard, he opened fire on 
the masses of the Confederates, then plainly visible in the 
woods on the other side of the plateau. To place a 
batter}- in such a position was a desperate thing to do. 
The plateau and orchard were racked b\- the fire of thirty 
guns, and hardly had Leppine fired his first shot, when 
they were all turned upon him. A scene of wild grandeur 
followed. The shells from the Confederate batteries 
seemed to fill the air, tearing up the ground, rending the 
men and horses limb from Hmb, blowing up the caisson, 
exploding and bursting everywhere. Young Leppine 
was soon carried to the rear, dying, with his thigh crushed 
and torn. Lieutenant Kirby was sent, by General Couch, 
to take his place, and he fell mortally wounded, among 
the guns, before he was with them a minute. Men were 
blown up with the caissons, and their torn and bleeding 
limbs fell with the apple blossoms. The orchard was a 
ver\- hell of fire. 




CAPTAIN GEORGE FREDERICK LEPPINE 
Commanding Fifth Maine Battery Killed at Chancellorsville. May 3d, 1863 



Chanccllorsville. 99 

An orderly rode past and his head was taken off by a 
shell, but the momentum carried the headless trunk fifty 
feet before he fell and the riderless horse galloped into 
the enemy's lines. 

Another passing orderly fell from his horse with his 
bowels protruding. Many of the Regiment were wounded.. 
DufTy, of Company A, was lying with a great piece of his 
skull crushed in. Another man lay beside him with his 
foot torn in a terrible manner. Dan Rodgers, a boy, 
had his shoulder-blade smashed ; but still the men kept 
wonderfully calm. Captain Nowlen sat in the road, 
humming a tune, filled his pipe, lit it with the burning 
fuse of a Confederate shell, and began smoking. Corporal 
Emsley, of the color guard, was passing jokes with Abe 
Detwiler, the color sergeant ; and one would suppose 
that the boys were listening to the church bells, on that 
sweet Sunday morning, instead of the rush and scream of 
the shells. Twenty minutes had passed since the battery 
went into action. Nearly all the guns had been silenced. 
Five of the six caissons had been blown up. The men 
who remained were lying among the pieces torn and 
bleeding. Smoke was seen issuing from the Chancellors- 
ville House and soon the building was in flames. It was 
filled with wounded, and the family were still in the house. 
Captain William P. Wilson, of Hancock's staff, and a few 
men of the Second Delaware rushed in and began 
dragging the wounded out and laying them under the 
trees, and succeeded in saving a large number. The 
large mansion was wrapped in flames and the ladies of 
the family rushed out onto the porch. Colonel James 
Dickenson, of Sickles's staff, gallantly ran forward and 
offered to escort them into the lines. They all accepted 
the proffered service, and, with a courteous bow, he gave 



100 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

each an arm and brought them to a place of safety. One 
old colored woman ran towards the Confederate position 
and succeeded in reaching the line, but was wounded as 
she ran. 

The scene was one of terror, dismay and desolation. 

Geary's division had gone and Hancock was with- 
drawing. Soon nothing was left near the Chancellorsville 
House except the Irish Brigade and the almost silenced 
battery. * One gun was still firing, however, and a 
gallant corporal and one man still clung to the piece and 
fired it when all others had gone. It was time for the 
last troops to fall back, and the order came to the 
Regiment to save the abandoned guns. One hundred of 
the men were quickly detailed to rush forward and surround 
the pieces and drag them to the rear, which was done 
in splendid style. When the guns were started down 
the road a few men of the One Hundred and Fortieth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers gallantly came forward to assist 
and help to take one of the guns to a place of safety. 
After seeing the wounded out of the burning house and 
safe Captain Wilson gallantly rushed to the rescue of the 
battery and never left until the last gun was saved. As a 
squad was tugging away at one of the guns, trying to get 
it started, a shell burst in their midst, killing Theodore 
Walker and George Rushworth, of Company D, wounding 
half a dozen others and knocking everyone over on their 
backs. The men jumped to their feet and rushed at it 
again, laughing at the mishap, and pulled it off. Then 
the whole command started down the road. Young 
Sergeant George Halpin, seeing one of the caissons still 



* The writer had the pleasure of afterwards securing a Congress medal of honor 
for Corporal Lebroke and the private of the battery who so nobly stood to their guns 
on this morning. 



Chancellorsville. 101 

Standing wished to take it off also, but the men were gone, 
and, as he could not haul it off alone, he concluded to 
destroy it ; so striking a match he lit a newspaper, threw 
it in, jumped back and the chest blew up. By some 
miracle, the brave boy remained uninjured himself. As 
the Regiment passed down the road with the guns, the 
Confederates advanced and took possession of Chancel- 
lorsville, the Regiment the last to leave that storm-swept 
ground. Passing out of the woods and into the open 
space near the Bullock House the Regiment was met by 
General Sickles, who, rising in his stirrups, called for 
three cheers " for the Regiment that saved the guns ", 
and the boys felt proud and happy. The five guns were 
turned over to the chief of artillery, and the command 
rejoined the brigade and went into position on the new 
line to the left of the road and facing Chancellorsville. 

The line of works held by the Union army, during the 
fourth and afternoon of the third, was remarkably strong 
and solid — log revetements sufficiently strong to resist shell 
with thick abatis in front.* When the Union army retired 
to that line the battle of Chancellorsville was practically 
ended. The only fighting for the next two days was a 
severe skirmish in front of the Twelfth Corps, in which 
Major-General Whipple was killed. 

But while there was no general engagement, there was 



*So well had the builders done their work that when, thirty years afterwards, 
the writer passed over the ground, he found the work still standing and in good 
enough condition to occupy and fight behind. Bits of knapsacks, leather straps, 
broken shells and the usual debris of the battle were still visible along the line, but 
the scene was changed, and profound peace reigned in the lonely woods. 

Where the men stood to deliver their fire from behind the works, the grass was 
growing fresh and green. Squirrels ran over the revetements and found quiet homes 
in the holes made by the shells. Wild honeysuckle knit together the withered 
branche.s of the abatis. Wild roses bloomed. The birds sang, and built their nests in 
the trees where sharpshooters had sat in the foliage watching for a shot, and when 
evening came, the whip-poor-will uttered, as of old, his complaining cry. 



102 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

plenty of firing. The Confederate sharpshooters occupied 
every coigne of advantage and were extremely vigilant. 
To show the head over the works was to court death and 
there were many narrow escapes during the two days, as 
well as numerous casualties. 

The night of the third was one to be long remembered, 
the enemy making continual demonstrations, the Union 
soldiers vigilant, awake and watchful. A lovely, cloudless 
night it was, with the planets quietly glittering in the 
azure above. General Meagher, in full uniform, walked 
up and down the brigade line. The men of the Regiment 
lay, musket in hand ; Sergeant Detwiler dozing, now and 
then, with the colors tightly grasped. The men were 
tired, sleepy and dazed for want of rest, which they could 
not get on account of the frequent alarms. 

Every time they slumbered the sharp crack of a 
parrot gun or a crash of musketry would awaken them 
with a start, so the majority of them lay awake, quietly 
chatting, some of the morrow, others of home. One 
group, lying on their backs looking up to the heavens, 
began talking about the stars. " Wonder if the people 
up there (in the stars) go to war". "Wonder if they 
have parrot guns". "Wonder if they allow foraging". 
" Wonder if the commissary gets up in time when the 
rations is out". " Wonder if they have sutlers and if their 
government allows them to charge three dollars a bottle 
for bad whiskey". And so the long night passed and 
another day came. A long, beautiful, spring day, with the 
sharpshooters vigilant. The afternoon brought with it a 
breeze, and as the wind was blowing towards the Union 
line, the enemy fired the woods with a view of annoying. 
The flames drifting towards the Union line were unpleasant 
enough, as they threatened the abatis. A flock of wild 



Chanccllorsville. 103 

pigeons circled around through the smolce. Towards 
evening, the men on the picket line succeeded in 
extinguishing the fire before it had done much injury to 
the works. 

The picket line in front ran througii a lovely bit of 
forest. The enemy's sharpshooters were exceedingly 
active, but Berdan's sharpshooters held the Union line 
and returned all compliments in the most vigorous 
manner. Many of them fell during the day and the 
ground at every post was stained with blood. Banks of 
violets bloomed and dead men lay in pleasant places where 
spring flowers perfumed the woodlands. Squirrels leaped 
affrighted, from bough to bough, wondering at the strange 
intrusion on their solitude, and birds flew screaming 
through the timber or circled around their nests in wild 
alarm. A shell would now and then go tearing through 
the trees, burst in the tops and send the branches and 
leaves showering down. Frequently a tree would be 
cut down entirely, causing the sharpshooters who were 
ensconced in the upper foliage to calculate the chances 
of having their line of communication cut and getting 
an abrupt fall as well. 

Evening came again, the sun went down, and another 
night was at hand. The rain began falling and by 
midnight was coming down in torrents and, when 
darkness gathered on the sad field, the noble army that 
had been beaten by the incompetency of its commander, 
commenced evacuating the works and falling back to 
cross the river. All night long, as the men stole away 
to the rear in the gloom, the wind tossed the tree-tops 
and sobbed through the dripping pines. The silence and 
darkness were intense. Ever and anon the stillness would 
be broken by the sound of musketry coming from the 



104 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

picket line, as the men fired random volleys to deceive 
the enemy and make them believe the Union troops were 
still there. All night long the tramp of the infantr\' and 
rumble of artiller}- sounded on the pontoons. 

No time to carr}- away the wounded or bury the dead, 
and they lay on the gory field with their white faces 
turned to the weeping sky. By day-break nearly all were 
gone, and the Regiment was among the \qx\ last to cross 
the swollen river. The pickets hastily fell back and 
double-quicked for the bridge. The enemy rushed to 
intercept and cut them off, but they got there first and 
crossed, and the pontoons were cut away. A Confederate 
battery arrived on the bank and fired a few shots as the 
last of the Union army disappeared over the bluff, and 
the Chancellorsville campaign was ended. 



{See page 328, Vol. XXV., Official Records of the War). 

REPORT OF MAJOR ST. CLAIR A. MULHOLLAXD, 

116TH Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

Chancellorsville, May 4th, 1S63. 

Sir : In accordance with orders just received, I have the honor to 
submit the following report in regard to certain guns that were taken 
off the field of action by the men of my command, on the morning of 
Sunday, May 3d, 1863. 

The Irish Brigade was engaged in supporting the Fifth Maine 
Battery, commanded by Captain Leppine, when the battery had been 
engaged with the enemy about one hour. All the officers and men 
belonging to it had either been killed or wounded, or had abandoned 
their pieces, with the exception of one man (Corporal James H. 
Lebroke), and all the guns were silenced except one. About this time 
Major Scott, of General Hancock's staff, rode up to me, and requested 
me to take a sufficient number of men to haul the abandoned guns off 
the field, as they were in great danger of being captured by the enemy. 
My regiment being at the time on the left of the brigade, and nearest 



Chancellorsville. 105 

the batterj', I at once led my men towards the abandoned battery and 
ordered them to haul the guns up the road. They obeyed with alacrity 
and removed three of the guns off the field and to the rear. After 
taking off the last piece I followed my men up the road and found 
another gun in possession of one of my lieutenants (L. J. Sacriste). 
This piece he had taken off without my knowledge, making in all, four 
guns saved by my command. The fifth piece taken to the rear was 
taken off the field by some men of the One Hundred and Fortieth 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was by them taken up the road about one 
hundred yards, where they were forced to halt, not having enough men 
to move the piece further. I at once sent some of my men to assist 
them and the guns were brought off successfully. I found it necessary, 
in removing the guns, to order the men to leave their muskets, as they 
could not work with them in their hands. Seventy-three of them did 
so. When the last gun was brought ol? I went back to the left to 
ascertain whether any more remained. I found eight or ten of my men 
coming up the road and ordered them back to gather up as many 
muskets as they could carry. I do not think that they succeeded in 
saving any. I was greatly aided in bringing oft" the guns by Lieutenant 
Wilson, of General Hancock's staft", who acted with great bravery and 
personally assisted in bringing oft" the pieces. 

St. Cl.\ir a. Mulholland, 
Major, Commanding ri6th Penna. Volunteers. 
To M. W. Wall, 

A. A. A. General. 



{Seepage 327, Vol. XXV., Official Records of the War). 

REPORT OF LIEUTENANT EDWARD WHITEFORD, 
Aide-de-Camp. 

Chancellorsville, \'a., May 3d, 1863. 

Captain : In accordance with orders from General Meagher, I have 
the honor to report as follows : 

During the heat of the action, personal orders were received from 
General Couch to advance the Brigade (then supporting the Fifth 
Maine Batter}) through the woods in their front, but were immediately 
countermanded by him, and skirmishers ordered to be thrown out. 

On returning, I found that the fire which the enemy had concentrated 
on the above battery compelled the men to desert the guns, the horses at 
the time being all killed or wounded. On reporting the fact to General 



106 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Meagher, I was ordered by him to tell Major Mulholland, of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, to save the 
guns with his men at any risk, and too much praise cannot be bestowed 
upon him for his cool braver)- and that of the men under his command, 
having to take them (the. guns i out of stiff yellow clay, where the guns 
were stuck, and under a galling fire of the enemy, by which many of his 
men were killed or wounded ; but he succeeded, most fortunately, in 
obeying orders, and drawing the guns, five in number, to within one mile 
of the pontoon bridge, where limbers were sent up, from the chief of 
artillery, to draw them to the rear. 
I have the honor to be, captain, 

Most respectfully, 

E. Whiteford, 
To Captain M. \V. Wall, Aide-de-Camp. 

A. A. Adjutant General. 



LETTER FROM CORPORAL J. H. LEBROKE, FIFTH >LA.IXE 
BATTERY. 

Camp Xear White Oak Church, Va., May 27th, 1S63. 

To the Editor of the Press : 

Who brought off the guns of the Fifth Maine Battery ? 

As this question has caused much discussion, I thought I would 
let the friends of the battery know through the columns of your paper 
to whom the honor is due. It has been stated that Lieutenant Whittier 
desen.es great credit for bringing off the guns after the horses were 
killed. Lieutenant Whittier did not bring off the guns, neither was he 
there at the time. After the battery had ceased firing, one of the 
gunners went to General Hancock for a detail to haul off the giuis. 
He sent a detail from the Irish Brigade under the command of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Mulholland and Lieutenant Wilson, of Hancock's 
staff. The guns were hauled three miles by hand and the same brave 
men who exposed themselves to a severe fire of shot and shell from the 
rebel batteries, to save our guns, lost their own muskets, for the enemy 
held the ground immediately after. 

Truly yours, 

J. H. Lebroke, 
Corporal, Fifth Maine Batten.-. 




CHANCELLORSVILLE 

When the Battery was saved " 



Chancellorsville. 107 



HEADQUARTERS FIRST DIVISION, SECOND CORPS. 

Near Falmouth, Va., May loth, 1863. 
Major : The Major-General commanding the division directs me 
to express to you his gratification at the manner in which you performed 
your duties as " Field Officer of the Day " for the division from May 3d 
to 6th. 

The General was especially pleased with your action in reference 
to extinguishing the fire in front of the picket line. He had ordered 
the fire to be put out several times, but the order was not carried into 
effect until you were placed in command of the pickets. I am, sir. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

W. G. Mitchell, 

A. D. C. and A. A. A. G. 
To Major St. Clair A. Mulholland, 

ii6th Regiment, Penna. Volunteers. 



HEADQUARTERS IRISH BRIGADE. 

Near Falmouth, Va., May loth, 1863. 
Major : The Brigadier-General (Meagher) commanding, directs me 
to add his own expressions of gratification to that of General Hancock, 
in his letter of commendation to you for your conduct at the Battle of 
Chancellorsville. I have the honor to remain. 

Your obedient servant, 

M. W. Wall, 
To Major St. Clair A. Mulholland, A. A. A. G. 

ii6th Regiment, Penna. Volunteers. 



108 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

CHAPTER V. 

CHANCELLORSVILLE TO GETTYSBURG. 

A TIRED, hungry, sleepy and altogether weary set of 
men it was who, after passing over the pontoons, 
climbed up the steep, wet and slippery clay bank of the 
Rappahannock and took their way back to the old camp 
near Falmouth. Thirty-one of those who had crossed 
with the Regiment but a few days before had been left 
on the other side, dead or wounded, but those who were 
slowly dragging their aching limbs along were too much 
depressed to talk of the missing ones. 

Theo. Walker, of Company D, was among the dead. 
He was a man of remarkable attainments, educated and 
intelligent, with a wonderful flow of language. In any 
other army he would have been (as a private soldier) a 
phenomenon, but in any army that numbered thousands 
of college graduates in the ranks, he was only one of the 
many. He was a man who would be missed, however, 
around the camp fires of the future. Half way back to 
camp loads of hardtack were piled on the wayside to 
supply the returning troops. It was a welcome sight, for 
the boys were badly in need of rations, and the crackers, 
though soaked with rain, were eaten with relish. Then 
in the afternoon, in the old winter camp that the men 
never expected to see again — too tired to put up the 
tents — and it rained so hard ! Everything was damp and 
wet. Nothing to do but cut logs and start the camp fires 
and rest in the mud. To-morrow they would clean up 
once more, get the shelter tents stretched over the log 
huts and begin housekeeping all over. 



Chancellorsvillc to Getfysburq;. 109 

When falling back froni the field the men were excited 
to sympathy at the sight of a large and beautiful setter 
dog crouching beside a dead officer. No inducement 
they could ofier would cause the noble brute to leave his 
friend, and he was left to become a prisoner of war when 
the enemy advanced. The dog was one of a number 
that shared the fate of the troops. 

Captain Byron, Eighty-eighth New York, had a little 
slut, named Fan, who went into every battle with her 
master. She realized the danger and would run behind 
the works the moment the firing began, and when a lull 
would follow she would run through the regiment as 
though trying to find out whether any of her friends were 
killed or wounded. She seemed to be endowed with an 
unusual amount of reason and never failed to seek shelter 
on the side of the log, tree, or field works furthest away 
from the enemy, and she never made a mistake as to 
which was the right side. During a breathing spell at 
Chancellorsville she was outside of the line hunting for 
rabbits among the abatis. At the whistle of the very 
first rifle ball indicating an attack she leaped the breast- 
high works and hugged close to the revetement. The 
instant the fight was over. Fan was out again, running 
among the men, seeming overjoyed to find some of them 
alive and well, but when she found one man, to whom 
she was much attached, mortally wounded, she threw 
herself on him, whining and crying, while the dying man 
feebly reached his hand and patted her head. 

Shortly after the battle General D. N. C(^uch left the 
Second Corps. He was an officer beloved by all. He 
asked to be relieved and transferred to other scenes of 
usefulness because he had lost all confidence in the com- 
mander of the Armv of the Potomac. He was a man of 



110 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

loyalty, courage and honor, and it was a pity that he did 
not remain a few weeks longer, when a man after his own 
heart would be in command. 

On the retirement of General Couch, General Winfield 
S. Hancock was assigned to the Second Corps as 
permanent commander, and General John C. Caldwell 
assumed command of the First Division. 

Captain George Frederick Leppine, who was killed 
while in command of the battery that was saved by the 
Regiment, was a brilliant young artillery officer. He was 
educated at a military school in Germany. He was born 
in Philadelphia, his father being German Consul in that 
city for some years. Captain Leppine, failing to get a 
command from his native State, took the Fifth Maine 
Batter}' to the front. 

A very high compliment was paid to the Regiment by 
General Caldwell, the Division Commander, by the detail 
of Company B, entire, to division headquarters to act as 
Provost Guard, with Lieutenant William M. Hobart as 
Provost Marshal, and Lieutenants Henr}^ D. Price and 
William H. Tyrrell as officers of the guard. As it was 
customary to select only the most reliable and choice 
troops for this important service, nothing could so strongly 
testify to the efficiency and splendid condition of the 
Regiment at this time than this detail. 

The weeks of May passed swiftly. Drills, reviews and 
inspections without number. The battalion at this time 
became disciplined and drilled to perfection. The bayonet 
exercise and skirmishing were much indulged in, and 
many of the men became wonderfully proficient in the 
former. From reveille to taps there was not an idle 
moment in camp, and the picket line along the quiet and 
beautiful river was the place now most desired. Picket 




MAJOR-GENERAL D. N. COUCH 

Commanded Second Corps from October 9th. 1862, to June loth, 18 



Chayicellorsville to Gettysburg. HI 

duty was very different during the sunny days of balmy 
May from the i)leak days of the winter when the men 
were compelled to stand in the cold for hours and days at 
a time without being- allowed to build fires. How the 
bleak winds whistled o\'er the frozen stream those wintry 
days ! How chilled, cold and famished the men on picket 
then, and how comfortable the huts in camp. But in 
May, by the flowing river whose banks were pied with 
daisies and yellow buttercups, the picket line was the 
place most desired. The two hours of calm watching by 
the moving stream, and the alternate four hours of 
absolute rest in the reserve was far more agreeable duty 
than was to be found in the active camp, where drill, 
guard mount, review and inspection followed each other 
so incessantly. 

May 19th, General Meagher having resigned from the 
army, took leave of the brigade. The brigade being 
fqrmed, Meagher spoke for ten or fifteen minutes with 
more than usual fervor and eloquence. Then, passing 
down the whole line in dead silence, he shook the officers 
and many of the men by the hand. The scene was most 
affecting and many were weeping. The members of the 
Regiment, not having known him so long as the others 
were, of course, less moved than those of the other 
regiments of his command, but nevertheless they had 
learned to admire him, and they had followed him in two 
hard battles. Standing there in the twilight with bared 
head and the tears streaming down his handsome face he 
said the last farewell : — 

" Officers and soldiers," said he, 
" My Countrymen and Comrades in Arms : 

A positive conviction of what I owed to your reputation, 
to the honor of our race, and to mv own conscience, 



112 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

compelled me a few days ago to tender to the President 
of the United States my resignation of this command. I 
shall not recapitulate the reasons which induced and 
justified me to do so. It would be superfluous. There is 
not a man in this command who is not fully aware of the 
reasons which compelled me to resign, and there is not a 
man who does not thoroughly appreciate and approve it. 
Suffice it to say that, the Irish Brigade no longer existing, 
I felt that it would be perpetuating a great deception were 
I to retain the authority and rank of a brigadier-general 
nominally commanding the same, which was no more ; 
I therefore conscientiously, though most reluctanth^ 
resigned my commission. That resignation has been 
accepted, and as your late general I now bid you an 
affectionate farewell. I cannot do so, however, without 
leaving on record the assurance of the happiness, the 
gratitude and pride with which I revert to the first days 
of the Irish Brigade, when it struggled in its infancy and 
was sustained alone by its native strength and instincts ; 
and retrace from the field, where it first displayed its 
brilliant gallantr}^ all the efforts, all the hardships, all the 
privations, all the sacrifices which have made its history — 
brief though it be — sacred and inestimable. Sharing with 
the humblest soldier freely and heartily all the hardships 
and dangers of the battle-field — never having ordered an 
advance that I did not take the lead myself — I thank God 
that I have been spared to do justice to those whose heroism 
deserves from me a grateful commemoration ; and that I 
have been preserv^ed to bring comfort to those who have 
lost fathers, husbands and brothers in the soldiers who have 
fallen for a noble government, under the green flag. My 
life has been a varied one, and I have passed through many 
distracting scenes. But never has the river that flowed 



Chancellorsville to Gettysburg. 113 

beside my cradle, never have the mountains that over- 
looked the paths "of my childhood, never have the old 
walls that claimed the curiosity and research of maturer 
days, been effaced from my memory, As at first — as in 
nature — the beautiful and glorious picture is indelible. 
Not less vivid, not less uneffaceable, will be the recollection 
of my companionship with the Irish Brigade in the service 
of the United States. The graves of many hundreds of 
brave and devoted soldiers, who went down to death with 
all the radiance and enthusiasm of the noblest chivalry, 
are so many guarantees and pledges that, as long as there 
remains one officer or soldier of the Irish Brigade, so long 
shall be found for him, for his family and little ones, if any 
there be, a devoted friend in Thomas Francis Meagher." 

The men felt sad enough and sat around the fires that 
night quiet and subdued. The officers of the Regiment 
assembled and all signed the following address which was 
presented to General Meagher before he left next morning: 

HEADQUARTERS 116th PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS. 
Irish Brigade, Hancock's Division, 

Second Army Corps, May iSth, 1863. 

At a meeting of the commissioned officers of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Major St. Clair A. Mulholland was 
called to the chair, and First Lieutenant Louis J. Sacriste was appointed 
secretary. The following preamble and resolutions were proposed and 
unanimously adopted : 

"Whereas, By the acceptance of the resignation of our beloved 
General, Thomas Francis Meagher, we have been deprived of one who 
was always solicitous for our comfort and welfare ; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That by the resignation of Brigadier-General Meagher 
this brigade, and especially this regiment, experiences an irreparable 
loss — one which is felt alike by officers and men ; we have been deprived 
of a leader whom we all would have followed to death, if necessary — 
a leader whose name was sufficient to strike terror into the hearts of his 
foes, and excite admiration in the hearts of his co-patriots in arms. 

Resolved, That in the discharge of his official duties he exhibited 



114 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

alike those qualities which only a true soldier can possess — when on 
duty a strict disciplinarian, and when off duty an affable, agreeable and 
kind companion. 

Resolved, That as a soldier he was foremost in the battle, offering 
his life as a sacrifice for the cause of liberty and the Constitution of his 
adopted country— which country has lost by his resignation one of its 
most patriotic generals, one of its most daring soldiers, and the army one 
of its brightest ornaments. 

Resolved, That in his retirement to civil life he carries with him 
our most sincere wishes for his future welfare, and we earnestly hope 
that his future life may be as successful as his past career has been 
brilliant and honorable." 

Henceforth, the Irish Brigade was to be led by a new 
commander, the amiable, noble Patrick Kelly, Colonel of 
the Eighty-eighth New York Volunteers, who was 
destined, like Elias of old, to ascend to heaven in a 
chariot of fire. The brilliant Meagher was gone but his 
mantle had fallen on one who was most worthy to wear 
it. June 10th General Couch left the corps and Hancock, 
who had called the Irish Brigade his "right arm", 
assumed command, and on June 14th the second corps 
moved back from the river and began the long march 
that preceded the battle of Gettysburg. 

ITINERARY OF THE MARCH TO GETTYSBURG. 

The march of the first day was via Stafford Court 
House, which was in flames as the column passed. On 
to Acquia Creek where the halt for the night was made. 
On the 16th marched through Dumfries to Wolf Run 
Shoals on the Occoquan River — and camped. The 
march, like that of the preceding day, was one of the 
greatest fatigue, the heat most oppressive. The dust 
rising in clouds stifled the men. Water was not to be 
had. Hundreds of men fell by the way to be picked up 
by the ambulances, which were soon filled with very sick, 



Itinerary of the March to Getty sbtirg. 115 

and in many cases dyinp;-, men. The Regiment again 
proved the superiority of the city men over those who 
had come from the farm. Very few of the men of the 
Regiment were missing at roll-call when the two dreadful 
days were ended, and no sooner was coffee cooked than 
almost every man in the command was swimming about 
in the stream. The pleasure of the bath was much 
lessened by the enormous quantities of water snakes that 
infested the vicinity. After dark a group of officers were 
enjoying the welcome swim, their clothes piled on the 
shore, when some one cried out that he felt something 
moving around his feet. A match was lit and a sight 
met the bathers' eyes that horrified and amazed them. 
The whole strand was a mass of writhing, squirming 
serpents ! Snakes of all sizes, short and long, thick and 
lean, in groups and tied in knots. Snakes single and by 
the dozen. Snakes by the hundred, countless and innu- 
merable. What a scramble for clothes before the match 
went out ! What an embarrassing predicament when it 
did ! Dark as pitch, and a fellow's garments all tangled 
up with knots and rolls of serpents. How every one got 
back to camp with enough clothes to cover their naked- 
ness is a mystery. No doubt, some of the Regiment 
literally shook snakes out of their boots, and by the light 
of the fire-flies looked for others in their blankets. 

On the 17th, went into camp near Fairfax Station, on 
the Orange and Alexander R. R., and from here all 
surplus baggage was sent to Alexander. Happy was the 
man who after that day had a piece of soap and a fine- 
tooth comb — especially the latter. 

June 19th, marched to Centerville, and bivouacked 
inside the fortifications of Washington. Rained heavily. 

On June 20th left Centerville, marching through the 



116 The Story of the iiSth Regi7nent. 

village with flying colors. Moved via the Bull Run Pike, 
crossing Broad Run by wading. Passed over the left 
portion of Bull Run battlefield. Here the troops rested 
an hour, with the rain falling steadily. The bodies, or 
rather the skeletons, of the dead of the battle were exposed 
and the men were evidently affected and depressed at the 
sight. Then, on again to Gainsville. Next to Haymarket. 
Still no halt or rest. Through slush, mud and rain, 
pushing on in the dark to Thoroughfare Gap, reaching 
the latter place at midnight, with the Regiment resting in 
a swamp until daylight next morning. About six o'clock 
of this day's march. Captain Teed thinking that he would 
soon come to a halt, picked up a couple of nice sticks on 
which he intended to erect his shelter tent. An hour 
passed and no halt was called. Another hour and still 
another, and the tramp, tramp, tramp continued. Mile 
after mile was passed and still no camping for the night. 
The sticks became heavy but Teed was not going to be 
fooled by casting them away. He just knew that the 
column would halt right over that hill or when w^e would 
reach the valley then in view. But the hill was passed 
and the valley left behind and still onward went the 
column — the sticks were becoming so \'er\% \ ery heavy. 
Ten o'clock, eleven o'clock, and no rest. Half past 
eleven ! — " Well, no use talking, gentlemen, we are going 
to march all night !" and away went the sticks after 
being carried for some fifteen miles. Half an hour 
afterwards the halt was called, but Teed's sticks were a 
mile away and he slept like the others — in the mud and 
without his shelter tent. 

Rested two happy, sunshiny days at Thoroughfare 
Gap and enjoyed the pure air and magnificent scener}^ 
Withdrew from the position on the morning of June 23d 



Ithierary of the March to Gettysburg. 117 

and, leaving- the mountains suffused with the golden light 
of sunrise, moved to Haymarket, where Stuart's Con- 
federate Cavalry were encountered. Stuart put a battery 
in position and shelled the corps for a short time, killing 
and wounding half a dozen, but quickly disappeared when 
he saw the lines forming for a fight. Then on to Gum 
Springs, where bivouac was formed in a drenching rain. 
June '24th, marched at six a. m., and moved to Edward's 
Ferry and crossed the Potomac near the scene of the 
Ball's Bluff disaster. Moved four miles into Maryland, 
and bivouacked. June 2oth, resumed the march, via 
Poolsville to Barnesville. One mile beyond that town 
halted for the night. June 2(ith marched at ten a. m. 
Reached Sugar Loaf Mountain at noon. At Sugar Loaf 
Mountain the three armies of the service met, cavalry, 
artillery and infantry coming seemingly from three 
different directions. The whole army began singing and 
shouting the " Battle Cry of Freedom ", which resounded 
and filled the valley with music and was echoed from 
every mountain side — a grand tableau of war never to 
be forgotten. Shortly after noon reached the village of 
Urbana and found the people loyal and the Union flag 
flying from the houses, a cordial welcome and cheers for 
the Union Army. At night camped on the south bank 
of the Monocacy, two miles from Frederick City. Two 
days' of delightful rest with fresh bread and many city 
luxuries from the stores of Frederick. Candy was in 
great demand, and a bronzed ^'eteran with a stick of 
candy in one hand and a doughnut in the other was not 
an unusual sight. The farmers flocked into camp with 
produce, and a grateful sense of gratified hunger prevailed 
in the ranks. In the evening songs were heard from 
all the camps, and fires blazed all over the country. 



118 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Everyone's spirits rose and one of the happiest nights of 
the march passed away. While in camp here General 
Hooker was relieved from command of the army and 
General George G. Meade replaced him. The news came 
on Sunday morning when listening to the very unusual 
sound of the church bells coming over the fields from 
Frederick town. 

June 29th, left camp and crossed to the north bank of 
the Monocacy. Marched around the south-east side of 
Frederick City, by way of Mount Pleasant, passed through 
Liberty, Johnstown, Union Bridge and several other little 
villages. Forded innumerable streams during the day, and 
at ten o'clock at night halted at Uniontown after making 
the longest march that the Regiment was ever called upon 
to perform. The road was thirty-three miles long, but 
counting several halts for rest, when the troops filed into 
the fields and were massed, etc., each man could not have 
marched less than thirty-four miles. The roads were 
better than those of Virginia, but the day was warm and, 
of course, the fatigue extreme. The march was made in 
exactly twelve hours, an average of nearly three miles an 
hour. The fact of getting into Pennsylvania during the 
day seemed to have a wonderful effect upon the spirits of 
all the men of the Regiment, and frequent inquiries were 
made during the day for the State line from the farmers 
who lined the fences by the way and gazed in wonder at 
the passing column. " Where does this road run to ?" asked 
one of the men. " Oh", replied^ the intelligent citizen, 
" it runs right straight on ! " 

June 30th, Hancock thanked the troops of the corps for 
the long march of the day before, and the Regiment was 
mustered for pay. 

July 1st, marched at eight a. m., via Taneytown, and 
bivouacked within three miles of Gettysburg. 



Get/ysburo—Thc Batle of the Century. 119 



CHAPTER VI. 

GETTYSBURG— THE BATTLE OF THE CENTURY. 

TN a valley full of peace, calm, comfort and content, 
^ overlooked by ranges of high hills — blue, purple and 
exceedingly lovely — lies the old town of Gettysburg and 
the twenty-five square miles of territory over which the 
armies of the North and South struggled and fought during 
those three terrible days of July, 1SG3. No more beautiful 
countr}' than this can be found in the State of Pennsylvania. 
No matter what part of the field one visits, scenes of 
loveliness open in vistas on every side. The tongue of 
wood of McPherson's farm, where Reynolds fell, is a fine 
bit of American forest ; and Willoughby Run, which 
meanders close by, and whose placid waters were 
crimsoned by the blood of brave men, is a sweet and 
charming stream where the lilies grow in shady places, 
and the birds come in spring time to build their nests 
along its banks. Then from Cemetery Hill, where the 
Union men made such a gallant stand against the 
" Louisiana Tigers ", there is a splendid view as one -looks 
over the town and across the fields to the Lutheran 
Seminary. Gulp's Hill, too, is full of sweet spots ; and 
through the dark forest, where the six hours' fighting took 
place on the morning of the third day, one can find much 
to admire, and many a grand old tree riddled by bullets 
and torn with shot and shell — forcible reminders of the 
awful morning of July 3d. 

And what more picturesque than the wild and rugged 
scenery of the " Devil's Den?" Or where can one go to 



120 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

look for a grander or more sublime scene than that from 
the summit of " Little Round Top" where Vincent's men 
made their gallant fight. Gettysburg is certainly a 
magnificent spot, full of natural beauties ; and of the many 
battlefields of the war none more suitable could have been 
selected upon which to erect the monuments that are 
intended to commemorate the heroism and valor of our 
troops. The field is fast becoming the National Mecca, 
and year after year the number of visitors to the ground 
increases, until tens of thousands of Americans annually 
make a pilgrimage to the holy ground and worship at the 
shrine where so many noble men laid down their lives in 
defence of the State and cause. England has her 
Westminster, France her St. Denis, Italy her Pantheon 
and Germany her Walle-Halle. Every nation of the old 
Continent has some place dedicated to their noble and 
illustrious dead. This country has not, as yet, reached 
that mature age when one can visit some hallowed spot 
set apart for the last resting place for the good and 
eminent men. In the State of Pennsylvania, the ground 
of Gettysburg is, however, of much greater interest and 
much dearer to the American people than any of the 
celebrated sanctuaries of Europe. 

Glorious Gettysburg ! where five thousand of the 
bravest and best of the soldier-citizens sleep in honored 
graves on the field their valor won, is the National 
Sanctuary, the Pantheon, the Westminster of the Republic. 

No kings, princes or potentates lie there, but five 
thousand gallant men, greater than kings, more splendid 
in their deeds and in their death than any of the princes 
or great ones who slumber within the fretted walls of 
Europe's grand old cathedrals — fathers, brothers and 
kinsmen, men who came from eighteen states to shed 



Gettysburg — The Battle of the Century. 



121 



their blood on Pennsylvania's soil in defence of the Union 
and human liberty. No wonder, then, that year by year 
thousands of Americans visit the field, linger on the long 
line of battle, dwell on the memories of the fight and 
meditate upon the heroism displayed in the batde. 

From McPherson's woods and Willoughby Run to 
Cemetery Hill, Round Top, Gulp's Hill and Rummel's 
farm, the immense caravan of pilgrims yearly wanders 
over the bloody field, drawing inspirations from the green 
graves of those true heroes whose great souls went out 
in the flame of battle in the days when the national 
existence was hanging in the balance. 

Gettysburg ! What visions of those three summer 
days of July, 1863, the magic word recalls. Although 
nearly half a century has rolled away since the last shot 
was fired on the field, yet to the veteran it seems but 
yesterday. To him the smoke of the guns still lingers in 
the valleys — the sound of the conflict, the roar of the 
artillery still echoes and reverberates among the verdure- 
clad hills. Gettysburg! the nadonal battlefield of the 
war where gallant men from twenty-eight of the thirty- 
two states that then composed the Federal Union met in 
deadly conflict to decide by force of arms the future of the 
Republic, the only great battle of the war fought on 
the free soil of a Northern state. Fortunate indeed was the 
son of Pennsylvania who was present in that stupendous 
fight ; and by a special Providence it would seem as 
though the batde fought on the soil should be, in a 
very great measure, by sons of the Keystone ^tate. The 
eminent soldier who commanded the army, General 
George Gordon Meade, was a son of the State ; General 
John Fulton Reynolds, the first great soldier to crimson 
the ground with his blood and give up his life in its 



122 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

defence, was a Pennsylvanian, and General Winfield Scott 
Hancock, "Hancock the Superb", he who galloped to 
the front at the first sound of strife, and who, from that 
hour until, in the moment of victory, he fell, crushed 
and bleeding, on the line of the Second Corps, did so 
much to win the fight, was a native of the grand old 
Commonwealth. The first regiment to fire a shot was the 
Fifty-sixth Pennsylvania Infantry. The first brigade to 
especially distinguish itself was Roy Stone's, all Penn- 
sylvanians. 

When the second day's fight opened at the peach 
orchard almost the first troops to meet the advancing 
host of Longstreet were the men of Graham's Brigade, 
nearly all Pennsylvanians. Later, on that same 
afternoon, when Hood's Texans climbed the slopes of 
Little Round Top, they were met by the Eighty-third 
Pennsylvanians, and the splendid soldier who fell there, 
General Strong Vincent, fell on his native heath. Still 
later on that same day, when the terrific fighting was 
waging over the wheat field and "Valley of Death", 
McCandless, with the Pennsylvania Reserves, swept over 
the bloody ground and made one of the most successful 
charges of the afternoon. And when the day was far 
spent and darkness settled over the field, one of the most 
brilliant feats of the whole battle was the splendid fight of 
the heroic Ricketts and his Pennsylvania Battery, when, 
with iron hand, he held the crest of Cemetery Hill against 
the rush of the " Louisiana Tigers". 

The morning of the third day was ushered in by the 
charge of the White Star Division, commanded by 
another son of the State, General John W. Geary ; and in 
the cavalry fight at Rummel's farm, the greatest cavalry 
fight of the century, the Union forces were commanded 




MAJOR-GENERAL GEORGE G. MEADE 



Getiysbiirg — The Daltle of the Century. 



123 



by another, General D. McM. Gregg. In the last scene 
of all, when Pickett crashed on the left centre with his 
eighteen thousand men, Pennsylvania was everywhere 
on the line to meet him ; and the Philadelphia Brigade 
stood at the most important point on the field and 
gathered in the greenest laurels of the day. And the 
men of the One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment have 
good reason to rejoice that their regiment had the 
happiness of participating in this, the most important 
battle of the century, and performing an honorable and 
distinguished part therein. The One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment arrived near the field late on the 
evening of July 1st, and early on the morning of the 2d 
moved on to the line of Cemetery Ridge, to the left of 
the " Umbrella Trees". The division was massed in 
brigade columns and the men enjoyed a grateful rest. 
Arms were stacked a*nd the colors lay folded on the 
upturned bayonets. Every movement of the enemy was 
watched with interest, and the hours seemed long on that 
bright summer day. The pickets were more or less 
engaged all the morning — sometimes stray shots, then 
again volleys, now a ratding fire all along the front, and 
smoke would be seen here and there in the distant 
foliage. The men quietly looked on and when the Third 
Corps advanced on the peach orchard and became 
engaged, they were deeply interested and full of admira- 
tion at the splendid spectacle, and when they saw, in the 
distance, the Union troops recoil, and received the order 
to go to their assistance, it was a pleasure to do so. 
Quickly moving off, by the left flank, towards Little 
Round Top, the division, commanded by General John 
C. Caldwell, marched as it had stood, in brigade columns 
of regiments, closed en masse ; and as it marched the 



124 The Story of the ii6th Regime?it. 

enemy's batteries, out by the peach orchard, opened fire 
upon the column, but without doing much damage. The 
solid shot, falling on the soft soil of a newly ploughed 
field, threw the earth in showers over the men. While 
passing the Trossell House, a woman on horseback and 
in uniform galloped back from the line of battle, asked 
for some information, and quickly returned to the front 
again. She was a nurse of the Third Corps, Anna 
Etheridge, and was directing the removal of the wounded. 
She was cool and self-possessed and did not seem to 
mind the fire. 

As the column moved towards the left, Zook's Brigade 
was in the rear, and as that command was passing the Rose 
farm, Colonel H. E. Tremaine, of General Sickles's staff, 
rode up to the general and requested him to halt and 
advance against the enemy who were breaking through 
the Union lines at that point. Zook at first refused to do 
so, as he had no authority from the division commander, 
General Caldwell, who was then far in advance at the 
head of the column, but Colonel Tremaine insisted and 
gave Zook a peremptory order in the name of General 
Sickles. The gallant Zook hesitated no longer but, leaving 
the division column, quickly formed line, dashed into 
the woods, met the enemy and began fighting, while the 
other three brigades of the division continued marching 
towards Little Round Top, unaware of the fact that Zook's 
men had left the command and were fighting all alone. 
When the three brigades arrived at the foot of the hill 
(Little Round Top), there was a short delay; then Cross 
deployed and went forward. Brooke went in to his left, 
and the Irish Brigade counter-marched to the right, passing 
in rear of Cross and, after clearing his line, deployed and 
formed on the right of the division. As that brigade 



Gettysburg— The Battle of the Century. 125 

advanced it moved over exactly the same ground on which 
Zook's men had fought, passed over the Hne that they had 
reached, and struck the foe. Zook had been carried to the 
rear dying, and all the regiments of his brigade, after 
making a most gallant fight, had fallen back, and as the 
brigades of Brooke, Cross and Kelly advanced and fought, 
the One Hundred and Sixteenth held the extreme right 
flank of the division line. 

The men of the Regiment went in at a " right shoulder 
shift" and, although the ground was covered with huge 
boulders, interspersed with forest trees, hilly and rough, 
the alignment was well preserved and, as it neared the 
crest, met the enemy and received a volley. But the shots 
were too high and did but little damage and the men 
rushed on. Soon the lines were but a few feet apart, and 
the men returned the fire with deadly effect. Captain 
Nowlen drew his revolver and opened fire ; nearly all the 
other officers followed his example. Little Jeff Carl killed 
a man within six feet of his bayonet. That hero. Sergeant 
Francis Malin, was conspicuous by his dash and bravery, 
as his tall form towered above all around him — a noble 
soul. He soon fell dead with a bullet through his brain. 
For a few moments it was hand-to-hand, but the 
Confederates seemed to have no stomach for the fight ; 
they were tired, weary and glad to call "enough", 
surrendered and were sent to the rear as prisoners of war. 
The Regiment had met and fought the men of Kershaw's 
Brigade, the same who, at Fredericksburg, had poured 
their deadly fire into the Regiment from the stone wall at 
the base of Marye's Heights. Then the brigade was 
halted and aligned where the monuments now stand. 
The meeting of the lines was unexpected to both the 
Confederates and Union men. As the latter were moving 



12& The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

up one side of the hill the Confederates were ascending 
the other. They gained the crest first and seeing the 
Union men so close, they became excited and fired too 
quickly, resulting in the volley passing overhead, and but 
few of the men of the Regiment were injured. On the 
contrary, the fire of the Regiment was delivered with 
precision and calmness, and every shot told. The 
Confederates were on a crest while the regimental line 
was below them, their feet about on a level with the heads 
of the men. When the Regiment charged and gained the 
ground on which the enemy stood, it was found covered 
with their dead, nearly every one of them being hit in the 
head or upper part of the body. Behind one large rock 
five men lay dead in a heap. They had evidently fallen 
at the first volley and all at the same time. One of them, 
in his dying agony, had torn his blouse and shirt open, 
exposing his breast and showing a great hole from which 
his heart's blood was flowing, 

The large ball (calibre 69) and three buck shot with 
which the pieces were loaded, although a wretched 
ammunition for distant firing, was just right for close 
hand-to-hand work, and so, on this occasion the fire of 
the Regiment was terrible in its effect, while the small 
rifle balls of the South Carolina men went whistling over 
the heads of the men of the One Hundred and Sixteenth. 
In front, and a little to the right, stood the Rose farm 
house and barn. Over the little valley in the immediate 
front one could see the enemy massed and preparing for 
another attack. The dead of the One Hundred and 
Tenth Pennsylvania Volunteers lay directly in front, on 
the ground which that command had vacated but a half 
hour before, and one young boy lay outstretched on a 
large rock with his musket still grasped in his hand, his 



Gettysburg — The Battle of the Century. 1-7 

pale, calm face upturned to the sunny sky, the warm blood 
still flowing from a hole in his forehead and running in a 
red stream over the gray stone. The young hero had 
just given his life for his country. A sweet, childish face 
it was, lips parted in a smile — those still lips on which 
the mother's kisses had so lately fallen, w^arm and tender. 
The writer never looked on a soldier slain without feeling 
that he gazed upon the relics of a saint ; but the little boy 
lying there with his blood coloring the soil of his own 
State, and his young heart stilled forever, seemed more 
like an angel form than any of the others. 

" Somebody's watching and waiting for him, 
Yearning to hold him again to her heart ; 
And there he Hes with his blue eyes dim, 
And the smiling child-like lips apart." 

As the Regiment stood in line waiting for the foe in 
front to advance, a column of the enemy, supposed to be 
Semm's and Wofford's Brigades, passed through the 
peach orchard, formed a line in rear and began to 
advance just as the line in front began moving forward. 
Orders were given for the division to retire, and under 
the circumstances it was done in fairly good order. 

Passing to the left and going on a run towards Little 
Round Top, through the wheat field and emerging in the 
open ground, the command gained the Taneytown Road 
and re-formed. Captain John Teed, of Company C, 
Sergeant George Halpin and a few of the men were 
captured by the enemy. Captain Teed missed the way and 
walked into the enemy's lines. Halpin, being shot, was 
unable to get away. The fire, as the men passed through 
the wheat, was severe and destructive, and so close were 
the lines of the enemy between which the men ran, that 
they finally had to stop firing, as they were hitting each 



128 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Other. Seven or eight of the men who were missing after 
the fight were probably killed in the wheat, only one of 
them being ever heard of afterwards. Young Martin 
Gallagher, whom the boys used to call " Jersey ", fell at 
this point with a broken leg. It was afterwards learned 
that he was hit six or eight times after the first ball broke 
his leg, but he managed to recover from all his wounds. 

The Regiment re-formed on the Taneytown Road and 
remained near the base of Little Round Top until the 
fighting on the left was over for the day ; then, when the 
sun went down, moved back with the division and formed 
on the left of the Second Corps on Cemetery Ridge, on 
the ground it had occupied in the forepart of the day. 
The lines were dressed in the twilight, and darkness 
settled down over the field ; 

"The bugle sang truce 
For the night cloud had lowered, 
And the sentinel stars set their watch in the sky, 
And thousands lay down on the ground overpowered, 
The weary to sleep, 
The wounded to die". 

Daybreak, on the morning of July 3d, found Hancock 
on the line getting ready for the day that had dawned 
so brightly. He personally rectified the alignment of 
the brigade and placed the One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Regiment to support the guns of Sterling's Second 
Connecticut Battery. 

All morning the men sat around calmly chewing hard 
tack and waiting for the result of the fight at Culp's 
Hill, looking over towards that high land, seeing great 
volumes of smoke arise from the timber, listening to the 
crash of the musketry, watching the streams of wounded 
that poured out of the dark woods, seeing the reinforce- 
ments hurrying to the assaulted point, and joining in the 




iMAIOK-GENERAL WINFIELD SCO IT HANCOCK 
Commander of Second Corps 



Gettysburg— The Battle of the Ceyitiiry. 129 

glad cheer that at eleven o'clock announced the victory 
of the Twelfth Corps and told the army that Gulp's Hill 
was once more in possession of the Union troops and 
the line was again intact. Then observing with deep 
interest the enemy, as artillery and infantry were massed 
in the Union front for the tremendous attack on the left 
centre. During the two hours of the artillery duel that 
preceded Pickett's charge, the men hugged the ground 
closely and, as they lay in front of Sterling's guns, his 
fire, as well as that of the enemy, passed over them. The 
position, however, was most favorable. The Confederate 
gunners evidently misunderstood the location of the 
Union line and threw their shells into the edge of 
the woods a hundred yards in rear, where they burst in 
great numbers. The men of Company B, who formed 
the Provost Guard of the division, were deployed in rear 
of the batde line and, during the fire, they suffered more 
than the men in front. When jthe fire of the two hundred 
and twenty-seven guns ceased and the smoke cleared 
away, one could see the long lines of Pickett's Division 
and Hill's Corps advancing to the attack. All the Union 
batteries opened and played upon them as they advanced 
over the fields. They were seen to fall by hundreds and 
thousands. Sterling's men made superb firing, their shells 
bursting in the faces of the advancing hosts. One of the 
lieutenants of the battery, a very tall, long-legged fellow, 
could not restrain his delight at seeing the excellent work 
that his battery was doing, and when he would see a good 
shot and his shells bursting right in the ranks of the 
Confederates, the arms and legs flying, he would leap up, 
crack his heels together and give a great scream of joy. 
Never was there such a moment of joy and happiness in 
the ranks of the command. Thousands of Confederates 



130 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

were seen advancing to sure destruction. It was Freder- 
icksburg reversed. The right flank of the assaulting Hne 
overlapped the division, and to the right their left extended 
as far as the eye could reach. One could see the whole 
grand sight, and when Pickett struck the Union line and 
the hand-to-hand struggle commenced at the " Umbrella 
Trees", the excitement became intense. The Confederate 
brigades of Wilcox and Perry were directly in front of 
the Irish Brigade and it seemed impossible to restrain the 
men from firing. 

Never were the men of the Regiment so eager to rush 
into the fight. Finally as the enemy's line got within a 
hundred and fifty yards the order " ready ! " was given. 
The men grasped their muskets, prepared to fire. The foe 
had disappeared for a moment in a sharp decline of the 
ground. The men waited to see the Confederate flags 
come over the hill, but instead of the red flag of the 
Confederacy a man crawled over the crest waving a white 
handkerchief, and ten minutes afterwards the larger part 
of the men of Wilcox's Brigade quietly walked into the. 
Union line, as prisoners. Three men, braver than their 
fellows, were seen running back over the fields with a 
stand of colors, and the men, in admiration of their 
heroism, refrained from molesting them. 

The firing suddenly ceased and Gettysburg became 
the victory that marked the beginning of the end of the 
war, for at the moment when the Army of the Potomac 
was hurling back, crushed and defeated from Cemetery 
Ridge, the Army of Northern Virginia, the cannon of the 
Army of the Tennessee was hammering down the defences 
of Vicksburg, the roar of Rosecrans's Artillery was 
reverberating among the Cumberland Mountains and the 
Union lines were advancing along the Tennessee River. 



Getfysburo—Thc Battle of the Ccnttiry. 131 

Vicksburg fell before the dead of Gettysburg were 
interred, and the cheers that announced the victory of the 
Union left wing in Pennsylvania found a loud echo among 
Grant's heroes of the right wing as they streamed into the 
captured city. 

During the night of this day General Lee sent his 
wounded towards the south by the Fairfield Road and 
during the night of the fourth retired by the same route 
with his whole army. During the forenoon of the fourth 
the Regiment remained in the same position. It was 
rumored that the enemy was falling back, but the 
Confederate sharpshooters were active enough in their 
efforts to make one believe that all their army was still 
present. The rain fell in torrents. Rain ! ■ Rain ! Why 
does it always rain after a battle ? Rain after Antietam, 
after Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, as 
though the compassionate skies would weep for the fallen 
brave, send cooling showers to lave the angry wounds, or 
in sweet mercy hasten to wash away from the soiled earth 
the crimson stains. 

In the evening it was known that the enemy had gone, 
and the Regiment left the line of battle and marched to 
Two Taverns, a most grateful change. To get away from 
the tempest-torn ground, from the foul stench and noisome 
air, from the fray and excitement and blood-red streams, 
and once more enjoy the bright green of the meadows 
freshened by the showers, to breathe pure air, and drink 
clear sparkling water, was happiness indeed. How the 
men's spirits rose ! And a delightful evening marked the 
calm after the storm. The men circulated through the 
massed regiments to learn the fate of friends ; shook hands 
or wept with joy at meeting, or shed a silent tear at 
hearing of the noble end of some beloved one dead. 



132 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

While the survivors had much to regret they had also 
much to rejoice for. The Second Corps, whilst meeting 
with an appalling loss had borne a most honorable part in 
the battle. Laurels rested on every flag, and now, like a 
winged eagle, the corps had paused to take note of its 
wounds and to send forth a glad scream of victory. 
Hancock w^as gone, to be sure, and Zook, Cross, Shirrell, 
Kane, Tschudy, Willard, Rorty, and a host of the noblest 
and best lay with up-turned faces along Cemetery Ridge 
where their heroic souls had gone out in the hour of 
triumph. But the men of the Second Corps rejoiced, 
and who could object? Would not those of their 
comrades who filled the shallow graves on the line they 
had just left rejoice and be glad also if they were still 
alive, and looked upon the trophies of the fight? 

Thirty-three battle flags, six thousand prisoners and 
thirteen thousand stands of small arms were truly a 
bountiful harvest to be gathered by the men who wore 
the trefoil. 

One dusk, long summers gone, the white-cheeked moon 

Beheld this valley reel with war. But now, 
Where yon still hamlet's window's redly glow, 

At eve, the housewives gossip, or else croon 
Soft lullabies. Through the long afternoon 

The children gambol in the vale below, 

The lustrous lilies at their moorings blow. 
The mowers move with scythes in merry tune ; 

Chime faintly far from out the white church spire, 
Those evening bells ; slow moves the croaking wains, 

Down purple glens ablaze with sunset fire, 
And low-necked kine trudge home through thick-leaved lanes, 

Sweet vale, the only sword now there that's seen 

Is the moon's cimeter in skies serene. 



Gettysburg — The Battle of the Century. 133 

REPORT OF MAJOR ST. CLAIR A. MULHOLLAND. 

UATTLE OF GETTYSBURG. 

In Camp at Sandy Hook, Md., July 17, 1863. 

Sir :— I have the honor to submit the following report of the part 
taken by my command in the action at Gettysburg, July 2d and 3d. 

After a long and fatiguing march we arrived, on the evening of July 
ist, within three miles of Gettysburg, and by order of General Caldwell, 
camped in a neighboring field. Shortly after daylight on the morning of 
the 2d, our brigade moved up upon the field in sight of the enemy's 
pickets. Our division was placed en masse in columns of regiments, my 
command being in the front line, stacked arms and ordered the men to 
rest. We remained in this position during the forenoon. Heavy firing 
was heard at intervals on our right i)ut everything remained (juiet in the 
vicinity until about three o'clock. At that time musketr}- commenced on 
our left, I think about three-fourths of a mile away. The firing had 
continued an hour when orders came to "fall in". We took arms 'and 
were marched, by the left flank, towards the scene of action. After 
marching about a mile and deploying in line of battle, the division 
advanced to support, I think, a portion of the Third Corps which was 
then engaged. Our brigade advanced in line of battle, left in front 
gallantly led by Colonel Patrick Kelly of the Eighty-eighth New York. 
As we advanced a portion of the Third Corps retired, passing through 
the intervals of our line. Having entered a wood be began ascending a" 
hill where large boulders and rocks impeded our progress. Notwith- 
standing, we advanced in good order. We soon came within sight of the 
enemy who occupied the crest of the hill, and who immediately opened 
fire at our approach. Our men returned the fire with good effect. After 
firing for about ten minutes the order was given to advance, which was 
done in excellent style, driving the enemy from the position, which we at 
once occupied. We took many prisoners at this point, hundreds of the 
enemy laying down their arms and going to the rear. We found the 
position that our foe had occupied a moment before thickly strewn with 
their dead and wounded. Here we again opened fire, the enemy having 
again rallied to oppose our further advance. After being engaged about 
twenty minutes, the enemy having been reinforced, we began to retire in 
good order. At this time the division had been completely outflanked 
by the enemy, who had formed a line facing the right flank and rear of 
our brigade. This line was formed along the edge of a wheat field about 
a quarter of a mile in our rear. We had to cross the field in getting away 
and in doing so we encountered the full sweep of the enemy's fire, which 
at this point was most destructive and many of the division fell. 



134 The Story of the ii6th Reghnent. 

After passing to the rear I found Colonel Brooke of the Fourth Brigade 
forming the division in a field adjoining the Second Division Hospital. 
He told me that he had orders from General Caldwell to do so. I then 
halted mj' regiment and rendered all cissistance possible in getting 
together the members of the Second Brigade. Shortly after dark we were 
again marched to the front and placed in the same position that we had 
occupied in the morning. Here we lay on our arms during the night and 
were awakened at daybreak by the sound of the enemy's cannon. 

Major-General Hancock passed along early and moved the line a little 
forward in order that we might have a better range and our fire be more 
effective should the enemy attack us. \\'e began intrenching, and by 
eleven o'clock had quite a formidable breastwork thrown up. All the 
forenoon we could see the enemy preparing to attack. Batteries were 
placed in position in our front and everything indicated that an attack was 
intended. About noon it commenced b)- a terrific shelling of our lines. 
After shelling our position for two hours the artillery fire slackened and 
a heavy force of infantrj' was seen advancing. At this moment our 
artiller)-, which up to this time remained almost silent, opened with 
terrible effect upon the advancing lines, tearing great gaps in the ranks 
and strewing the ground with dead and wounded. Notwithstanding the 
destructive fire the enemy continued to advance with a degree of coolness 
and bravery worthy of a better cause, until reaching a ravine which ran 
parallel with our line, about half way between us and their artillerj', they 
halted, being then under cover and no longer exposed to our fire. They 
halted but to surrender. Finding, I presume, that their ranks were too 
much thinned to think of charging our works, knowing the heavy loss they 
would sustain in attempting to reach their own line again, and thinking 
discretion the better part of valor, they laid down their arms and, almost 
to a man, surrendered. 

Perceiving the failure of their infantry to carry the position, the enemy 
again opened their batteries, but after an hour's firing withdrew, leaving 
us victors of the field. During the day's fighting the heat was very great 
and the men, being exposed, having neither shelter tents nor water, 
suffered intensely. The morning of the fourth found us victors of every 
part of the field. The rain fell in torrents, wetting every one, filling the 
rifle pits and making us most uncomfortable, but my command was very 
hopeful and bore the fatigues and sufferings incidental to a great battle 
-with a cheerfulness that ever characterizes the true soldier. We remained 
in the same position until the afternoon of the same day and then my 
command, with the division, marched to the village of Two Tavems, 
where we encamped for the night. 

In closing my report I cannot refrain from mentioning the cool and 
gallant bearing of my command. Of the officers it is almost useless for 



Gettysburg— The Battle of the Century. 135 

me to speak. Every one of them did their duty in a manner that excited 
my warmest admiration and gratitude. 

Of the enUsted men I feel happy in mentioning the names of Color 
Sergeant Abraham T. Detwiler, Sergeant Thos. Detvviler, Company A, 
and private Jefferson Carl, Company C, as having specially distinguished 
themselves in the action of the 2d instant. 

Respectfully submitted, 

^'our obedient servant, 

St. Clair A. Mulholland, 
Major, Commanding ii6th Pennsylvania Vols. 

To Captain Tho.mas W. Gkeig, 

A. A. A. 



NOTES ON GETTYSBURG. 

The losses in the battle were, in proportion to the 
number engaged, enormous, amounting on the Union 
side to twenty-seven per cent. ; and on the side of the 
Confederates to thirty-five per cent. The number of dead 
on the official reports represents but about half only of 
those slain. On the Union side, for instance, there are 
but 2834 reported killed, while in the National Cemetery 
alone there are 3575 bodies interred. The names on the 
official return only include those who were killed dead 
in action, but takes no account of the vast number who 
died of wounds within ten days after the battle. If one 
wants to get at the whole number of men who lost their 
lives in the Union Army there must be added to the 3575 
interred in the National Cemetery at least 400 buried on 
different parts of the field, and who were never found or 
transferred to the cemetery. Four hundred more were 
taken home by their friends immediately after the battle, 
and several hundred died soon after of wounds, in the 
hospital, at Carlisle, Harrisburg and other adjacent 
points, making in all about 5000 Union men who lost 



136 The Story of the ii6th Regivient. 

their lives at Gettysburg, or as the results of that battle. 
The bayonet, now a weapon almost obsolete in warfare, 
was used quite freely, many men and officers being killed 
and wounded in that way. Colonel JefEers, of the Fourth 
Michigan, was bayoneted to death in the wheat field, and 
some fift}'-four men fell at that point in the same manner. 
But it would seem that the soldier of our day prefers to 
kill his man in some other way. 

When the gallant Confederate, General Armistead, 
leaped over the little stone wall that served as a breast- 
work for the Philadelphia Brigade he called to his men 
to give the Union troops the " cold steel ". All in vain, 
howe\er ; within the next five minutes that splendid 
officer and fort\'-two of the hundred brave men who 
followed him over the low wall were lying dead in their 
tracks, and all the rest of the noble band were crushed 
and wounded. The bayonet, in modem warfare, is almost 
a thing of the past, and the soldier finds but little use for 
it. Certainly there were numbers killed by it at 
Gett\-sburg, but \^x\ few indeed in comparison to the 
great number slain by the rifle and artiller}-. 

The sword was also used to a considerable extent. 
When the lines crashed together in the great cavalry fight 
on the third day many men were cut down with the 
sabre ; and General Wade Hampton, now United States 
Senator from South Carolina, had his face split open from 
a sword cut. But when the infantry came hand-to-hand 
they seemed to rather prefer to club their muskets and 
dash each others brains out, than to drive the cold steel 
into the bodies of their opponents ; and many men were 
killed in this manner. Lieutenant Charles Brockey 
crushed in a Confederate's skull with a rock, and 
Lieutenant Worcester, of the Seventh Louisiana "Tigers", 



Gettysburg — The Battle of the Century. 137 

had his head smashed to a jelly by a hand-spike in die 
hands of one of the gunners. 

Several men of the Regiment who had been transferred 
to Battery A, Fourth United States Artillery, distinguished 
themselves in the battle, and several of them were badly 
wounded, Michael Hickey, William Miller, Joseph 
Meander and John McCormick being among the latter. 
During the last moments of Pickett's charge, when 
Lieutenant Gushing ordered his last serviceable gun (the 
third piece) to be run down to the stone wall, Patrick 
Mulhn and Simon Mallinger of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment, together with a man of the battery, 
named McConnell, were the three cannoneers who worked 
the gun until Gushing was killed. He (Gushing) stood 
with his field-glasses raised, in the act of giving a 
command (he had been terribly wounded in the groin), 
when a ball entered his mouth and, passing through, 
broke his neck. The Gonfederates were then pouring 
over the wall and placing their flags on the guns, and it 
became a hand-to-hand fight. When the conflict was 
over, Mullin, Mallinger and McGonnell picked up 
Cushing's body and carried it to the rear. 

The fighting of both armies at Gettysburg w^as severe, 
and to understand truly and to estimate properly the 
fighting qualities of the men and the organizations of 
those armies, one must take the cold figures of the 
percentage of losses in killed and wounded and compare 
them with similar results in other wars and by troops of 
other nations. When reading the following article, let us 
not fail to remember the record of the bravest troops in 
Europe. The Third Westphalian, at Mars La Tour, lost 
40.4 per cent., killed and wounded ; the Garde-Schutzen, at 
Metz, lost 40. 1 per cent.; the Light Brigade, at Balaklava, 



138 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

lost 36.7 per cent. Reader, this is a stor}- of brave men 
and splendid organizations and, if I mistake not, tells of 
the greatest loss on record in single engagements in 
European wars. Not one of them lost 50 per cent, in 
killed and wounded in single engagements. Without 
fear of contradiction, I assert that in the Union army 
alone at least sixty-three regiments lost more than 50 per 
cent, killed and wounded in single engagements, and 
more than one hundred and twenty regiments lost more 
than 36 per cent, under like circumstances. I am asked 
to write the particulars of these bloody encounters ; to do 
so would be a greater task than I have time for, and the 
glowing story would fill volumes. On the soil of our 
own State, there were at least twenty-three regiments 
that lost more than 50 per cent, in killed and wounded 
during the three sanguinary days of the battle, and nine 
of these were Pennsylvania organizations. Eight other 
Northern States — New Jersey, New Hampshire, New 
York, Indiana, Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota and 
Massachusetts — were also included in this splendid roll 
of honor. Truly, "there was glory enough to go all 
around". Let us recall the story of these commands, the 
organizations only that lost 50 per cent, or more at 
Gettysburg, and we can speak of them without in any 
way detracting from the honor of the other commands 
that may not have met with such terrible losses, yet did 
their whole duty and all that was demanded of them. 

The battle on the first day was remarkable, not only 
for the acts of great personal courage, but also for the 
most heroic fighting on the part of organizations. The 
One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York was the first 
regiment to make the great record at Gettysburg. Going 
into position at the right of Cutler s Brigade, and becoming 



Gettysburg — The Battle of the Ceyitiiry. 139 

hotly engaged in the very start of the fight, Lieutenant- 
Colonel F. C. Miller, its commander, fell almost at the 
first fire, shot in the head. Major George Harney then 
commanded. The regiment fought the Forty-second 
Mississippi, and when the position became untenable and 
the brigade was ordered to the rear, the command to 
retreat was not received by the One Hundred and Forty- 
seventh until the other regiments of the brigade had 
gone. The One Hundred and Forty-seventh then stood 
alone, and not only fought the regiment in its front, but 
was exposed to the fire of the Second Mississippi and 
Fifty-fifth North Carolina on the right flank. The fight 
w^as close and deadly, but Harney and his men stood up to 
the work until the orders reached them to retreat, which 
they did in good order, with colors flying. The loss of 
officers and men was appalling, but hardly had the 
splendid organization reached the new position than it 
became engaged in resisting the attack of Ewell's Corps 
and assisted in capturing a part of Iverson's Brigade. 
But the One Hundred and Forty-seventh was not yet 
ready to rest ; on the evening of the second day it was 
rushed over to Culp's Hill to reinforce Green's Brigade, 
and until long after dark fought in the dense woods 
among rocks and fallen timber, locating the enemy by 
the tongues of fire that leaped from their muskets. This 
regiment was recruited in Oswego County, New York, 
and it left the great record on Gettysburg's field of GO per 
cent, killed and wounded, more than "20 per cent, being 
killed outright. 

As the One Hundred and Forty-seventh was making 
its glorious record, the Iron Brigade swept forward and 
entered the woods just as Reynolds was being carried to 
the rear, dead. The West had in that line its noblest 



140 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



sons, there to defend and to crimson the soil of our State 
with their blood, and what a fight they made on that July 
morning! Of this brigade the Twenty-fourth Michigan 
lost 60 per cent, killed and wounded and, in addition 
83 missing ; the Nineteenth Indiana lost 56 per cent, and 
50 missing; the Second Wisconsin 59 per cent, and 51 
missing ; the Sixth Wisconsin 43 per cent, and 20 missing; 
the Seventh Wisconsin 41 per cent, and 43 missing. This 
regiment had 10 officers and 271 men killed in battle 
during its term of service. Taking the five regiments of 
the Iron Brigade as a whole, we find the killed and 
wounded to have been 49.5 per cent, with 249 missing, 
many of whom were among the dead. 

Reader, when you visit the field of the first day's 
fight, and you walk past the spot where Reynolds fell, 
and enter the woods where every gnarled tree is torn by 
shot and shell, you will see a line of monuments crossing 
your path. Pause when you reach them, stand for a time 
by the stone that marks the center of the Twenty-fourth 
Michigan Regiment and recall the day of the battle. 
You will then be standing near the centre of the Iron 
Brigade. On the right of that organization was the 
brigade of Roy Stone, and on the left that of Colonel 
Chapman Biddle. Walk the line of these brigades from 
right to left — ah, yes, you may walk the line of the whole 
First Corps — and you cannot step without treading upon 
ground ever}^ inch of which was saturated and made 
sacred by the blood of heroes. 

And how did the Twenty-fourth Michigan fight? 
They charged into the woods without taking time to load 
and, with bayonet, driving the enemy across Willoughby 
Run, captured the Confederate General Archer and many 
of his men. Private Patrick Maloney, seizing the General 



Gettysburg — The Bottle of the Century. 141 

by the throat, commanding- "right about, Gineral, march !" 
conducted him to the rear and handed him over to the 
division commander, with a Celtic smile, and " Gineral 
Wadsworth, sir, allow me to make ye acquainted wid 
Gineral Archer". There the well-dressed line waited in 
the forest during- the long afternoon, repulsing every 
attack of the enemy. General Sol Meredith, the brigade 
commander ; Colonel Henry A. Morrow ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Flanagan, the adjutant, and almost every officer 
who was not killed outright was severely wounded, 
twenty-two being killed and wounded out of twenty- 
eight. Captains Speed and O'Donnell and Lieutenants 
Wallace, Safford, Grace, Humphreyville, Dickey and 
Shattuck were dead upon the field. Seven color bearers 
were shot down under the flag, four of them, Abel Pack, 
Charles Ballou, August Ernest and William Kelly, lying 
dead almost side by side, while every one of the color 
guard was dead or wounded. When Corporal Andrew 
Wagner was severely wounded and the colors fell, 
Colonel Morrow ran forward and raised them. Private 
Kelly ran up and seized the staff, saying : " The Colonel 
of the Twenty-fourth shall never carry the flag while I 
am alive ". He was killed instantly. Still another brave 
soul raised the flag, only to fall. Again Colonel Morrow 
grasped the "starry banner" and, while waving it aloft, 
he, too, fell terribly wounded. No falling back was thought 
of until ordered to retreat, and then the flag was dragged 
by force from the hands of a mortally wounded soldier, 
who with a last expiring effort, tried to raise it from the 
ground, but fell back only to die. Splendid Michigan ; 
your sons have done you great honor ! 

The Nineteenth Indiana, Colonel S. J. Williams com- 
manding, went into action in line with the Twenty-fourth 



142 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Michigan Regiment, crossing Willoughby Run in the 
first rush and charge of the day, and flanking Archer's 
Confederates, doing its full share in the capture of that 
command. In the afternoon it held the left flank of the 
Iron Brigade, meeting and repelling charge after charge 
of the enemy. The fire of the regiment was so deadly 
that for one hour after the line of the enemy had advanced 
to the attack not a live Confederate succeeded in crossing 
the stream. When the command was finally withdrawn 
with the remainder of the brigade, 56 per cent, of those 
who had held the line were dead or wounded. 

About eleven o'clock the head of Roy Stone's brigade 
arrived on the field, and was placed by General Doubleday 
on the left of the Chambersburg pike, the left of the line 
resting near the right of the Iron Brigade. Shells were 
flying as the Pennsylvanians moved into position, and it 
was a hot place to form. Stripping for the fray and 
unslinging knapsacks, the men called out, " We have 
come to stay ". When evening came fully 50 per cent, 
of the gallant brigade remained on the fatal ridge. 
Stone's brigade held the key to the first day's fight, and 
every man seemed to realize the importance of holding 
out to the last. Although some two hours elapsed from 
the time the brigade arrived until the first serious attack 
of the Confederate infantry, it was anything but an 
interval of peace. Exposed and in full view of the 
enemy, the line was pounded by batteries from the distant 
hills, both north and west, and many were the casualties. 
Then the whole valley of Willoughby Run and the 
country beyond was in clear view, and every man saw 
for himself what was coming — the Confederates, in a 
continuous double line of deployed battalions, with other 
battalions en masse in reserve. To meet this tremendous 



Getty sbtcrg — The Battle of the Century. 1 43 

onslaught stood one thin line, and not a man in reserve. 
It required courage of a high order to quietly await the 
attack, but^Stone's men were equal to the occasion. 

As Colonel Huidekoper and Major Chamberlain were 
chatting, while awaiting the attack, a unique, antique and 
most picturesque figure approached. It was citizen John 
Burns, of Gettysburg. Tall and bony of frame, with 
deliberate step, he came to the front, carrying in hfs right 
hand a rifle at a " trail ". He wore a blue swallow-tail 
coat, with brass buttons, dark trousers and a high hat, 
from which the nap had long since disappeared. Although 
three-score years and ten, and bent with age, he said : 
" Can I fight with your Regiment ?" Just then Colonel 
Wister came up and in his bluf? manner asked : " Well, 
old man, what do you want?" " I want a chance to fight 
with your Regiment". "You do? Well, where is 
your ammunition?" "Right here", said the old hero, 
slapping his trousers pocket, which was bulging out with 
cartridges. " Good ", replied Wister, " I wish there were 
more like you ", advising the old man to go into the 
woods and fight where he would be more sheltered. But 
John Burns was not the kind that looked for shelter, and 
he fought during the day not only in the open, but in the 
very front. W^hen evening fell he was still there, but 
badly wounded. At half-past one o'clock the whole line 
of the enemy was seen advancing, and for more than two 
hours the devoted brigade of Roy Stone; — One Hundred 
and Forty-third, One Hundred and Forty-ninth and One 
Hundred and Fiftieth Pennsylvania Regiments — met and 
checked the exulting foe. 

Never in the history of wars did men stand up under 
like conditions and make such a defence. There they 
were, one thin line, without a man in reserve, meeting 



144 The Story of the ii6ih Regiment. 

charge after charge, and seeing beyond, as far as the eye 
could reach, other Hnes of fresh troops, ready to take the 
places of those repulsed. Every field officer in the 
brigade, save one, was shot, and many of them several 
times. In the One Hundred and Forty-third 36 per cent, 
were killed and wounded, and 91 missing, many of these 
being numbered among the dead ; the One Hundred and 
Forty-ninth lost 50 per cent, killed and wounded and 111 
missing ; the One Hundred and Fiftieth lost 50 per cent, 
killed and wounded and 77 missing, 25 of whom were 
afterward found to be dead or wounded. Glorious brigade 
of the Keystone State ! When will your glory fade ? 
Officers and men alike will live in story. Can we ever 
forget Roy Stone falling away out in front of his line, or 
Langhorne Wister clinging to his command with mouth 
so full of blood that speech was an impossibility ; or 
Huidekoper remaining in command of his regiment with 
shattered arm and a ball through his leg ; or Color 
Sergeant Benjamin H. Crippen, of the One Hundred and 
Forty-second, lingering, as his regiment walked to the 
rear, to shake his fist at the advancing foe, until he was 
shot dead ; or Color Sergeant Samuel Phifer, of the One 
Hundred and Fiftieth, advancing with the colors and 
flaunting them in the face of the victorious foe until he 
fell dead, with all the color guard dead or wounded 
around him ? Surely it was a great brigade and a noble 
fight, but more yet was demanded, for on the evening of 
the second day the One Hundred and Forty-ninth and 
the One Hundred and Fiftieth charged upon the Confed- 
erate lines, and recaptured two guns that had been lost 
that afternoon. Likewise, on the third day of the battle 
the three regiments were again under fire, being in line 
to meet the charge of Pickett's men, and to meet the 



Gettysburg — The Battle of the Century. 145 

Storm of the artillery fire that for two long hours preceded 
that attack. 

To the left of the Iron Brigade, the brigade commanded 
by Colonel Chapman Biddle held the line. The organi- 
zation consisted of one New York and three Pennsyl\-ania 
regiments, and its record is very similar to that of the 
two brigades on the right. The Eightieth New York 
(Twentieth Militia), called the " Ulster Guard ", Colonel 
Theodore B. Gates commanding, had 50 per cent, killed 
and wounded, 24 missing. The One Hundred and 
Twenty-first Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Colonel Alexander 
Biddle, had 39 per cent, killed and wounded, and 61 
missing. The One Hundred and Forty-second Pennsyl- 
vania, Colonel Robert P. Cummings, had 39 per cent, 
killed and wounded and 70 missing. The One Hundred 
and Fifty-first Pennsylvania, Lieutenant Colonel George 
F. McFarland, had 56 per cent, killed and wounded and 
100 missing. Not only did the brigade make the 
splendid fight on the first day's battle, but on the second 
and third day all the regiments were engaged, and in the 
last grand scene of the drama the Eightieth New York 
and the One Hundred and Fifty-first Pennsylvania, led 
by Colonel Gates, rushed in, side by side with Stannard's 
Vermonters, to strike the flank of Pickett's line. The 
One Hundred and Forty-second Pennsylvania lost some 
of its best officers and men. Colonel Cummings, Captain 
Flagg and Lieutenants Tucker and Hurst were killed 
instantly, and Captains Grimm, Evans, Dushane and 
Hasson, and Lieutenants Powell, Walter, Swank, Heffley, 
Huston, Hoffman and Wilson were wounded. 

Lieutenant-Colonel George F. McFarland, who 
commanded the One Hundred and Fifty-first Pennsyl- 
vania on the first day's fight, was the Principal of the 



146 The Story of tlie ii6th Regiment. 

Mc.Aiister Academy, in Juniata county, of our State. 
He was an exceedingly calm, brave man, and while 
awaiting the infantr\^ attack quietly sat on the ground 
taking notes, while the shells were flying in all directions. 
He was terribly wounded and lost a leg. The Regiment 
was unique in many particulars : McFarland, a school 
principal, in command, with one hundred school teachers 
marching and fighting in the ranks. The whole of 
Company D was composed of scholars and school boys 
from McFarland's Academy. The Regiment fought the 
Twenty-sixth North Carolina, which command lost, in the 
morning's encounter with the One Hundred and Fifty-first, 
588 men and officers out of 800, one company having 
82 killed and wounded out of 83, The One Hundred 
and Fifty-first had 14 officers killed and wounded, and 
was the last regiment to leave the line when retreat was 
ordered. The Confederate General, Heth, said that " the 
dead of the One Hundred and Fifty-first marked the line 
of battle with the accuracy of a ' dress parade.' " On that 
day Pennsylvania's teachers and schoolboys left a rich 
legacv to others who come after them. Much histor}' has 
been written, and any amount of criticism indulged in, in 
relation to the fight of the First Corps on the first day of 
the battle, but the more we learn of it the more we must 
acknowledge that it was a great contest, a wonderful 
defence against overwhelming odds. 

All the severe fighting of the first day was not confined 
to the line of the First Corps. The Eleventh Corps, 
coming upon the field later in the day, also fought 
against great odds, and made a splendid fight. One 
regiment, at least, kept up with the best record of any 
one of the First Corps. The Seventy-fifth Pennsylvania 
fought to the north of the town, near the Carlisle road, 



Gettysbiirg — The Battle of the Century. 147 

losing oG per cent, killed and wounded. This regiment 
was originally recruited by General Henry Bohlen, who 
was killed at Freeman's Ford, August 22, 18G2. It was 
commanded at Gettysburg by Colonel Francis Mahler, 
who was killed there. Colonel Mahler was badly 
wounded early in action, but refused to leave, and 
continued in command until he was killed. The regiment 
was composed entirely of Germans, who here fought 
better for the land of their adoption than any son of 
Germany ever fought in defence of his native land. 

July 2, 1863. — The second day at Gettysburg was 
quite as prolific in the piling up of great losses as the first 
day — noble deeds and splendid fighting on every part of 
the field. No sooner had Longstreet swept down on the 
Third Corps than regiment after regiment began rolling 
up the wonderful record of more than 50 per cent, killed 
and wounded. When the strong line of the Confederates 
struck the Emmitsburg road and peach orchard, they 
found the Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania in line. This 
regiment held the extreme right of the Third Corps, and 
was commanded on that day by Captain George W. 
Tomlinson. The command had been in every battle from 
the beginning, and was reduced to the numbers of a 
small battalion. Three hundred and eighty-two officers 
and men stood in line when the fight began, and within 
an hour 224 of them had been killed or wounded — 56 per 
cent. Of 18 officers, 4 were killed and 7 wounded, 5 of 
them being crippled for life. All the color guard were 
down, and three color sergeants fell dead, one after the 
other. The One Hundred and Forty-first Pennsylvania 
Infantry was also in line there to meet the rush of the 
Confederate attack, another very small command, and at 
a most critical moment was called upon to meet an 



148 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

overwhelming force. Bravely the men stood to the work, 
pouring in a steady fire, and holding the enemy back 
until the batteries of their division could be rescued and 
the guns hauled off by hand, all the horses being killed. 
The commander, Major Israel Spaulding, was killed. 
The only Captain left at the close of the fight was Captain 
Joseph H. Horton, a most gallant young officer, who 
greatly distinguished himself and brought the remnant of 
the regiment from the field. Their record — 63 per cent, 
killed and wounded — placed another Pennsylvania regi- 
ment on the roll of the brave. 

The Eleventh New Jersey, Colonel Robert M. McAlister, 
a truly grand, old hero, commanding, fought along the 
Emmitsburg road to the right of the peach orchard. 
This regiment fought Wilcox on its right and Barksdale 
on its left. Fifty-one per cent, killed and wounded is the 
record of these Jerseymen. Colonel McAlister soon fell, 
shot through the leg and with his foot smashed by a 
shell. Major Philip J. Kearney then took command and 
fell dead. Captain Luther Martin then took command 
and fell dead. Captain Doramus B. Logan then took 
command and fell dead. Captain Andrew H. Ackerman 
took command, and was instantly killed. Captain Lloyd 
took command and fell terribly wounded. Lieutenants 
Provost, Fassett, Layton, \^olk, Good and Axtell were 
lying on the ground, wounded and bleeding, but still the 
Eleventh New Jersey held on until the order to retreat 
was received, when the Adjutant, John Schoonover, 
suffering with two wounds, led it from the field. On the 
same line with the Eleventh New Jersey the Twentieth 
Indiana made a heroic fight. In the First Division of the 
1 hird Corps — Birney's division — the Indiana boys were 
commanded that day by Colonel J. K. Wheeler, who fell 



Gettysburg— The Battle of the Century. 149 

dead at their head. The number of killed and wounded 
— 54 per cent. — tells the story of their valor. 

As the battle rolled back from the peach orchard the 
fighting became terrific on the left, the wheat field having 
been already covered with the dead and dying. At this 
juncture the division of the regulars went in to emulate 
the best fighting of the volunteers. While they could not 
excel the latter, they could at least equal them, and they 
did, the Seventeenth United States, commanded by 
Colonel Durell Green, losing 65 per cent, in killed and 
wounded. As yet no monuments mark the line of the 
regular troops, but let us hope that Congress may see to 
it, and that at an early day those splendid regiments may 
not be forgotten or unhonored. And then that magnificent 
regiment, the Fifth New Hampshire, was in the wheat 
field, also. It had gone to the left that afternoon, with 
Caldwell's division of the Second Corps. In the short, 
sharp encounter. Colonel Cross was killed, and the 
regiment lost, in killed and wounded, exactly 50 per cent. 
This regiment, during the war, had 18 officers and 277 
men killed in battle. Colonel Edward E. Cross was a 
model officer, and was in command of the brigade when 
killed. When passing, as his command formed for the 
fight. General Hancock said to him, " Cross, this is the 
last day that you will fight as a Colonel ; you will have 
your commission as Brigadier-General in a few days". 
Cross replied, as he rode away, "Too late, too late ; I will 
die to-day". He lived for a few hours, after being shot 
through the body, and although suffering great pain, 
talked cheerfully to the end. Said he, " I did hope to live 
to see peace restored to our distressed country. I think 
the boys will miss me; say good-bye to them all". 
"Peace to his ashes; heaven rest his soul", was the 



150 The Story of the ii6th ReghneJif. 

prayer that went up in every part of the Second Corps as, 
in the calm stillness of the midnight hour, he slept to 
wake no more. 

The forcing back of Humphrey's division of the Third 
Corps exposed to an overwhelming attack the Fifteenth 
Massachusetts and the Eighty-second New York, which, 
with a section of Brown's Rhode Island Battery, had been 
thrown forward to the Codori House. The Eighty-second 
New York was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
Huston, and Colonel George H. Ward commanded the 
detachment. The two little regiments made a most 
gallant stand, and held on the advanced position until 
Colonel Ward had been killed. His regiment, the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts, left dead on the field Captains 
Murkland and Jorgeson and Lieutenant Buss. Nearly 
every officer was wounded, and the record of the afternoon 
was 50 per cent, killed and wounded. The Eighty-second 
New York suffered quite as seriously, losing exactly 50 
per cent, killed and wounded, Lieutenant-Colonel James 
Huston, Captain Jonah C. Hoyt and Lieutenants John 
Cranston and John H. McDonald being killed and nine 
officers wounded. The Eighty-second captured, during 
the afternoon of the second, the colors of the Forty-eighth 
Georgia, and on the third day captured the colors of the 
First and the Seventh Virginia Regiments. During a 
crisis that afternoon, Hancock led into action the brigade 
consisting of the One Hundred and Eleventh New York, 
Colonel Clinton McDougal ; the One Hundred and 
Twenty-fifth New York, Colonel George L. Willard ; and 
the One Hundred and Twenty-sixth New York, Colonel 
Eliakim Shirrell. The force charged through the bushy 
swale at Plum Run and struck the Thirteenth, Seven- 
teenth and Eighteenth Mississippi Regiments. Willard, 



Gettysburg— The Battle of the Century. 151 

comniandinii- the brit^'-ade, was killed. Shirrell, of the One 
Hundred and Twenty-sixth, was killed, and McDou^al, 
of the One Hundred and Eleventh, w^as wounded. The 
latter regiment lost 71 per cent, in killed and wounded. 
The One Hundred and Twenty-sixth lost not only their 
Colonel, but also Captains vSkinner, Herenden and 
Wheeler and Lieutenants Hunton, Sherman and Holmes 
and nine other officers were wounded. The record at 
Gettysburg was 55 per cent, killed and wounded. This 
regiment captured three stands of colors in the battle. 
Including those killed in this fight, the regiment had 
sixteen officers shot dead in action during the war. Glory 
to the Empire State ! 

And now let us recall the grandest of all. It was 
getting towards evening, and the battle had raged along 
the Emmitsburg road and out by the peach orchard. 
In vain had our brave troops fought and died. The 
Third Corps had been rolled back, crushed and almost 
annihilated ; the wheat field had been swept by line after 
line of battle ; Litde Round Top had been saved, and 
Hood's Texans were being gradually driven down the 
crest ; the gallant Sickles had been carried to the rear 
from where he had fallen, crushed and bleeding. Still the 
battle raged along the whole line ; a crucial moment had 
arrived. \ great gap existed on the left of the Second 
Corps, and the victorious and exulting foe was moving 
forward to push through the threatened point, but w^ere 
still far off. Hancock, seeing a large force emerging from 
the timber, and thinking it was some of our own forces, 
galloped to meet them, only to discover a division of the 
enemy. He was met by a volley in which was wounded 
the only aide he had with him, Captain W. D. W. Miller, 
a very noble young officer. 



152 77?^ Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

The danger to the Union Hne was imminent ; but one 
small regiment — the First Minnesota — was anywhere 
near. Hancock quickly rode toward it, and called out, 
"What regiment is this"? "The First Minnesota", 
came the answer. Then pointing to the Confederate 
columns about to seize the unoccupied heights of Cemetery 
Ridge (and should they succeed disaster to the Union 
Army would surely result, though reinforcements were 
hurrying to advance), the General said : "Colonel Colville, 
charge that line ". At this moment the scene was one of 
appalling grandeur ; Little Round Top wreathed in 
smoke, the crash of artillery was re-echoing from all the 
woods, lines of battle were charging back and forth over 
the valley of death, and the whole crest of Cemetery 
Ridge was a blaze of fire. The men of the First 
Minnesota instantly knew what Hancock's order meant — 
death or wounds for every man in the ranks, sacrifice of 
the entire command in order to gain a few minutes' time, 
and thus save the position and probably the battlefield. 
Every man saw and accepted the sacrifice. Responding 
to Colville's rapid orders, the command, in perfect line, 
with arms at a "right shoulder shift", went sweeping 
down the slope directly upon the enemy's centre. No 
hesitation, no stopping to fire, silently and at a " double 
quick," then at a " run ", then at the utmost speed, they 
went — for the only hope of being able to reach the enemy 
through the storm of fire that met them was by speed — 
" Charge ", screamed Colville, as the regiment neared the 
advancing lines of the enemy. Then in a rush with 
leveled bayonets, the First Minnesota, with momentum 
and desperation, went crashing through the first line. 
Then a volley and the centre of the enemy broke and was 
for a few minutes thrown into confusion. The very 



Gcttysburiy — The Battle of the Ce7itury 



153 



ferocity of the onset seemed for a time to paralyze them. 
The object was accompHshed ; time, short as it was, was 
gained, and before the long lines of the Confederates 
could be straightened out the reserve was on the ground 
and the position was saved. 

But what a sacrifice ! Colville and every other officer, 
except two, were weltering in their blood, killed or 
wounded. Then the few survivors fell back, leaving dead 
and wounded 82 per cent, of the gallant men that charged 
ten minutes before. The annals of war contain no such 
record of true heroism, valor and self-sacrifice. Neither 
was it in vain, for the execution of the movement was 
complete and successful and the object gained, and it was 
necessary. "There is no more gallant deed in history," 
said Hancock ; but he added : " I saw the necessity of 
gaining five minutes, and I would have ordered them in 
if I had been sure that every man would have been 
killed". The second day, however, was not the last of 
the battle for the First Minnesota. On the afternoon of 
the third day the remnant of that noble command was 
again in the very front, and when Pickett's men reached 
Cemetery Ridge the First was there to receive them. 
Corporal Dehn, the last of the color guard, was shot and 
the flagstaff cut in two. Corporal O'Brien ran up and 
raised the colors on the piece of staff that was left, 
dashing forward toward the enemy. He fell, with two 
wounds, and Corporal W. N. Irvin, of Company D, 
grasped it. The whole command rushed in, following 
the flag. It was hand-to-hand for a few minutes ; no 
time to load and fire ; bayonets and clubbed muskets and 
great stones snatched from the wall were used ; but the 
struggle, close, desperate and deadly as it was, was 
soon over, and the Confederates threw down their arms 



loi The Story of the ii6th Reginient. 

and surrendered, Marshall Sherman, of Company C, 
capturing the colors of the Twenty-eighth Virginia, Great 
Minnesota — "-Etoile die Nord!''' The sacrifice of your 
sons was your glory. Never forget them. Keep their 
memory green. Tell the children of the glorious deeds, 
and teach them to rejoice in the heroism of their fathers. 

But Gettysburg was not to end without one more 
regiment making the great record of 50 per cent, killed 
and wounded. The Sixty-ninth (Irish) Pennsylvania 
stood, when the battle raged fiercest, out in advance of 
the line where the great attack of Pickett's 18,000 
concentrated in largest numbers, surrounded, overwhelmed 
and literary swallowed up in the surging masses of the 
Confederates. The Irishmen stood immovable, uncon- 
querable, fearless and splendid in their valor, the green 
flag waving side by side with the colors of their adopted 
country, both held aloft by the stone wall until the victory 
was assured and the hosts of the enemy crushed. But 
Colonel Denis O'Kane and Lieutenant-Colonel Martin 
Tschudy lay dead. Major James Duff and almost every 
other officer was down wounded, while another regiment 
had taken its place in the list of those that had, in single 
engagements, lost 50 per cent, killed and wounded. 

Truly, Gettysburg was a field resplendent with great 
and heroic deeds. The "Congress Medal of Honor" 
was originated for the purpose of rewarding brave actions 
out of the ordinary line of duty. An average of less 
than one to each Union regiment has been given by the 
Government. I think the entire number granted for all 
the war might have been distributed for this battle alone 
and not one of them misplaced. And yet, how few of 
our people know of the heroism of our army in the Civil 
War. In justice to the men who composed those armies, 



Gettysburg to the Rapidan. 155 

in justice to their cliildren, should not more recognition 
be given to the glowing history ? What a page of our 
country's history it is, but how few have read it. Our 
school books are silent on the subject, and our children 
never hear it mentioned. What a story for the children 
of Minnesota would be " The First at Gettysburg", or 
for those of Michigan, the thrilling tale of the Twenty- 
fourth. How the coming generations in our own State 
would delight to read of Roy Stone's Brigade, or the 
One Hundred and Fifty-first Pennsylvania, with its one 
hundred school teachers and their young scholars, and 
the fight they made. But they never hear of these 
things. I question whether there are a dozen school 
children in Minnesota who ever heard of their fathers at 
Gettysburg. It is doubtful if there is a line in any text 
book of the public schools of any State keeping alive 
these memories. Our children come home and tell us 
wonderful tales of heroism in the history of old Greece 
and Rome, and of campaigns in Europe. They speak 
of Thermopylae and Marathon, and they have "The 
Charge of the Light Brigade " at Balaklava on the end of 
their tongues, but" of their own fathers, who made a record 
for heroism never equalled and one that will never be 
excelled, they are strangely ignorant. Let us hope that 
in the readers of the future our children may learn the 
story of "American heroism" at least as well as that 
of other ages and of other nations. 

GETTYSBURG TO THE RAPIDAN. 

Remained in camp at Two Taverns until July 7th, 
then moved back again to Taneytown, marching the ten 
miles on empty stomachs. The trains met the Regiment 
there and rations were issued. July Sth, marched in 



The Story of the ii6lh Regime7it. 

a drenching rain to the vicinity of Frederick and 
bivouacked within three miles of the town. Here the 
mail was distributed, the first since leaving Falmouth — 
nearly a month before. July 9th, resumed the march, 
passing through the city with colors unfurled, music and 
drums beating. The inhabitants crowded the streets and 
cheered the victors of Gettysburg. After passing Frederick 
struck the Harper's Ferry Road and continued along as 
far as Jefferson, turned to the right and crossed South 
Mountain and bivouacked on the heights. Resumed the 
march July 10th, passing up Pleasant Valley and crossing 
the Antietam battlefield. Towards evening arrived at 
Jones's Cross Roads and caught up with the enemy. 
The Union batteries shelled the woods and the Regiment 
threw up breast-works. 11th and 12th strengthened the 
works and rested, and on the 13th marched up the 
Williamsport Road, sometimes in line of battle, sometimes 
in column, until reaching the Potomac near Falling 
Waters and again found the enemy. Passed over the 
ground where the Fifth Michigan Cavalry had had a 
fight but an hour before, and there were plenty of 
indications that the brush was considerable of a row. The 
enemies batteries shelled the Union troops vigorously, 
many of the shells coming from a long distance making 
a most melancholy, wailing sound, passing close to the 
men's heads and causing a lot of dodging — fortunately 
none of the men were hit. 

The enemy were found strongly intrenched on the 
Potomac, their line forming a semi-circle with the ends 
resting on the river. Next morning, shortly after daybreak, 
the whole army moved on their line of works, crossed 
them and found them empty and the army of Northern 
Virginia gone and all safely across on the other side of 



Gettysburg to the Rapidan. 157 

the swollen stream. On the 15th, withdrew and movefl 
via Antietam and South Mountain to Harper's Ferry. 
July IGth, went into camp at Sandy Hook, Md., under 
the guns of Maryland Heights. Were mustered for pay ; 
made out official reports, isth, marched at four p. m., 
crossing the Shenandoah River on a wire bridge and 
encamped at Salem Church. Sunday, 19th, marched from 
ten a. m. to three p. m. and bivouacked at Woodgrove. 
20th, moved to Manassas Gap and found the enemy in 
possession. After a short fight in which the Second 
Corps took part, the Gap was captured and held. The 
march was continued, and on the 2oth reached Warrenton ; 
and on the 2Gth, Warrenton Junction, where the Regiment 
went into camp until the oOth, moving on the 31st to Elk 
Run, and on the 31st to Morrisville, where a long halt was 
destined to be made. The march from Gettysburg, 
especially after passing Harper's Ferry, will be long 
remembered for happy days and evenings full of intense 
enjoyment. Each day's march was rarely of more than 
eight or ten miles, reaching the ground for bivouac early 
in the afternoon, and every one fresh enough to enjoy 
the delightful weather and magnificent scenerv of Louden 
Valley. 

Never were the men in such health and spirits. Food 
was plentiful and even luxuries abundant. The country 
was overrun with blackberry bushes, and the fruit, juicy, 
luscious and ripe, was perhaps the greatest blessing that 
ever the men came across. The whole army literally 
feasted on blackberries. The result, health. E^'ery case 
of diarrhoea disappeared and blackberries saved the lives 
of hundreds. Blackberries were of more value to the 
army of the Potomac than all the medical department. 
If ever there is another war let blackberries be a part of 



158 The Story of the ii6th Regirtient. 

the daily ration. Every man of tlie One Hundred and 
Sixteenth will indorse that idea. 

Next to the enormous quantities of blackberries in 
Louden Valley were the numerous swarms of bees. Bees 
of all sorts — honey bees, wasps and hornets in myriads. 
On several occasions when marching in line of battle, the 
command was attacked by the angry swarms. The assault 
was more difficult to meet and endure than the charge of 
the Confederates. A cloud of the litde pests making a 
vigorous attack on the men was really something serious. 
Many a time the ranks were broken, and veterans who 
would scorn to dodge a shell, quailed before a hornet's 
sting and fled in dismay when they heard the buzz of a 
wasp. 

The camp at Morrisville was a most happy one, and 
the evening camp fire recalled many an incident of the 
great battle just fought. Men told how they had marched 
through Pennsylvania and had been within ten miles of 
home. One man had actually stolen out of camp one 
evening, walked all night and saw his wife and children, 
rode back in his farm wagon and was in camp before his 
absence was noticed. One of the men who had been 
captured and escaped, told of a brave deed of Sergeant 
Halpin. The Sergeant had been shot through the leg and 
captured. A day or two afterwards, while on the march 
for the South, he saw a Confederate guard abusing one of 
the men who was also a captive. Halpin quicklv leaped 
to his feet and knocked the Confederate down. The other 
Confederate guards were so charmed with his pluck that 
they protected Halpin from further insult. 

During the cannonading that preceded Pickett's charge, 
General Alexander Hays was about to visit the skirmish 
line, a very hot place just at that time ; and a little Irishman 



Gettysburg to the Rapidan. lo9 

on a white horse was detailed to accompany him as 
orderly. The General looked at the diminutive son of the 
old sod and judged by his appearance that he might not 
be very reliable. "Sir", said the General, " are you sure 
you are brave enough to follow me on the skirmish line ? 
we may be killed out there". " Gineral ", replied the 
orderly, touching his cap, " go right on, sir ; go right on 
to the line. If ye are killt out there, ye won't be in hell 
five minutes until ye'll hear me tappin' on the window to 
get in". With his headquarters flag in his hand. General 
Hays rode up and down the line, leading it forward and 
urging on a good fight, and the little man on the w^hite 
horse stuck to him like his shadow. 

Then there was a good story told about an officer of the 
Regiment. On the morning of July 4th the Captain had 
walked out to a pool of water that was some distance in 
front of the line (at Gettysburg) for a wash. No sooner 
had he gotten to work than the Confederate sharpshooters 
began firing at him. One bullet came very close and 
caused him to unconsciously shy a little. Some of the 
others, who w^ere with him, smiled at the involuntary 
movement. The captain very quietly remarked, " Ah, 
well, if the Rebs send a ball through my shirt there will 
be more lives than mine lost!" Considering the three 
long, warm, summer weeks since anyone had a change of 
linen, how very true. 

The picket line of the Second Corps at Morrisville 
was remarkable in being very long, at one time running 
something like ten miles across the country. Of course, 
the posts were necessarily far apart, and in fact were placed 
just close enough to allow of the men being seen from one 
post to the next during the day. Communication was 
kept up by having a non-commissioned officer and a man 



160 The Story of the ii6th Regime7it. 

or two patrolling back and forth. The duty was pleasant 
and agreeable, but extremely dangerous. At night the 
bushwhackers would creep through the brush and get 
close to the line, and when the officer of the day would be 
passing in the dark, quietly cover him and demand his 
surrender. Several officers and men disappeared in this 
wa\\ No matter how vigilant the men were the spies and 
bushwhackers succeeded in getting to and fro on the line. 
One night a rush was made by a party of horsemen who 
boldly galloped past the picket line. The Union men fired 
at the sound of horses. A scream was heard, and after 
searching in the woods for some time, a young lady, 
daughter of a farmer living near by, was found in the bush 
where she had fallen from her horse. She was badly 
wounded, being shot in the thigh and the bone broken. 
She frankly confessed that she had been piloting a squad 
of bushwhackers through the picket line. But while the 
picket line had its drawbacks and hours of danger it also 
had its times of merriment and laughter, and the camp at 
Morrisville was a happy and agreeable one. 

August 13th the long expected and much desired 
order came that was to end the battalion and once more 
raise the command to a regimental organization. Major 
Mulholland and a detail of officers were ordered to proceed 
to Philadelphia and recruit six new companies and fill up 
the four old" ones. He started at once, but when they 
arrived at Philadelphia circumstances prevented the 
immediate carr\-ing out of the plan, and not until the 
Wilderness campaign was about to commence was the 
organization complete. 

Lieutenant William H. Bibighaus, Company C, died 
in June, 18C3. He was a brave and estimable young man 
and an excellent officer, and had greatly distinguished 




ff^ 



LIEUTENANT WILLIAM H. P.IP.IGHAUS 
Died August 6th, 1863 



Gettysburg to the Rapidan. 161 

himself at Fredericksburg. He was orderly sergeant of 
his company at that battle and remained alone, loading 
and firing by the stone wall after the Regiment had fallen 
back. He was taken sick a few days after the battle of 
Chancellorsville and sent to the hospital at Washington, 
where he died. His body was brought home and buried 
in Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia. 



162 The Story of tlu ii6th Regiment. 



CHAPTER VII. 
BRISTOE STATION. 

T"HE Regiment remained in camp at Morrisville until 
August 31st, and the long halt gave opportunity for 
much needed rest. Brigadier-General AA'^illiam Hays, who 
had commanded the corps during July and August, after 
Hancock was wounded, was relieved on August 12th by 
General G. K. AA'arren, who was assigned to the command 
while General Hancock should remain absent. On 
August 31st the corps broke camp and advanced to the 
banks of the Rappahannock, but returned in three or 
four davs to the camp at Morrisville without having a 
fight, remaining until September 12th, when, owing 
to the Confederate Army being weakened by the sending 
of nearly the whole of Longstreet's Corps to the West, 
it was thought a good opportunity to strike a blow, 
and the Union Army advanced for that purpose, the 
Second Corps and the cavalr\' being in the advance. 
Marched, September 12th, to Rappahannock Station, 
crossed the river and marched to Culpepper ; September 
14th, to Slaughter Mountain ; loth, to Raccoon Ford 
on the Rapidan, relieving the cavalr}- pickets just 
before dusk. The enemj-^s pickets could be seen on 
the other side of the stream, and firing began promptly. 
The Confederates seemed mad and full of fight and 
blamed away vigorously. The useless firing across a 
river indulged in by most of the army was never relished 
b\' the men of the Irish Brigade, who thought it sheer 
nonsense to blaze away and keep ever)-body from enjoying 



Bristoe Station. 163 

rest and comfort without accomplishing the slightest 
result. An effort was made at once to have the firing 
cease and cook supper. Captain Granger, of the Eighty- 
eighth New York, jumped from cover, waved his sword 
and stuck it in the ground. The Southern boys understood 
the signal and, inquiring ''what troops", found it was the 
Irish Brigade. A picket truce followed immediately and 
all hands settled down to boil their coffee in peace, while 
for miles to the right and left the useless fusillade was 
continued far into the night. During the 16th and 17th 
not a man was hit in the battalion, and the picket truce 
was honorably observed in front of the brigade, but along 
the balance of the corps front the skirmishing was lively, 
rendering the outposts most unhealthy. A number of 
sheep were captured by the men of the brigade, and to 
show their good feeling for the men on the other side of 
the river, three or four were sent over — result, mutton 
stew on both sides of the stream. Remained on the banks 
of the river until October 5th, moved to Culpepper and 
remained until October 10th, when it became apparent 
that the Confederates were moving around to the right of 
the Union Army. Orders were received to move on what 
turned out to be one of the most trying campaigns ever 
experienced by the men. The information obtained by 
General Meade during the first days of the movement 
was of so vague a nature that much unnecessary marching, 
loss of rest and fatigue resulted. With eight days' cooked 
rations in haversack the battalion marched at one a. m., 
Sunday, October 11th, for Brandy Station, and then on 
to Bealeton Station, on the Orange and Alexandria 
Railroad, the rear of the corps being covered by the 
cavalry, which had rather a severe fight at Brandy 
Station. Erroneous information caused General Meade 



Id4 The Story of the Ii6ih Regiment. 

to turn and move back to Culpepper, expecting to find 
the enemy moving on that point, so, on Monday, 
October 12th, at noon, marched back and re-crossed the 
river on pontoons at Rappahannock Station, and moved 
on Brandy Station. Shortly after crossing, the whole 
Second Corps advanced in line of battle across the country, 
making one of the most beautiful scenes incidental to war, 
but no enemy was found. On reaching Brandy Station 
the men were tired and worn, and halted, expecting to pass 
the night there. Large fires soon blazed on every hill. The 
coffee boiled and the weary troops sank to a rest that was 
destined to be of short duration. Hardly had the foot-sore 
men stacked arms than it was definitely learned that the 
Confederate Army was passing the right of the Army 
of the Potomac on a raid towards Washington, and at 
eleven o'clock at night the worn-out troops were on the 
road once more and had entered upon perhaps the most 
arduous march ever experienced by the men. Back to 
Bealeton, thence to Warrenton Junction, to Catlett's 
Station, Auburn, Bristoe and Centerville. Bealeton 
Station was reached and found in flames and some of the 
Union troops busy destroying stores and ammunition. 
\\'ithout a halt the column pushed on to Fayetteville, 
arriving there at six o'clock on the morning of the 
13th. A halt of an hour to cook coffee, and the order 
"fall in" was heard again. The men had not closed 
an eye for twenty-four hours and had not even time 
to cook or eat, but the Confederates were nearing the 
Capitol, and the army had to be pushed on to outmarch, 
overtake and pass them. All day long the tired, sleepy, 
hungry men pushed on, everyone intensely nervous and 
anxious, for rumors and alarms of all sorts were flying 
along the marching column and momentary attacks were 




MAJOR-GENERAL GOUVERNEUR K. WARREN 
Commanded Second Corps frum August 12th 1863. to March 24th, 1864 



Dristoc Station. 165 

looked for on the left flank. The Second Corps had the 
left of the army and brought up the rear, making the 
march all the more fatiguing. At nine o'clock at night 
the Second Corps bivouacked on Cedar Run near the 
village of Auburn. It was known that the Confederate 
Army was marching on a parallel line in a race with the 
Union Army for Washington. There was no time for rest 
or delay, and at the earliest dawn on October 14th the 
column was on the move again. Fording Auburn Creek, 
or Cedar Run, the men found the water mighty cold and, 
pushing on a short distance, halted on Auburn Hill. 
Caldwell's Division stacked arms, gathered sticks and, 
lighting fires, began cooking the morning coffee. The 
culinary duties were never finished, however, for hardly 
had the men set to work when they were astonished 
by a Confederate battery, almost within a stone's throw, 
opening with shell, which knocked the cofTee pots flying 
and scattered the fires. For a moment consternation and 
confusion reigned, but the veteran troops that had often 
been surprised before quickly ran to arms. Rickett's 
Pennsylvania Battery quickly got to work, while General 
Alexander Hays's division deployed and charged the 
unknown and unexpected foes, who in a few minutes, 
while the morning mists were still hanging over the 
scene, limbered up and galloped from the grounds. The 
sudden and unlooked for attack came from the force of 
the famous Confederate General, J. E. B. Stuart, who 
had been accidentally caught between two columns of 
the Union Army the night before. Hiding his men in 
the deep woods he remained quiet during the night of 
the 13th, but when morning broke on the 14th, and 
seeing Caldwell's men massed upon the exposed knoll, 
he could not resist the temptation of dosing them with 



166 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

shell from seven guns of Beckham's Battery. His two 
brigades of cavalry, under Generals Gordon and Funsten, 
quickly went to the rear when General Alex. Hays 
deployed the third division and moved upon the bold 
cavalryman. The episode of Auburn Hill was a very 
remarkable one and cost the lives of a dozen men, most 
of whom were in the Fifty-second New York. They 
were buried where they fell and within half an hour from 
the time they were cooking their coffee. The division 
quickly took up the line of march and entered upon 
another day of extreme hard work. But no fatigue could 
daunt the spirit of the men of the Irish Brigade and, as 
they were filing on to the road, they saluted the Corps 
Commander by going through the manual of arms as 
they marched. Warren was delighted at the exhibition 
of pluck and endurance. The day began in sunshine and 
the morning lovely. Though tired, everyone was full of 
confidence and hope. Before starting on the morning 
march Lieutenant Sacriste and a large detail were made 
from the One Hundred and Sixteenth for picket duty, 
skirmishing and flankers, and as the Irish Brigade was 
rear guard of the whole army, the duties of October 14th 
became arduous indeed. Even as the men of Caldwell's 
Division were lighting the fires on Auburn Hill, Ewell's 
Confederate Corps was deploying in line of battle to 
strike, and as the rear of the troops passed on towards 
Catlett's Station, they moved on the Union picket line. 
Colonel James A. Beaver, of the One Hundred and Forty- 
eighth Pennsylvania Volunteers, was division officer of 
the day and, with the picket of Caldwell's division, 
succeeded not only in beating off the attack, but 
actually held Ewell in check until all the Union troops 
and trains were passed in safety. Lieutenant Sacriste 



Brisioe Station. 167 

covered himself and the men of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth, who were with him, with glory, and for the 
brilliant fight that he made he was afterwards awarded 
a Congressional medal of honor. 

It is as w^ell, however, to let Colonel Beaver and 
General Warren tell the story in their own way : — 

FROM COLONEL JAMES A. BEAVER. 

" During the retrograde movement of the Army of the Potomac from 
tlie neighborhood of Culpepper, Va., to Bull Run, in the autumn of 1863, 
I was commanding the One Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, in the Third Brigade, First Division, Second 
Corps. Our corps was in the rear during the movement and, on the 13th 
of October, our division the rear of the corps. After going into camp on 
the night of the 13th, a heavy detail was made from the division for picket 
duty, and I was appointed officer of the day. On the morning of the 14th 
of October, after the division had marched, the enemy unexpectedly 
appeared in the front of our picket line, turning our flank, and attacked 
the division, which had crossed Auburn Creek and was engaged in cooking 
breakfast. The wagon train had not entirely passed, and General 
Warren, then in command of the Second Corps, gave me verbal directions 
to hold the crest of the hill above the road, at all hazards, until the 
wagons had all passed. We succeeded in doing this but, by the time the 
train had passed the ford by which the division and train had crossed, the 
creek was in the possession of the enemy. When I made the discovery, 
I had already commenced to withdraw the picket line — a detachment of 
the One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, under an 
officer who I have learned was Lieutenant Louis J. Sacriste had reported 
to me— and in order to save them and the other detail from destruction 
or capture, it became necessary to cross the creek south of the ford and 
march diagonally across the country to rejoin the division. 

In order to apprise the officers in command of the detail from other 
regiments of their danger and of the route of our march, I requested 
Lieutenant Sacriste to proceed to the line which was then engaged and 
give direction to them. This service he performed very satisfactorily and, 
as a consequence, we withdrew our line without loss and completely 
circumvented the enemy in their evident design of capturing our pickets." 

James A. Beaver, 
Formerly Col. 148th Reg. P. V. Bvt. Brig.-Gen, U. S. V. 



168 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

FROM MAJOR-GENERAL G. K. WARREN. 

Newport, R. I., October 8th, i88r. 
Colonel Beaver's statements of events are in accordance with my 
recollections, which are very fresh. I witnessed the withdrawal of his 
pickets, after covering the crossing of both trains, and the cavalr\- (which 
had also defended the crossing with much gallantry), hard pressed by an 
overwhelming force of the enemy, who had been held in check by the first 
division pickets of the Second Army Corps until we had completed the 
dispositions of a new line of battle, which the enemy dared not attack. 
It was one of the finest instances of effective picket and skirmish work I 
have ever witnessed, and I should accord you all the credit that General 
(then Colonel j Beaver accords. 

Yen,- respectfully, 

G. K. Warrex. 

The fight of the rear guard did not end at Auburn, but 
continued all day and far into the night. All day long the 
Confederate and Union armies rushed on in parallel lines, 
in the wild race for Washington, and all day long the 
fight kept up between the flankers of the two columns on 
the skirmish line, but in the rear, where the Irish Brigade 
was covering the retreat, the firing was heavy and 
continuous. The march of the main column was fully 
protected by the flankers, and not a wagon, ambulance, 
mule, or even a harness buckle, was left on the road. 
Towards four o'clock in the afternoon ominous sounds 
were heard from the front and the roar of battle came on 
the cool autumn air. It was the Confederate corps of 
A. P. Hill striking the head of the Second Corps column 
at Bristoe Station in an effort to cut off the rear guard of 
the army. The fight at Bristoe was short, but full of 
stirring incidents. 

The Second Corps of the Union army met and fought 
and threw back the corps of A. P. Hill, while that of 
Ewell was preparing to close on the rear and was held 
back bv the skirmish line alone. The One Hundred and 





f^Aj^.^^Al.lbM. 



Bristoe Station. 169 

Sixteenth Regiment, being the extreme rear, reached the 
field last and was, with the exception of a color guard, at 
once sent to the skirmish line to join the men of the 
regiment who had been acting as flankers during the day. 
The men went out at dusk in a beautiful line and attacked 
the sharpshooters who were hidden in the trees, and the 
firing continued until dark. Captain Willauer, riding out to 
visit the picket, managed to lose his way and found himself 
among the Confederate cavalry in rear of their picket 
line. He quietly rode among them until he got his 
bearings, and then, making a break for his own line, 
succeeded in getting away safely. In the darkness it was 
impossible to tell friend from foe, and no one in the 
Confederate ranks suspected for a moment that a Union 
of^cer was riding among them. 

At midnight, the corps having all been withdrawn, the 
Irish Brigade that had been left alone to hold the picket 
line for a long time after all had gone, with instructions to 
bolt in a hurry when they did go, started to follow, falling 
back from the picket line with great caution and in silence, 
taking up the double-quick after being clear of the field 
and keeping it up for an hour. Then the rain began 
falling and the darkness became intense. All night the 
march continued and at daylight ended on the heights of 
Centerville. The race was won and the Capitol saved. 
The members of the Regiment never did harder service 
than on this short campaign. The fatigue was something 
extraordinary and the demand on the endurance of the 
men out of all reason, yet was borne cheerfully. Many 
fell out of the ranks from sheer exhaustion, were left in 
the rear and never heard of again. Some were known 
to have been picked up by the enemy, sent to the southern 
prisons and died there. 



170 The Story of the ii6th Regijnent. 

Here is an old letter written by Captain O'Grady, of 
the Eighty-eighth New York, that sums up in a few words 
the Bristoe campaign : 

CAMP EIGHTY-EIGHTH X. Y. S. V. (IRISH BRIGADE), 
Near Centerville, Va., October i6th, 1863. 

Dear Dick : Adventures again. On the 9th we came back from 
the Rapidan to Culpepper, on the nth marched back past Culpepper, 
covered the retreat of the army across the Rappahannock, on the 12th 
re-crossed the Rappahannock, driving the enemy six miles, at i o'clock 
on the morning of the 13th retreated, still last of the army, to Bealeton 
Station, continued marching to Sulphur Springs, found the enemy there, 
back to Bealeton, thence to W'arrenton, thence to Auburn— a very 
roundabout course to cover the movements of the other four corps — 
some thirty-three miles without a halt. On the 14th were shelled at 
breakfast by the advance of the enemy, fought six hours in retreat, 
capturing the first battery by a coup de main, encountered them ten 
miles further on at Bristoe Station, fought, with two divisions, the whole 
of A. P. Hill's corps, held our position till after midnight, Irish Brigade 
last, alone and unsupported, till the others were at a safe distance, then 
a double-quick for twelve miles, crossing Deep Run and Bull Run, where 
we halted, a march of j6 miles in 56 hours, fighting two severe engage- 
ments in one day, and having to guard the entire baggage and reserve 
artillery of the army. This is unprecedented in the annals of war, 
beating the famous march of the Fifty-second to Talavera. We captured 
two colors. Jive guns and four hundred a7id fifty prisoners, and lost 
nothing. Yesterday our pickets were engaged by the advance of the 
enemy and simultaneously on their right flank, where were concentrated, 
by easy marches from the Rappahannock, the First, Sixth, Third and 
Fifth Corps, opened a terrific roar of artillery — we were merely a decoy 
for them, and were temporarily sacrificed to Meade's plans — in izvo hours 
this flank and (by this time) rear attack smashed the enemy and they 
were off, routed ; 20,000 cavalry started in pursuit. A congratulatory 
order was to-day read to the whole army, recounting the exploits of the 
Second Corps, and thanking us for our endurance, gallantr>', etc. 
When I said we lost nothing, of course there were casualties on both 
sides, rebels losing six to one, but no baggage, barring a few wagons, 
that a few negro teamsters deserted, cutting the traces and escaping on 
the mules ; the wagons and the rebels who took them were recaptured, 
and the niggers will be shot. The season is getting late and we will, I 
fancy, go into winter quarters ; the Second Corps after its terrible m.arch 



Bristoc Station. 171 

will not follow the retreat, besides, the others are much nearer the 
enemy. This is the most decisive campaign of a few days that I believe 
was ever fought, the rapidity of each blow at the enemy was only 
equalled by its success. * * * It's pitch dark now and I have no 
candle * * * 

The writer was wrong in some of his conclusions. The 
army did not go into winter quarters as early as expected, 
and another short but severe campaign had to be passed 
through before the long rest. 

Before daylight on the morning of the 15th the men 
sank on the wet ground at Bull Run and were asleep 
almost before they touched the earth. They were quickly 
awakened by the booming of cannon and at six o'clock 
formed line of battle. Reports were rife about the 
remarkable way that Meade had drawn Lee away from 
his base, got in his rear and was pounding the remains of 
the Army of Northern Virginia. The boys believed the 
story for quite a while and thought Meade's strategy 
immense, and the men of the One Hundred and Sixteenth 
were greatly pleased at the following eulogistic order : — 

Headquarters, Army of the Potomac. 

October 15th, 1S63. 
(General Orders, No. 96.) 

The Major-General commanding announces to the army that the rear 
guard, consisting of the Second Corps, was attacked yesterday while 
marching by the flank. 

The enemy, after a spirited contest, was repulsed, losing a battery of 
five guns, two colors, and fouK hundred and fifty prisoners. The skill and 
promptitude of Major-General Warren and the gallantry and bearing 
of the officers and soldiers of the Second Corps are entitled to high 
commendation. 

By command of 

Major-General Meade. 
S. Williams, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 



172 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



Having had such a tough time as rear guard, marching 
and fighting, it was thought that the Second Corps would 
now be on reser\-e, but all hands had great hopes that 
they would be allowed to have a whack at the final 
victory. These were fairy tales that a few short hours 
dispelled, and the sad truth dawned that the army had 
simply fallen back to checkmate a move of the enemy 
that threatened the National Capital. October loth, 16th 
and 17th the army remained at Centerville, the men of 
the Regiment resting, eating and sleeping. Sleeping ! 
Would they ever get enough sleep to make up for the 
week just passed ? One officer was missing from the roll 
call when the short campaign was ended — Adjutant John 
A. Dom-art had become panic-stricken at Auburn and 
had fled to the rear when Stuart hurled his shells into the 
early morning bivouac. He returned to the command 
some days afterwards, was promptly placed under arrest, 
court-martialed and dismissed in disgrace. October 19th, 
marched to Bristoe Station. On 21st and 22d, camped 
at Auburn, the scene of the early morning alarm. October 
23d, moved to Turkey Run, and went into camp near 
Warrenton, and remained, drilling and recuperating, 
until November 7th. Broke camp and marched to 
Kelly's Ford on the Rappahannock, passing en route 
through Warrenton Junction, Bealeton and Morrisville. 
Crossed the river next morning, the Second Corps in 
support of the Third Corps, that had crossed the evening 
before, securing several hundred prisoners. November 
Sth, established camp on the north side of Mountain Run 
on Shakelsforde Farm ; and here, on November 9th, 
General Thomas Francis Meagher visited the camp of 
the Irish Brigade. He was in citizen's dress. Everyone 
was deliehted to see and welcome their old commander 



Bristoe Station. 1'3 

and for several days there was a first-class jollification. 
November 10th, moved to south side of Mountain Run, 
about four miles from the Rappahannock, where the 
brigade was reviewed by Marshal Prim of the Spanish 
army, who expressed his high appreciation of the brigade. 
He was but repeating the compliments that he had given 
to the commander a year previously on the Peninsula. 
November 15th, orders to be ready to move at a moment's 
notice. November 19th, orders to draw eight days' 
rations, and continual rumors and frequent alarms, 
notwithstanding which the pleasant Autumn days were 
full of enjoyments, and the men of the Irish Brigade 
indulged in camp sports and horse racing to an unlimited 
extent. The roads were bad, but an excellent track was 
found on the farm of John Minor Botts. November 25th, 
broke camp and, leaving horse racing and sport behind, 
started on the Mine Run campaign. Marched to the 
Rapidan and crossed at Germania Ford, advanced to 
Robertson's Tavern and threw up intrenchments on the 
hills, slept on arms but were not attacked. Roll call at 
daybreak, November 27th and, after cofTee, moved up the 
road and took up a position in a wood, the edge of which 
rested on Mine Run. Colonel Peel of the British 
Grenadiers, son of Sir Robert Peel, a guest of General 
Meade, stood by the brigade for an hour or so, chatting 
with the officers, some of whom had good whiskey in 
their canteens while the Colonel had some excellent 
cigars, and the interview was enjoyed by all. The 
fragrance of the consoling weed and an uncorked canteen 
are calculated to make friends even of hereditary enemies, 
and the Peelers of the old country were forgotten on the 
battlefield of the new. A day or two afterwards, on the 
picket line, Colonel Peel had the visor of his forage cap 



174 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

knocked off by a sharpshooter. November 28th, moved 
still nearer to the front and spent the day in a drenching 
rain waiting for orders to attack. Heavy skirmishing all 
day where the army was massed in front of the enemy's 
position behind Mine Run. No general attack was deemed 
advisable as the works of the Confederates seemed 
impregnable, but General Meade concluded to turn the 
right of the Confederate line, and after dark the turning 
column started under command of General Warren. The 
sixteen thousand men and three batteries moved during 
the night of the 28th and during the 29th ; the roads 
were heavy, in fact in a frightful condition, and the 
progress slow, and it was not until sun-down that the 
extreme right of the enemy was reached, three miles 
beyond Hope Church. 

The Second Corps found the enemy and at once 
formed for the attack. Colonel Byrnes of the Twenty- 
eighth Massachusetts, in command of the skirmishers of 
Caldwell's division, pushed his men against a regiment 
that was deployed to protect the Confederates who were 
constructing the works and, with a rush, drove them into 
their intrenchments, capturing some prisoners. For a 
short time nearly all of the One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Regiment and the balance of the brigade were hotly 
engaged, and had an hour more of daylight been granted 
to the Union forces a victory of no small magnitude would 
have been within reach, but the daylight was almost gone, 
and the darkness gathered over the field before anything 
more could be done other than pushing close to the works 
that the Confederates were busily strengthening. The 
night settled down intensely cold and the men, wet to the 
skin and their feet soaked, spent a few of the most miserable 
hours of the whole three years. More deaths resulted 



Reorganizatioyi of the Regiment. 175 

from that one night's exposure than were lost in many 
a battle of magnitude. It was a night of anxiety as well 
as great physical suffering. Everyone expected a bloody 
sunrise on the morn, and the dawn was awaited in 
expectation of the roar of batde beginning with daylight. 
Daybreak came, and then full light, but no orders to rush 
on the opposing line. The cold had steadily increased 
during the night and the air was biting and piercing. All 
night long the enemy had labored with zeal to make their 
works formidable, and the morning found them of such a 
character that to move against them would be worse 
than madness ; it would be slaughter of men without a 
shadow of hope of success. With a courage greater than 
required to attack. General Warren concluded to abandon 
the attempt and the turning movement, in which so much 
hope was centered, was at an end. It meant ihejinale 
of the effort of General Meade to surprise the enemy and 
nothing was left but to withdraw from his front and go 
into winter quarters. 

REORGANIZATION OF THE REGIMENT. 

On November 30th, by special request of General 
Warren, the Irish Brigade was detailed as guard of the 
ammunition train, and in the evening started on that 
duty, marched all night, re-crossed the river at Ely's Ford, 
and went into camp at Mountain Run. After resting here 
for several days moved to the vicinity of Stevensburg, 
three miles from Brandy Station, and began erecting huts 
for winter quarters. The Bristoe Station and Mine Run 
campaigns were movements full of great fatigue and 
suffering that tested the endurance of the men to the 
utmost. The loss in battle to the Battalion was small, 
but many succumbed to the terrible strain of the long 



176 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

marches and exposure. Quite a number of the men were 
missing in each campaign who have never turned up 
again or who w^ere only heard of afterwards as dying in 
southern prisons. 

At Mine Run, as at Bristoe, almost the entire One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Battalion was detailed on the 
skirmish line, and only a guard left with the colors. It 
was noticed that the Confederate prisoners taken at Mine 
Run were very young and poorly clad and equipped. 
They were mostly from North Carolina and many of 
them seemed almost glad to be captured. 

The winter months of 1863 and 1864 passed away in 
picket, drill, reviews and all the other incidents of camp 
life, each day like the preceding one. Christmas and 
New Year's came and passed with the usual cheer and 
boxes of good things from home. February 6th, Captain 
and Brevet-Major Seneca G. Willauer was transferred to 
the Sixth Regiment Veteran Reserve Corps and Captain 
Garret Nowlen succeeded him in command of the 
Regiment. Major Mulholland was in command of Camp 
Cadwallader at Philadelphia during the early winter 
months, and soon after the New Year of 1864 received 
permission to recruit six new companies and so raise the 
battalion to a full regiment. Recruiting was actively 
commenced, not only in Philadelphia but in Pittsburg and 
in Fayette and Schuylkill Counties. Richard C. Dale, of 
Allegheny County, was appointed by Governor Curtin 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and he took personal charge of the 
organization of three of the new companies, H, I, and K. 
The two first were raised in Pittsburg and vicinity, while 
Company K was recruited in Uniontown, Fayette County ; 
Company E was recruited in Philadelphia, and F and G 
in Schuylkill County. The men enlisted in Philadelphia 



Reorganization of the Regiment. 177 

over and above the number necessary for Company E, 
were placed in four old companies, A, B, C and D, to 
fill them up. 

On February 25th, 1864, the first detachment of 
recruits arrived at the regimental camp and were 
assigned to Companies A, B, C and D, and from that 
date new men were received daily. Finally, on May 3d, 
the regimental organization was completed and the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth ceased to be a battalion. The 
roster of the organization was as follows : 

Colonel, St. Clair A. Mulholland Philadelphia. 

Lieutenant-Colonel, Richard C. Dale Pittsburg. 

Major, John Teed Berks County. 

Adjutant, Louis J. Sacriste ■ Philadelphia. 

Quarter-Master, Richard Wade Philadelphia. 

Surgeon, William B. Hartman Elk County. 

Sergeant, Major William J. Burke Philadelphia. 

Quarter-Master Sergeant, George McMahon . . . Philadelphia. 

Commissary Sergeant, Daniel Reen Philadelphia. 

Hospital Steward, Frederick Wagner Philadelphia. 

Principal Musician, T. W. Vanneman Chester County. 

Company A. 

Captain, William H. Hobart Montgomery County. 

First Lieutenant, George Halpin Philadelphia. 

Second Lieutenant. \'acant. 

Company B. 

Captain, Francis E. Crawford Philadelphia. 

First Lieutenant, Thomas McKnight Philadelphia. 

Second Lieutenant. Vacant. 

Company C. 

Captain, Henry D. Price . . Montgomery- County. 

First Lieutenant, Abraham L. Detwiler Montgomery County. 

Second Lieutenant. Vacant. 

Company D. 

Captain, Garrett Nowlen Philadelphia. 

First Lieutenant, Eugene Brady Philadelphia. 

Second Lieutenant. Vacant. 



178 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



Company E. 

Captain, Michael Schoales Philadelphia. 

First Lieutenant, Robert J. Grogan Philadelphia. 

Second Lieutenant, Charles Cosslett Philadelphia. 

Company F. 

Captain, Wellington Jones Schujlkill County. 

First Lieutenant, Peter H. Frailey Schuylkill County. 

Second Lieutenant, William A. Shoener Schuylkill County. 

Company G. 

Captain, Frank R. Lieb Schuylkill County. 

First Lieutenant, Francis McGuigan Philadelphia. 

Second Lieutenant, Samuel G. \'anderheyden . . Schuylkill County. 

Company H. 

Captain, David W. Megraw ,, . . . Allegheny County. 

First Lieutenant, Robert J. Alston Allegheny County. 

Second Lieutenant, Thompson W. Smith .... Allegheny County. 

Company L 

Captain, Samuel Taggart Allegheny County. 

First Lieutenant, \Villiam O'Callaghan Philadelphia County. 

Second Lieutenant, Joseph W. Yocum Montgomery County. 

COMP.\NY K. 

Captain, John R. Weltner Fayette County. 

First Lieutenant, James D. Cope Fayette County. 

Second Lieutenant, Zadock B. Springer Fayette County. 

The Regiment started on the campaign of 1864 with 
but one surgeon, whereas the organization was entitled to 
three, but doctors were getting scarce after the war had 
been in progress for three years and the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth was not the only regiment that had but 
one. The medical staff were badly needed in the last 
year of the war, more so than at any other period, but 
the demand had exhausted the supply. 

The departure of the new men and companies for the 
front gave rise to many of those thrilling, heart-rending 
scenes that were witnessed in every part of the countr}' in 
the early days of the war. The feeling was more intensified 



Reorganization of the Regiment. 179 

than at first, because the participants had learned, 
by sad experiences, that for many the parting meant 
"forever", and those going to the front in 1864 were so 
young. It was the men who went in '61. The school 
boys filled the ranks in '64, The large majority of the 
new soldiers who filled the ranks of the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth were innocent of a beard, but they were the 
bravest and best, and it was so very, very sad for the 
mother to give them up. She was proud of her soldier 
boy to be sure, but who can fathom the sorrow of a 
mother's heart when, kissing her son for the last time, 
she sends him away to face death in all its various forms. 
Every one of the new members of the Regiment left 
mothers, sisters and friends behind to pray for them, to 
weep for them, and cherish forever the memory of those 
who, in many instances, never came back. It is not 
possible to record in these pages all the sad partings 
incidental to the re-formation of the Regiment, but we 
will speak of one company, a fair sample of all the others : 
Company K was recruited in Fayette County, and on a 
beautiful spring evening the company marched to the 
railroad depot in Uniontown to take the cars for the seat 
of the war. The little city had sent hundreds of others 
during the previous three years, and hardly a family but 
had passed through seasons of sorrow, and the crape had 
floated from many a door-bell for the soldiers who would 
never return. Nearly every able-bodied man was at the 
front already and now all the schools were being deserted 
to swell the army. All the town turned out to see the 
last company leave for the field. The train was waiting 
and the local band that escorted the company ceased to 
play when the depot was reached. The ranks were broken 
to allow the leave-taking, every one of the boys had been 



180 The Story of the ii6th Regi?ne7it. 

loaded with all the tokens of affection and things of use- 
fulness that love could suggest, and all that remained was 
to exchange the last embrace, the last loving, heartfelt 
kiss, and say farewell. Then the cars moved ofl amid 
sobs and tears, the band played a farewell salute, cheers 
mingled with the mother's subdued weeping, and the 
train was soon out of sight. The crowd slowly dispersed, 
each one going to the lonely home to think of the boy 
who, living or dead, would be for all time to come the 
idol and hero of the family. Company K left Uniontown 
with eighty-one in the ranks. Within one short year 
twenty were killed in battle or had died of wounds. Eight 
had died of disease and four had died in southern prisons. 
Thirty-two out of eighty-one were sleeping in soldiers' 
graves. Of those alive at the end of the year twenty-two 
had been very badly wounded and four had been 
transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps on account of 
disease. 

One brave little woman stood among those who were 
left behind and saw marching away with the Company 
her husband, George W. Hanan, and her eldest boy, 
Thomas JefiEerson Hanan, not yet fifteen years of age, the 
oldest and the youngest of Company K. In her arms 
her baby and gathered around her were her five other 
little ones. Within one short year seven of her family 
were gone : the husband died a most heroic death in 
the Wilderness, May 6 ; her soldier boy died of disease in 
camp ; of the six children left at home five died during 
the autumn and the widowed mother was left with one 
little boy four years of age. Then with a heroism greater 
than even a soldier knew she faced the world and her 
duty, took up the burden, worked and prayed and raised 
the last one left to her to be an honored citizen. 



Rcorganizatioii of the Regiment. 181 

Some day the little group will gather around the good 
mother again : the noble husband who died on glory's 
field ; her soldier boy who died in camp ; the five little 
ones who died because of the war and want of father's 
care. Ah, yes, surely, surely, they will meet again and 
there will be no more wars and no more partings. The 
brave little wife and mother will receive a great reward, 
her sorrow and sacrifice will become an eternal crown 
and will rejoice forever with the thousands of other noble 
and heroic women whose sorrows, tears and prayers 
appealed to heaven and gave us the victory. 

No wonder that those left behind waited in sorrow for 
the end. Those who were actively engaged at the front 
suffered but litde compared with those left at home. 

The maid who binds her warrior's sash 

With smile that well her pain dissembles, 
While beneath the drooping lash 

One Starr)- teardrop hangs and trembles, 
Though heaven alone records the tear, 

And fame shall never know her story — 
Her heart has shed a drop as dear 

As e'er bedewed the field of glory. 

The wife who girds her husband's sword 

'Mid little one who weep or wonder, 
And bravely speaks the cheering word, 

What though her heart be rent asunder, 
Doomed nightly in her dreams to hear 

The bolts of death around him rattle, 
Hath shed as sacred blood as e'er 

Was poured upon the field of battle. 

The mother who conceals her grief 

While to her breast her son she presses, 
Then breathes a few brave words and brief, 

Kissing the patriot brow she blesses, 
With.no one but her secret God 

To know the pain that weighs upon her, 
Sheds holy blood as e'er the sod 

Received on freedom's field of honor. 



182 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

THE WILDERNESS. 

/^N May 1st, a heavy storm of rain and wind swept 
^■^^ over the camp at Brandy Station, blowing down 
the tents and wrecking the winter quarters. Everyone 
set to work to repair the damage but before the tents 
were well up again orders came to move. Then a day 
of perfect quiet and rest. Never a day of more portentous 
and absolute calm in the army than that of May 2d, 1864, 
No drills, reviews or work of any kind. The lion was 
about to emerge from his lair and leap upon his foe, and 
paused to gather strength for the spring ; and when the 
shadows fell on the evening of May 3d, the great army 
silently withdrew from the old camps where it had spent 
the winter, leaving the camp fires burning, and the long 
lines moved towards the fords of the Rapidan. Quietly 
stealing along in the night through the deep forest, the 
Regiment crossed the stream at Ely's Ford, and at noon 
on May 4th halted on the open ground around the ruins 
of the Chancellorsville House where the Second Corps 
was massed. Pickets were thrown out, a battery placed 
in position covering the plank road that led to Fredericks- 
burg, arms stacked, the roll called in each company (and 
not one man was missing), and an order from General 
Meade was read : — 

ADDRESS OF GENERAL MEADE. 

Headquarters Army of the Potomac, May 4th, 1S64. 

Soldiers : Again you are called upon to advance upon the enemies of 

your country. The time and occasion are deemed opportune by j our 

commanding general to address you a few words of confidence and 

caution. You have been reorganized, strengthened and fully equipped in 




IN THE WILDERNESS— Thirty years after 



The Wilderyiess. 183 

every- respect. You form a part of the several armies of your country — 
the whole under an able and distinguished general, who enjoys the 
confidence of the government, the people and the army. Your movement 
being in co-operation with others, it is of the utmost importance that no 
effort should be spared to make it successful. 

Soldiers, the eyes of the whole country are looking with anxious hope 
to the blow you are about to strike in the most sacred cause that ever 
called men to arms. Remember your homes, your wives and children ; 
and bear in mind, the sooner your enemies are overcome the sooner- you 
will be returned to enjoy the benefits and blessings of peace. Bear with 
patience the hardships and sacrifices you will be called upon to endure. 
Have confidence in your officers and in each other. 

Keep your ranks on the march and on the battlefield, and let each 
man earnestly implore God's blessing and endeavor by his thoughts and 
actions to render himself worthy of the favor he speaks. With clear 
conscience and strong arms, actuated by a high sense of duty, fighting to 
preserve the government and the institutions handed down to us by our 
forefathers, if true to ourselves, victory under God's blessing must and 
will attend our efi'orts. 

George G. Meade, 

Major-General Commanding. 

S. WlLLIAJIS, 

Assistant General. 

And then another quiet evening of peace and rest. 
Hancock, surrounded by his staff, lay under the apple 
trees in the orchard, on the ground where Leppine's guns 
stood firing just a year before that very day. The general, 
tapping his boot with his whip, chatted of the year gone 
by. Memories, reminiscences, jokes and merry laughter 
passed the hours away. A gay and happy group it was, 
full of life, hope and sans souci, as though it were an 
excursion of pleasure, instead of the most awful and fierce 
campaign of the war on which they were starting. The 
Chancellorsville House still lay a mass of unsightly ruins. 
The debris of the battery still remained scattered over the 
ground. Broken wheels, shattered poles, pieces of ammu- 
nition chests, bursted shells, bones of horses, remnants of 
blankets, canteens, bits of leather, rotting harness, etc., 



184 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

mingled in dire confusion. In the evening, after resting, 
when the rations had been distributed, officers and men 
strolled around examining the ground on which they had 
been fighting that day a year ago. The apple trees and 
lilies bloomed again. Pink and white roses struggled to 
life in the trampled garden of the old homestead and the 
fragrance of May filled the air. The old members of the 
Regiment took great pleasure in imparting to the new men 
the particulars of the battle and showing them how the 
battery was saved. The boys, fresh from home, who had 
not yet heard the sound of a hostile gun, were full of 
curiosity and took great interest in everything. The 
evidence of the fight was so strongly visible that the scene 
impressed them deeply. The burnt and crumbling 
buildings, trees torn and rent, the ground strewn with 
debris, told in mute, but terribly strong, language of the 
carnage and storm. The shallow graves of the men of 
the brigade were discovered and, much to the delight of 
the men, found overgrown with wild flowers and forget- 
me-nots. When Lieutenant-Colonel Dale noticed the 
profusion of the little blue flower he was deeply affected. 
He stood gazing upon the ground, wrapped in thought, 
and spoke in a strangely poetic strain of the goodness of 
the Creator in covering with beauty and perfume the 
last resting places of those brave men. He lingered 
there on that sweet spring evening and talked of the 
matter for a long time, and finally began writing a letter 
to a Pittsburg paper, describing the scene and telling of 
the forget-me-nots. Gentle, noble soul ! Within ten 
days he also filled a soldier's grave, and if the God who 
sends the flowers in spring casts them over the last resting 
place of brave men in proportion to the soldier's merits, 
then indeed the unknown grave of Colonel Dale must be 



The Wilderness. 385 

covered with the choicest bloom that nature yields in 
very great abundance. 

Another night of calm and rest, the men sleeping 
soundly on the graves of their comrades who had been lying 
there since the battle of a year ago. Reveille awoke the 
troops for the opening day of the Wilderness campaign. 
The orders were for the Second Corps to move to Shady 
Grove Church, on Catharpin Road, but, after passing 
Todd's Tavern, orders were received to move to the support 
of the Sixth Corps. Then several hours of anxious waiting 
and countermarching. The day became warm and water 
could not be found. No time for coflfee or a halt sufficiently 
long to allow for cooking. Three o'clock in the afternoon 
found the command moving on the Brock Road, down 
which the enemy were reported to be marching. 

The country where the Regiment was now to fight was 
very appropriately called the Wilderness, a mineral region 
where both gold and iron are found, abounding in game 
and densely wooded. The roads simply consisted of 
narrow lanes cut through the forests and, in some cases, 
covered with planks or hewn logs. The Brock Road, 
where the Second Corps formed line on the afternoon of 
May oth, was of this nature, the woods on each side being 
dense and almost impenetrable. The preparations for the 
fight were noiseless. The enemy were within sound 
although could not be seen, and bullets whistled through 
the trees telling of their presence. Quickly the advance 
was ordered. Getty's division of the Sixth Corps was 
already advancing on the right and Hancock was not slow 
to support him. 

The advance in line was more than difficult — almost 
impossible. The undergrowth was so dense that regimental 
commanding officers could not see half their own line. 



186 The Story of the ii6ih Regimeyit. 

One regiment pushed forward and struck the enemy- 
after advancing about three hundred yards. A clash of 
musketry, and the campaign of 1864 began. The ground 
on which the Regiment fought w^as just to the left of the 
abandoned gold mines. The decaying timbers of the 
miners' cabins w^ere scattered through the dense W' oods, 
and great cavities still existed, showdng the position of the 
ancient mining shafts. In the regimental line there were 
six hundred new^ men, or rather should one say, boys, for 
but few, but very few, bearded faces were seen in the ranks. 
Fayette, Allegheny, Chester and Schuylkill Counties 
of Pennsylvania State had emptied their school houses 
to furnish recruits. Ah, what young, bright, childish 
faces, full of sweetness, smiles, enthusiasm and hope. 
Not a cheek blanched, not a coward in all the noble band. 
Six hundred boys, with less than two months of drill or 
discipline, in their first battle, yet as steady, confident and 
reliable as the oldest veterans. The surrounding circum- 
stances were of the most trying nature. The crash of 
musketry filled the w^oods, the smoke lingered and clung 
to the trees and underbrush and obscured everything. 
Men fell on every side, but still the Regiment passed 
steadily on. One by one the boys fell — some to rise no 
more, others badly W'Ounded — but not a groan or 
complaint, and a broad smile passed along the line when 
Sergeant John Cassidy, of Company E, finding fault 
because when shot through the lungs, he had to walk of! 
without assistance, some one said to him : " Why, Cassidy, 
there's a man with all of his head blown oft' and he is not 
making half as much fuss as you are ! " 

The Regiment w^as detached from the Irish Brigade in 
the first day of the Wilderness and sent to the support of 
General Miles's Brigade. Towards dusk, in returning to 



The Wilderness. 187 

join its own brigade and wlien marching along in column 
of fours in rear of the line, a gap was discovered in the 
line of battle and without waiting for orders the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth promptly moved in and filled it. 
It was a most important service and recognized as such by 
General Barlow. A Confederate force was at the moment 
moving towards the opening but, seeing the well-dressed 
ranks of the One Hundred and Sixteenth, halted and, after 
the exchange of shots, fell back, just as the One Hundred 
and Fortieth Pennsylvania Volunteers with loud cheers 
came in to the relief. The fighting ceased with the daylight 
and when the darkness filled the forest the men w^ere tired, 
weary and hungry and setded down to sleep, supperless. 
All night long the stretcher-carriers bore the wounded to 
the rear, and when morning came again the line fell back 
to the Brock Road and threw^ up a line of works. When 
axes and spades had done their work, and the revetement 
had become breast-high, coffee and hard tack were in order, 
the first in twenty-four hours. The first day of the battle 
of the Wilderness had been an eventful one for the 
Regiment. The command, though composed of more than 
three-fourths new men who had never been in a fight, had 
proved not only reliable under the most trying ordeal, but 
full of dash, ardor and the most high courage. Hancock 
says in his official report of this day's battle : " The Irish 
Brigade, commanded by Colonel Thomas Smyth, and 
Colonel Brooke's Fourth Brigade attacked the enemy 
vigorously on his right and drove his line some distance. 
The Irish Brigade was heavily engaged and although four- 
fifths of its members were recruits it behaved with great 
steadiness and gallantry, losing largely in killed and 
wounded ". 

Many narrow escapes were made during the first day's 



188 The Story of the it 6th Regiment. 

fight. Lieutenant-Colonel Dale was hit in the side, the 
ball cutting away his undershirt but not breaking the 
skin. Lieutenant Cosslett was shot in the forehead, the 
ball cutting through the cap and making a deep flesh 
wound along the scalp. A young boy, Daniel Chisholm, 
had the front of his cap shot away, but leaving him 
unhurt ; and so many a close call was talked about 
before, as one by one, the tired soldiers sank to rest in 
the blood-drenched woods. Early on the hiorning of the 
6th, Caldwell's division and that of General Gibbons fell 
back to the Brock Road. These two divisions, together 
with a large portion of the artillery of the Second Corps, 
were placed on the left of the army to meet an expected 
flank attack of Longstreet's Corps that was reported 
moving to strike the Union left flank. The Regiment lay 
along the Brock Road near the Trigg House, and, while 
still occupied in building breast-works, the whole army, 
with the exception of the two divisions herein spoken of, 
moved forward into the deep woods, and the roar of the 
second day's battle began. It was a morning of intense 
anxiety to the men. For hours they listened to the 
continuous roll and the musketry and cheers of the Union 
Army and they knew that their people were driving 
everything before them as the huzzas and roar of the 
firing continued to recede and get further away. But 
towards noon the Union cheers became less frequent and 
the firing came nearer. Then the Confederate yell rose 
loud and wild and the Union line began to come back. 
The wounded poured out of the woods in streams and 
everything told of disaster to the Union arms. The 
victorious enemy halted before reaching the point where 
the Regiment lay and, although ready and anxious and 
more than willing, the men did not get an opportunity of 




BRIGAUIER-GENERAL THOMAS A. SMYTH 



The Wilderness. 189 

firing a shot until towards evening. Towards five o'clock 
Captain Megraw, who had been out visiting the picket 
line, rushed in, tumbled over the breast-work and called 
out: "They are coming — get ready"! Instantly every- 
one was in line and very wide awake, although many 
w^ere resting and dozing a moment before. 

A few shots were heard on the picket line, which was 
but a short distance in front, and almost without warning 
a Confederate line of battle stood within fifty yards of the 
slight works ; they covered the regimental front and 
began firing. The fight was short and sharp. The men 
replied vigorously for a few moments, then the breast- 
work, which was built up with dry fence rails and logs, 
caught fire. The wind fanned the flames, and soon the 
whole line in front of the Regiment was in a blaze. The 
smoke rolled back in clouds ; the flames leaped ten and 
fifteen feet high, rolled back and scorched the men until 
the heat became unbearable, the musket balls the while 
whistling and screaming through the smoke and fire. A 
scene of terror and wild dismay, but no man in the ranks 
of the Regiment moved an inch. Right in the smoke 
and fire they stood, and sent back the deadly volleys 
until the enemy gave up the effort and fell back and 
disappeared into the depths of that sad forest where 
thousands lay dead and dying. Soon the fire com- 
municated to the trees and bush and in less than an hour 
acres of ground over w^iich the armies had struggled and 
fought during the two awful days was a mass of fire. 
This was the saddest part of all the battle. How many 
poor, wounded souls perished in the flames none but the 
angels who were there to receive their brave spirits will 
ever know ; but the very awfulness of the situation seemed 
to call forth renewed evidence of courage and, when 



190 The Story of the 116th Regiment. 

volunteers were demanded to rescue the wounded, 
Lieutenant Cosslett and a score of noble men rushed into 
the smoke and fire to save them. 

The rush of the enemy upon the Union works on the 
evening of the 6th practically ended the battle of the 
Wilderness. During the night of the 6th and all the day 
of the 7th of May the Regiment remained in position 
along the road, only picket firing being indulged in with 
an occasional crash from one of the batteries. Owing to 
the dense timber the sharpshooters had but little chance 
to work and hence the men behind the breast-works could 
move about freely and without danger, and the fact of 
the sharpshooters being unable to ply their vocation made 
a most remarkable difference in the losses of commissioned 
officers between the Wilderness and other battles. At 
Gettysburg, for instance, w^here the armies fought prin- 
cipally in the open, the losses among the commissioned 
officers were very great, eight and a half per cent, of all 
the wounded being of that class, while in the Wilderness 
but five per cent, of the killed and five per cent, of the 
wounded were officers. But, if the officers were spared 
in the first two days of the campaign, they received their 
full share of punishment during the succeeding fights. 
An old friend of the writer. Colonel Seymour Lansing, of 
the Seventeenth New York Cavalry, gave a dinner, just 
before the Peninsula campaign, to thirteen colonels and 
their wives, who at the time happened to be visiting the 
army. Within three months eleven of the ladies were 
widows. Quite as severe on the officers was this campaign 
of the Wilderness. The Irish Brigade went into action 
May 5th with ten field officers. Within six weeks six 
of them (Colonels Kelly, Byrnes and Dale and Majors 
Rider, Thouy and Lawyer) were sleeping in soldiers' 



The Wilderness. 191 

graves, and the other four were in hospitals, seriously 
wounded. 

Here, in the Wilderness, the men of the Regiment 
learned the full value of field works as means of defence 
and of saving life, and began to realize the fact that the 
spade and pick were as much and quite as valuable 
implements of warfare as the musket and bayonet. On 
the 5th of May began the slashing of timber and digging 
of earth that ended in leaving whole counties of Virginia 
crossed and re-crossed in every direction with formidable 
lines of works, enduring and quite capable of resisting 
field artillery ; and the proficiency attained by the men 
of the Regiment in that direction was indeed wonderful. 
No sooner M'as line of battle formed and muskets stacked 
than everyone was at work, quickly forming squads and 
moving swiftly, some felling trees and trimming the logs 
to form the revetement, some driving stakes and others 
carrying and laying the tree trunks in position. Others, 
with spade and pick, threw up the earth and banked it 
down, while more dragged the knarled branches and laid 
them in order to make the abatis. In two hours a line 
of works would be up and finished suf^ciently powerful 
to resist not only an onslaught of infantry but stop the 
shells of the heaviest guns then in use. And how 
cheerfully all hands worked to get under cover. No 
matter how long the march of the day or how weary and 
tired the boys might be, there would be no coffee until 
the works were up and finished, and long before the war 
had closed every man had become a builder of field-works 
and an engineer in embryo. 



192 The Story of thi ii6th Regiment. 

CHAPTER IX. 

TODD- 5 TAVERN OR CORBIN'S BRIDGE. 

P ARLY on the morning of May Sth, the Regiment with- 
drew from the line of the Brock Road and moved 
towards Todd's Tavern. The day was warm and the clouds 
of dust suffocating, rendering the march most oppressive. 
Water could not be found and the men suffered greatly for 
the want of it. During a halt in the road General Grant 
rode past. It was the first time that the men of the 
Regiment had seen the great commander and they had 
not yet learned to know him. The general rode slowly 
by, pausing a moment to look at the command while the 
men gazed with curiosit}' but without the slightest show 
of enthusiasm or feeling at the serious sph}'nx-like face. 
He wore the slouch hat and unbuttoned coat and general 
tout efisemble with which the whole nation has since 
become so familiar, but on this occasion the ever present 
cigar was missing. Only one or two stafT officers and an 
orderly were with him and as he rode away in the dust and 
heat he left an impression never to be forgotten — so calm, 
quiet and unassuming, but the embodiment of stability 
and firmness. 

The Army of the Potomac had found at last a 
commander worthy to lead it, and on that day he 
announced to the nation that " to retreat is a memor}- of 
the past '', and that " we will fight it out on this line if it 
takes all summer ''. 

The Regiment was formed in a pleasant wood (at 
Todd's Tavern), looking out over some open fields, where 
a few peaceful hours were passed in grateful rest. Miles's 



Todd's Tavern or Corbin s Bridge. 193 

Brigade with a battery and some of Gregg's cavalrx- were 
sent out the Catharpin Road towards Corbin's Bridge. 
In the evening, while the force was returning, Miles 
encountered Alahone's Confederate Division and a sharp 
fight took place. The Irish Brigade was ordered out, 
double quick, to help. At the moment the order came 
Colonel Dale was holding a prayer meeting in which the 
larger portion of the men were participating. The 
*' Amen " was quickly said and in five minutes or less the 
brigade, with the Regiment on the left, was going on a 
run towards the firing. By the time the command had 
reached Miles the fight was almost over and he had 
succeeded in beating of^ the attack and was falling back 
in good order. The other four regiments of the brigade 
fell back with Miles and got away without loss. 

Not so with the One Hundred and Sixteenth. The 
Regiment had been detached by General Smyth and sent 
to the extreme right. By the blundering of a staff officer 
the point of direction was misunderstood and after 
marching through a dense wood for nearly a mile the 
command drew up in front of a Confederate line of battle 
with one of their batteries within a hundred feet. There 
were no Confederate pickets in their front, but the men of 
the battery soon discovered the presence of the Union 
line, and opened a vigorous fire with shell. Fortunately 
for the Regiment, they fired too high and the shells 
passed over the line. Had the southern batter}^ thrown 
canister instead of shell it would have been a serious 
matter for the command. While lying here trying to 
find out the reason of being so placed, a force of infantry 
was discovered moving through the woods on the right 
evidently to get in rear and capture the Regiment. A 
rambling fire of musketry was opened from that column 
and a half a dozen of the men were hit. It was 



194 



The Story of the ii6lh Regi7nent. 



undoubtedly time to leave if the Regiment did not wish 
to spend the summer in the South, so quietly withdrawing, 
the command moved back into the woods, the battery 
continuing to throw shells after the retreating Hne. After 
an hour of wandering through the forest the way back to 
the division at Todd's Tavern was found and just at 
dark the Regiment passed through the picket line and 
entered the camp, much to the surprise of ever\'one, and 
was received with demonstrations of gladness and joy. 
The command had been reported lost and not a soul in 
the division but fully believed that the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers — colors and all — was 
at that moment in the hands of the enemv. It was a 
strange adventure, a most novel experience, and proved 
more than one could imagine how perfectly reliable 
under all circumstances the command was. The 
Confederate troops who met and fought on the evening 
w^ere Mahone's Brigade of Hill's Corps and a battery. 
These troops were en 7'oiite to Spottsylvania C. H., and 
the meeting was accidental. The fight at Todd's Tavern 
took place on a Sunday evening, and the men were 
summoned from prayer meeting to go to the front. At 
the time it did not occur to one, but now, when years 
have passed and we look back we must feel astonished at 
the high moral standard of the army that fought the War 
of the Rebellion, and the Regiment was second to none in 
that respect. Seldom was an obscene word or an oath 
heard in the camp. Meetings for prayer were of almost 
daily occurrence, and the groups of men sitting on the 
ground or gathered on the hill side listening to the Gospel 
were strong reminders of the mounds of Galilee when the 
people sat upon the ground to hear the Saviour teach. 
Ofttimes in the Regiment the dawn witnessed the smoke 



Todd's Tavcr7i or Corbhi s Bridge. 195 

of incense ascend to heaven amid the templed trees 
where serious groups knelt on the green sod and listened 
to the murmur of the Mass. In the evening Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dale or Captain Samuel Taggart would hold a 
meeting for prayer where the larger number of the men 
would gather in reverence and devotion, while others 
would kneel around the Chaplain's tent to count their 
beads and repeat the rosary. Colonel Dale was a man 
of deep religious thought and feeling, and Captain 
Taggart was an ordained minister of the Gospel, both 
men of great devotion and sincerity, and by their example 
did much towards making others sincerely good. Both 
fell early and went to receive their great reward. Saints 
they were and each died with a prayer on his lips — true 
to their country and their God. 

Through the night of May 8th the picket firing was 
continuous and indicated a battle next day, as the enemy 
was thought to be concentrating in front, but the morning 
of the 9th passed and no attack, although firing was heard 
to the right and more to the left, and during the day the 
death of General Sedgwick, commanding the Sixth Corps, 
was announced. At noon the division was withdrawn 
from the works that had been erected at Todd's Tavern, 
and marched to the left about a mile along the Brock 
Road, then, turning to the right, crossed the country by 
a cow-path and drew up on the high and open ground 
overlooking the valley of the Po River. Line of battle was 
formed along the crest and dinner cooked. During the 
afternoon a wagon train of the enemy could be seen moving 
along a road on the other side of the stream and the Union 
batteries opened upon it with effect. The men looked on 
and enjoyed the scene greatly as they saw the shells 
bursting among the mules. The frantic efforts of the 



196 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

drivers to get out of harm's way were most laughable. 
Towards evening orders came to cross the river and 
about five o'clock the division moved, Brooke's brigade 
leading the movement, Bimey's division crossing higher 
up the stream and Gibbons' s division below. Brooks 
drove the enemy back, effected a crossing and was 
quickly followed by the balance of the division. By the 
time line was formed, however, the darkness fell, and after 
advancing into the woods for some distance the division 
halted for the night. 

THE BATTLE OF THE PO. 

There was perhaps no more interesting fight in which 
the men of the Regiment were ever engaged or where they 
played a more important part than that of May 10th, 
called the Batde of the Po. It would be difficult to 
understand the movement that led to and culminated in 
this little battle without knowing the lay of the land. 
The Po, a deep quiet stream, about forty feet wide, after 
passing the point where the division crossed, makes a sharp 
turn and, sweeping around towards the south almost 
doubles upon its course, so that after crossing one could, 
by marching straight forward about a mile, again strike 
the stream at the Block House Bridge. The intention of 
the commander-in-chief seems to have been, at first, to 
send the division over to capture the wagon train that our 
gunners had shelled with such ludicrous effect, but after 
the first troops had crossed successfully General Meade 
seems to have thought it advisable to throw the whole 
Second Corps across. That having been parth^ accom- 
plished, the movement quickly suggested the possibility 
of a turning operation against the left of the Confederate 
army by again crossing the stream by the Block House 



The Battle of the Po. 197 

Bridge, but darkness checked the advance. No sooner 
had the hne haUed for the night in the pitch dark forest, 
than the Regiment was detailed for picket along with 
several hundred members of a German regiment. The 
picket force moved very cautiously and were as noiseless 
as could be until the head of the column reached the bank 
of the stream at the Block House Bridge. The Regiment 
in perfect silence filed to the right and was deployed along 
the bank, the officers issuing their orders in whispers and 
the men groping their way and finding their posts as best 
they could in the intense darkness. All went well until 
the picket (composed of the One Hundred and Sixteenth) 
was in position to the right of the bridge. Every man 
seemed to instinctively feel the necessity of getting into 
position without the enemy, \vho was supposed to be on 
the other side of the river, being aware of his presence, 
and the success up to a certain point was remarkable. 

But when the German detail filed to the left of the 
bridge and began deploying in the darkness matters were 
very different. Tin cups rattled now and then, and the 
officers gave their orders in tones loud enough to be heard 
on the further bank of the stream. .Then a man fired his 
musket. Some one else promptly followed, and the whole 
detail began blazing away in the darkness. The roar for a 
few moments was deafening. It seemed impossible to 
quiet the excited Teutons, and notwithstanding the 
exertions of their officers, who ran from post to post 
calling out to stop firing, the noise w-as continued for ten 
or fifteen minutes. Not a shot was fired in return, and no 
sound was heard to indicate that the Confederate pickets 
were on the other side of the stream, and it is not at all 
likely that any were there, but the man who fired the shot 
on the Union side, and so brought on the trouble, was the 



198 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

direct cause of the failure of all the plans for turning the 
flank of the enemy's line, for the volleys of musketry 
echoing through the still woods notified Hill of the 
presence of the Union Army, and, when morning broke, 
his men were discovered hard at work intrenching and 
getting artillery in position to cover the passage of the 
bridge. Hancock and Barlow were on hand early, 
examining the crossing, and at once saw how impracticable 
it would be to force a passage at that point. Brooke, 
with his brigade, crossed the stream further down, 
however and, pushing forward half a mile, discovered the 
left of the enemy's line and found it strongly fortified, 
and the movement against Lee's left flank was abandoned. 
Gibbons's and Birney's divisions were, during the morning, 
withdrawn and sent to the left to assist the Fifth Corps 
in an assault on the Confederate line near the Alsop House, 
and Barlow's division was left alone to hold the advance 
line across the stream. The entire One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment was then deployed on the skirmish 
line to cover the front of Brown's and Smyth's Brigades. 
The colors were placed with the reserve and the line drawn 
back somewhat from the stream. All the forenoon the 
Confederates could be seen working on their fortifications, 
and but very little firing took place. They seemed to wish 
to work in peace, and the men were not at all anxious to 
bring on a fight. A very amusing incident took place 
during the morning : Lieutenant Springer, of Company 
K, and another officer, started from the reser^-e to visit 
the picket. Strolling along through the woods, their 
swords over their arms and chatting pleasantly, in some 
unaccountable manner they passed through the line and 
were so engrossed with their talk that they were down on 
the banks of the stream before thev were conscious of their 



The Battle of the Po. 199 

whereabouts. The river at this point was quite narrow, 
and on the further bank stood a Confederate brigade in 
Hne and at " parade rest ". Pioneers were hard at work 
throwing a bridge across, that the force might get over on. 
The t\^o officers, to say the least, were astonished when 
they saw the long line of gray within thirty feet. The 
conversation suddenly ceased, and blank amazement 
succeeded. Our southern friends were just a little more 
astonished than the two One hundred and Sixteenth 
officers. The pioneers dropped their axes and stared. 
The ofificers seemed so taken aback by the unexpected 
apparition of two Union officers in full uniform, quietly 
standing there looking at them,that for two or three minutes 
they were too much surprised to speak. Some of them 
began to draw their swords. The men straightened up, 
and without waiting for orders, came to "attention". All 
their faces were full of wonderment. They were evidendy 
thinking of what was to follow the strange apparition. 
Was there a line of battle coming in rear of these two 
mild looking men in blue, or what on earth were they 
doing there anyhow ? Soon some one on the other side 
recovered his senses sufficiently to grasp the situation and 
called out : " Come over here and give up your swords !" 
No response from the One Hundred and Sixteenth men. 
They still continued to gaze and wonder how they were 
to get out of the embarrassing position. Another order 
from the opposite side of the creek : " Some of you men, 
there, go over and bring in those two officers ! " Still no 
response. The party of the first and second part both too 
much bewildered to act. Third order from the party in 
gray : "Six of you men from the left of Company B. run 
over there and catch those two fellows!" Just then a 
movement was observed at the further end of the two 



200 The Story of the ii6th RegimeJit. 

large trees that had been felled across the stream as the six 
men in question quickly ran to cross. Springer and his 
friend concluded that it was high time for them to either 
surrender gracefully or run, and they concluded to chance 
the latter. Quickly turning, they bolted up tht? steep 
bank. The Confederates seeing their prey about to 
escape, called to the men to fire. The bullets whistled 
after the fleeing officers, who fortunately got away all safe 
to live and add, in later times, another tale to the camp 
fire stories of hair-breadth escapes, and how they walked 
into a Confederate line. Shortly after noon orders were 
received to withdraw the division to the north bank of 
the Po. The movement began about two o'clock, but at 
the very moment that the Union troops began falling 
back the enemy (Heath's division of Hill's Corps) 
advanced with loud yells to attack. Miles's and Smyth's 
Brigades and the batteries, with the exception of Arnold's, 
had already commenced retiring when Heath came 
forward. The assault was of the most determined 
character, the enemy pressing close up to the Union line. 
Brooke's and Brown's men met them with a steady and 
destructive fire, and the combat became fierce and bloody. 
A furious artillery duel between the batteries on the north 
bank and the Confederate batteries on the south bank 
raging the while, the shells from both sides passing 
completely over the fighting infantry. 

The fight had opened on the right of the regimental 
picket line, but after the skirmishers of Brown and Brooke 
were driven in the enemy made their appearance in front 
of the whole regimental line. Word was passed along to 
hold the ground even against a line of battle, if possible, 
and the men of each post, sheltering themselves as best 
thev could behind the trees, did their whole dutv noblv. 



The Battle of the Po. 201 

A portion of Brown's Brig-ade, in falling- back, passed 
throLig-h the line of the Regiment, and the retreating 
troops called to the men that the enemy were right behind 
them. The woods were on fire and the flames were 
crackling and roaring. The surroundings were appalling. 
The men knew that everyone was getting to the rear, 
that soon the bridges would be cut away and their only 
chance of escape gone, but not a man moved from his 
place. Examining their pieces and standing at a " ready " 
they calmly waited for the approaching foe, when the 
Confederates appeared, poured a steady fire into the 
advancing line. At last, when all others were gone, the 
welcome order came to fall back and try to save the 
Regiment. It was almost too late. There was only one 
avenue, one means of escape. The field officers galloping 
to the extreme right called to the men on the skirmish 
line to rally on the left at a run. The reserve with the 
colors fell back to the road and awaited the assembly of 
the men from the front. Soon nearly all were gathered 
up and a hasty retreat made across the open ground to 
the only bridge left. When safe on the other side, saved 
almost by a miracle, to look back at the flaming forest 
and think of the thirty members of the Regiment who 
were still among the blazing trees dead or helplessly 
wounded, a prey to the pitiless fire ! After recrossing the 
river the line was dressed, and as the darkness was 
gathering a burst of musketry told of more fighting. 
Although tired, weary and hungry, the Regiment to a 
man promptly responded to the call to go forward once 
more and, with a cheer that echoed and rolled along the 
valley, the command swept forward to meet the foe. But 
the night was at hand, and the fight of the Po closed with 
the day. 



202 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

The reason of the withdrawal from the south bank of 
the Po was not understood by officers or men at the time, 
but it was afterward learned that General Meade did not 
wish to bring on a general engagement on that side of the 
river, and had ordered the abandoning of the position 
and directed General Hancock to personally direct the 
retirement of the troops. It was at the moment that the 
movement commenced that the Confederates advanced to 
the attack, and the line was forced to pause and beat back 
the assault before retiring. The combat, in the language 
of General Hancock, "was close and bloody. The enemy, 
in vasth' superior numbers, flushed with the anticipation 
of easy victory, appeared determined to crush the small 
force opposed to them and, pressing forward with loud 
yells, forced their way close up to the Union lines", 
delivering a terrible musketry fire as they advanced. The 
brave troops resisted their onset with undaunted 
resolution ! Their fire along the whole line was so 
continuous and deadly that the enemy found it impossible 
to withstand, but broke and retreated in the wildest 
disorder, leaving the ground in front strewn with dead 
and wounded. 

Arnold's Rhode Island Battery had been pushed far to 
the front during the fight and, in the retreat, the horses of 
one of the guns became terrified by the blazing forest and 
dragged the piece between two trees, where it became so 
firmly wedged that it could not be moved. Every exertion 
was made by the artillerymen and some of the infantry to 
get it away, but finally it had to be abandoned — the first 
gun ever lost by the Second Corps. The Regiment 
performed a brilliant part in this fight, on the south side of 
the Po, and General Francis A. Barlow personally thanked 
the officers and men for the great service rendered. 



The Battle of the Po. 203 

Nothing of importance occurred during May 11th. 
The men of the Regiment rested, and many of them wrote 
letters home. Lieutenant-Colonel Dale finished and mailed 
to the Pittsburg papers the letter that he had begun on 
the morning of May 4th, on the battlefield of Chancellors- 
ville. In the letter he speaks of the fight of the Po as a 
more important batde than that of the Wilderness, so 
litde did the participants know at the time of what was 
going on around them, each one seeing and knowing of 
his own immediate front only. Here is his letter. He tells 
of the dead and wounded, but of the missing — ah, the 
missing who disappeared in the flaming woods of the 
Wilderness and the Po ! The missing who were never 
seen or heard of again, what of them ? 

Colonel Dale's letter : — 

Headquarters IIGth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers. 

May II, 1864. 
Dear Chronicle : 

I suppose all who have friends in the army are now anxious to get 
some tidings of them, knowing that active operations have commenced in 
earnest. As there are three companies from western Pennsylvania in our 
Regiment, I thought I might relieve the anxiety of some of your readers 
by sending you for publication, a list of our killed and wounded up to this 
time. It is possible, however, the list may be lengthened before you 
receive this, as the fighting is apparently not yet over. I write this upon 
my knee behind breastworks upon which our men are still at work, while 
in plain view the "rebs" are also intrenching. We left camp at about 
eleven o'clock on the night of Tuesday, May 3d, crossing the Rapidanthe 
next morning about seven o'clock, and about noon reached the memorable 
field of Chancellorsville, where we rested until the next morning. Some 
of us who had been present at the battle there little thought at the time 
that we would have returned to the field just one year to the day from our 
retreat in 1863. You may be sure that we took great pleasure in visiting 
the spots which were so indelibly impressed upon our memory. I 
gathered a few flowers as mementoes. By the way, the battlefield is 
covered with wild flowers, nearly all of a purple color, as though the blood 
of our brave soldiers had so drenched the soil as to darken the very 



204 The Story of the ii6th ReghneJit. 



flowers that grew upon it. Perhaps some who have lost friends at 
Chancellorsville may take pleasure in thinking that though their dead 
heroes may sleep in .unmarked graves, yet the flowers bloom ov^er them 
as profusely as if interred in any of our beautiful cemeteries at home. 

About four o'clock on Thursday afternoon we became engaged with 
the enemy about four miles from Chancellorsville, the battle continuing 
until dark. It was during the engagement that General Alex. Hays was 
killed. His command was to our right. We have had more or less 
fighting daily, culminating yesterday in a great battle. Our Regiment has 
lost up to yesterday, forty-two in killed and wounded. In addition to 
these there are a number missing, but as some of these may turn up 
again, it is unnecessary to create uneasiness among friends by giving 
names. 

The list is enclosed. I would be glad to have it published. 

\'ery respectfully, your obedient servant, 

Richard C. Dale, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, ii6th Penna. Volunteers. 



Spottsylvayiia. 205 

CHAPTER X. 

SPOTTSYLVANIA. 

MAY 12th. 

T^HERE was a good deal of picket firing during May 
11th, and towards evening a chilling rain set in. 
Tired and hungry the men shivered around the green 
wood fires, the fires that when wanted most would never, 
never blaze or brighten. The wind, raw and sharp, whirled 
the smoke to the side least expected and changed its 
direction every time the audience shifted to avoid having 
their eyes smoked out of their heads. The same old 
familiar smoke that blackened the eyes and dirtied the 
faces, whose pungent smell lingered so long in the clothes, 
that in fair weather went straight up to the sky and made 
the camp fire seem even more inviting and coz}-, in the 
wet and rain clung to the ground, spread itself all over 
the men, seeking out their most vulnerable parts, bringing 
tears to their eyes, inserting itself into the deepest and 
most hidden parts of their lungs, choking and blinding, 
and causing one to consider whether it would not be 
better to abandon the effort to secure a little warmth and 
heat at such a cost and fly to the cold and outer darkness. 
The men succeeded in coaxing enough blaze to boil the 
evening coffee, but no blowing or other inducement could 
raise sufficient fire to fry the pork or stew the moistened 
cracker ; so, cold, cheerless and disconsolate, they sank 
to sleep in the falling rain, wet to the skin, with their 
soaked feet to the smouldering embers. But the rest 
was of short duration, for even as the wearv souls were 



206 The Story of the ii6th Regiment, 

gathering their sodden blankets around them and tr\'ing 
to find soft spots in the mud, Colonel Comstock, of the 
Headquarter Staff, and several of the Corps Staff were 
marking out the line of battle for the morrow ; and at 
nine p. m, the word came to pack up and march 
immediately. It did not take long to obey the order; 
each one had only to rise from the earth, shake himself in 
a vain effort to get rid of the chills that were ever coursing 
up and down the spine on nights like this, wring the 
water out of his shoes, lift the cold, heavy musket from 
the stack, and all was ready. 

At ten p. m, the column was put in motion, Major 
Mendall, of the engineers, leading the way to Spottsyl- 
vania, with orders to attack at daylight. Of all the night 
marches of the Regiment this one was the most trying. 
Through dense woods, in black darkness, the rain falling 
in torrents, drean,', weary, and in silence, the command 
tramped through the deep mud, slipping and splashing 
and falling over tree stumps, with once in a while a long 
halt, while those in the lead made sure of the way. 
Sometimes an alarm, sudden and unexpected, would wake 
up the tired soldiers to wonder and to ask each other : 
" Where are we going anyway ?" An army pack mule, 
laden with rattling kettles and pans, carried consternation 
through the ranks by dashing through the trees, and then 
an accidental musket shot rang out and startled the 
marching troops. Shortly after midnight the mystery 
came to an end, and the head of the column arrived 
opposite the point to be attacked at daylight. In utter 
darkness and perfect silence the Regiment passed the 
Brown House, moved out towards the enemy, and formed 
ready for the assault. The regimental formation was 
" double column on the centre", the division forming in 



Spottsylvania. 207 

the clearing to the right of the Landron House. The 
orders were given in whispers and organizations seemed 
to find their positions by instinct. It was still .very dark 
when the formation of the attacking columns was 
completed, and an hour intervened before the time came 
to rush upon the enemy's works, a heavy fog adding to 
the density of the darkness. To those who stood there 
in line, cold, sleepy, tired and weary, a long, long wait it 
seemed to be. Hancock rode quietly to each command 
and said a few encouraging words in a low tone, telling 
the officers in turn to speak to the men and urge them to 
a brilliant effort. Colonel Dale gathered around him the 
officers of the Regiment and spoke to them of the 
importance of the coming fight, calling upon them to do 
their duty well. His last sentence, " Strike for your God 
and country", were the last words that many ever heard 
from his lips. He then moved around among the waiting 
line, speaking words of hope and cheer, and just a few 
moments before the final move, he stood among a group 
of officers and spoke, not only of the coming day, but 
the long eternity that might follow for some who then 
were full of life. " Gentlemen ", said he, " to-day may be 
for some of us the last on earth. Whilst we are waiting 
here would it not be well to say a prayer ?" Noble soldier 
that he was, saintly and pure in camp and bivouac, gentle 
as a lady, setting an example of perfect manhood that 
influenced the command to the very end. In battle he 
was a hero of the most exalted type, whose brilliant 
leadership nerved his men to deeds of fearless daring. 

The order to move on the salient point at SpottS3'l- 
vania named four o'clock, but it was dark at that hour 
and a heavy fog hung over the fields. Hancock, therefore, 
postponed the time of attack until 4.35, when, day 



208 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

breaking and the mist lifting a little, it became sufficiently 
light to see dimly. The men were ordered to draw their 
loads and to use the bayonet only. The division 
(Barlow'sj was formed into two lines. Brooke's and 
Miles's Brigades in the first, and Smyth's and Brown's in 
the second. The nature of the ground over which the 
attacking column was to pass was altogether unknown to 
ever\'one. General Mott with his division had made an 
attack on the same spot two days before, but he could give 
little information as to the twelve hundred yards to be 
passed over before reaching the works of the enemy. 
Amid whispered inquiries by the officers as to the work 
before them and a nervous uncertainty as to what was 
coming, the order to advance was quietly passed along the 
line. Without a word louder than an audible whisper of 
command, the two divisions of the Second Corps, Barlow's 
and Birney's, moved forward in dead silence. As it was 
not as yet light enough to see distinctly, the inter\-als 
between regiments and brigades were soon lost. Barlow's 
division, having the clear ground to the right of the 
Landron House to march over, kept somewhat ahead 
of Gibbons's, but that command, making superhuman 
exertions, gained the enemy's works almost at the same 
moment as the former. Not a sound disturbed the moving 
line. Instinctively every man knew the importance of 
covering as much ground as possible before being 
discovered, and not until nearing the Landron House was 
the advancing force discovered. Then a volley from the 
Confederate picket reser^-e was poured into the left of 
Barlow's line, killing Lieutenant-Colonel David L. Striker, 
of the Second Delaware, a brave, amiable and most 
accomplished young officer. Xo return was made to 
the fire, but silendy pushing on in the gray light of the 



Spottsylvania. 209 

morning- the men caught sight of the red earth of 
the works and, with a wild cheer that broke the stillness, 
they rushed up the sloping ground and in a moment were 
tearing away at the abatis, tugging, pulling and dragging 
the detached branches aside, crawling through and 
tumbling over the mass of material that was piled in 
front of the breast-works. The momentary work enabled 
the brigades of the second line to come up and mingle 
with those that were in front. All line and formation was 
now lost, and the great mass of men, with a rush like a 
cyclone, sprang upon the intrenchments and swarmed 
over, beating down the defences and using the bayonet 
very freely. The surprise was complete. While large 
numbers of Confederates had already mounted the works 
and made a brave defence, many of thern were still sound 
asleep, rolled in their blankets and dreaming. A few 
erected tents were scattered here and there, and in the dim 
light the inmates crawled out to discover the cause of the 
noise, to find themselves prisoners. Amid the wild 
confusion of the glorious success, it was difficult to preserve 
order. Men became insane with the excitement of victory. 
Thirty stands of colors, eighteen guns, two general officers 
and four thousand prisoners captured by two divisions of 
the Second Corps, and not yet broad daylight. While 
organizations were mixed, and for a short time order was 
impossible, still the fight went on, the enemy making a 
most gallant resistance. In squads and singly, every man 
seemed acting on his own responsibility — the Confederates 
making a brave effort to stem the tide of Union victory, 
and the men making the most heroic exertions to make 
their triumph complete. The men of the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth were among the first over the works, and 
the colors of the Regiment were in advance. Personal 



210 The Story of the Ii6th RegiiJient. 

encounters between individuals took place on every part 
of the disputed ground. Lieutenant Fraley, of Company 
F, ran a Confederate color-bearer through with his sword ; 
a Confederate shot one of the men when almost within 
touch of his musket, then threw down his piece and called 
out, "I surrender'', but Dan Crawford, of Company K, 
shot him dead ; Billy Hager, of the same company, ran 
into a group of half a dozen and demanded their surrender, 
saying " Throw down your arms, quick now, or I'll stick 
my bayonet into you", and they obeyed. Henr}^ J. Bell, 
known as " Blinky Bell ", leaped over the works and yelled 
" Look out, throw down your arms, we run this machine 
now". A large number of the men of the Regiment ran 
forward and took possession of a battery of brass 
pieces and, turning them around, got ready to open 
on any force that might appear. Alfred Bales, of 
Compan}' K, hitched a rope to one of the pieces, and 
a dozen of the men ran it to the rear. Captain 
Schoales, with a lot of Company E men, ran off with 
another. The horses of the battery were not visible, but 
the harness was hanging on the wheels, and everything 
indicated that the gunners had but a moment before 
abandoned the guns, or had not time to man them after the 
first alarm. The prisoners were quickly formed into 
squads and sent to the rear. Some of them took things 
ver}" coolly. One big Confederate crawled out from under 
a tent fly and, when called upon to surrender, stretched 
himself with great no7ichalance and said : " Oh, well, that 
is all right, boys ; don't get so excited. Just let us get 
our coats on, and we will go to the rear". Many 
trophies were gathered in. Dick McClean, of Compan}^ 
K, relieved General Johnston of his sword, and Dan 
Sickles, of the same company, captured a regimental flag. 



Spottsylvania. 211 

Colonel Dale seemed omnipresent, and was everywhere at 
once, bringing back order and preparing for a further 
advance, calling the men from the captured batteries and 
re-forming the broken line ; then, still crazed with 
excitement, the line pressed forward through the woods 
with such men as the division commanders could get 
together, but still somewhat disorganized and in mass. 
They were met in front of the McCool House by Johnston's 
Brigade of Gordon's division, that had been placed there 
the evening before. The men, disorganized as they were, 
made such an impetuous attack on Johnston's men that 
they broke and fell back through the forest, closely 
pursued by the victorious troops. That splendid Southern 
soldier, John B. Gordon, quickly formed the two brigades 
of Evans and Pegram behind the second line of works, 
which, in anticipation of, and to meet, just such an 
emergency as the present, he had constructed across the 
salient. The Union men reached this second line and 
found the front covered by a heavy abatis. They were 
met by a heavy fire from the two brigades already in line 
and Johnston's men who had fallen back to this point. The 
men rushed at the intrenchments with the intention of 
crossing, the officers vying with each other in deeds of 
great personal bravery, but the line of fresh troops, 
pouring in an extremely heavy iire, threw them back. 
Already in confusion, the mass of men, many organizations 
mingled together, and all the commands more or less 
separated, began to fall back, and then Gordon's line, 
advancing, struck vigorously and charged with loud cries 
and cheers. 

The members of the One Hundred and Sixteenth made 
a good fight, and were among the last to give ground. 
Colonel Dale, sword in hand, was ever in the front ; and 



212 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

when the retreat began, he Hngered behind with his face 
to the foe, waving his sword and calhng to the men to 
stand firm. Those of the Regiment who saw his heroic 
efforts, pressed forward to gather round him. Suddenly 
his sword was seen to drop, his voice ceased and he sank 
to the earth. At the moment of his falHng, the confusion 
was very great ; the Confederates were pressing forward, 
and the men were giving way. Some men of Company 
K, who saw him fall, tried to reach him, but were pushed 
back by the surging mass of fighting, struggling men ; 
the Confederate line swept over his body, and none of his 
friends or comrades ever saw him again. As the men of 
Barlow's Division, which had advanced into the angle 
further than any other troops, began to give ground 
before the onslaughts of Gordon's Division, the Confederate 
Brigades of Daniel, Ramseur, Perrin and Harris moved 
against the divisions of Birney and Mott, that were 
advancing along the west side of the angle. The troops 
fell back reluctantly. They did not like to give up 
the important advantage that they had gained. The 
Confederate Army was literally cut in two by the early 
morning rush of the Second Corps, and now to be driven 
from the position and surrender the ground so nobly won 
was too serious to be thought of. Bravely the men fought, 
but without avail. The momentum of the charge and 
the very perfectness of the victory had destroyed all 
organization, and Barlow's men were without order or 
battle formation. It was just as important to the enemy 
that the angle be re-taken and the victors driven 
out, and the Confederate officers and men rose to the full 
importance of the occasion. General Lee was in the very 
front himself, and at one time became so carried away 
with the intense excitement that he placed himself in 



Spottsy 'Iva nia. 213 

front of one of Gordon's Brigades, and, with hat in hand, 
was leading the charging Hne as it swept forward through 
the woods. The men, recognizing the commander of their 
army, burst into prolonged cheers, but refused to allow 
their leader to expose his life ; they calmly, but firmly, 
requested him to stop, and taking hold of his horse's 
bridle, forced him to turn back. The men fell back 
before the vigorous blows of the enemy, leaving behind 
many of their comrades who fell at every step ; finally 
all were forced out, and took position on the outer face 
of the angle. Just as the troops were forced out of the 
salient, the Sixth Corps came to the front and took 
position on the right of the Second Corps. The men of 
Barlow's Division were still mixed up to a great extent 
when they re-crossed the works that they had captured 
but an hour before. The men of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth were scattered in groups along the works, and 
when, at this point, the all-day fight began, they fought 
assembled in squads, whenever an officer was found to 
command them. No sooner were the men over the works 
than the furious attacks of the Confederates commenced 
— the assaults that were destined to continue all day 
and late into the night, and make May 12th the bloodiest 
day of all the war. Along a mile of the captured 
intrenchments, the fight went on until midnight. No 
language can describe this hand-to-hand fight. The 
drenching, chilling rain that fell during the day had no 
effect on the incessant fire. The lines were close, nothing 
between them but the log revetement, to which the men 
were trying to cling, and the enemy endeavoring to shake 
them off. Men fired into each others' faces, were shot 
through the crevices of the logs, bayoneted over the top 
of the works. In their wild enthusiasm men would leap 



2U The Sto?y of the ii6th Regwie7it. 

up on the works and fire down upon the enemy standing 
there, while freshly loaded muskets were handed to them, 
keeping up a continuous fire until they in turn were shot 
down. The dead and the dying were in piles on both 
sides of the works, and several times during the day the 
dead had to be tossed out of the trenches that the living 
might have a chance to stand. Hancock ran a battery 
close to the works and, throwing shells and canister over 
the heads of the Union troops, swept the ground. The 
trees were torn in splinters, and one great tree, measuring 
twenty-two inches in diameter, was cut down entire and 
fell with a crash, injuring some of the men of McGowan's 
Brigade. Owing to the all-day continuous battle, it was 
impossible to re-form or get together the members of the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth, scattered in the charge of 
the early morning. They fought through the long day 
with the troops with which they found themselves when 
they were driven back over the works. Colonel 
Mulholland was absent, wounded. Colonel Dale was 
gone and, Major Teed being in a southern prison, the 
command of the Regiment devolved upon Captain 
Garret Xowlen ; and when midnight brought the fighting 
to a close, and the Confederates finally gave up the 
struggle and fell back, leaving the bloody ground in 
possession of the Union troops, it became possible to get 
the command assembled. 

At daylight on May 13th Captain Xowlen succeeded 
in getting the companies and men together and, calHng 
the roll, learned the fate of many a braye and noble soul 
who would never answer to his name again. The long, 
bloody day of May 12th did not end until midnight, 
when the exhausted troops of both armies sank on the 
wet ground to sleep among the dead and dying, the 



Spottsylvania. 216 

chilHn^^ rain falling on friend and foe alike. After 
nightfall, heavy details were made for picket, and during 
the next day the fighting on the skirmish line was quite 
severe, during which Lieutenant Yocum greatly distin- 
guished himself in leading a charge and forcing the 
enemy to fall back. Yocum had gathered up half a dozen 
Confederate officers' swords during the fight, and selecting 
the most valuable, gave the others away. It was not 
known for sometime afterward whether Colonel Dale had 
been killed or only wounded and a prisoner. He had 
been seen to fall, but beyond that nothing was certain. 
Within a few days after the battle, the Government made 
every effort to learn something of him, even sending a 
company of cavalry to visit the field and farm houses in 
the vicinity, thinking that he might be among the 
wounded and somewhere near the field. Weeks passed 
away, but nothing definite could be learned until the 
autumn, when Lieutenant Zadock Springer, of Company 
K, having been taken prisoner at the battle of Ream's 
Station, August 25th, and going south on the cars, saw 
the lieutenant of a Georgia regiment, who had charge 
of the party, wearing Colonel Dale's cap and sword. 
Springer recognized the articles, and was told by the 
of^cer that he had taken them from the body of a Union 
officer who had been killed at Spottsylvania. This 
Confederate officer's account of Colonel Dale's death 
coincided exactly with what was known of his fall ; he 
said that he fell while waving his sword and rallying his 
men, and that he fell by the second line of works. This 
was the first positive information as to the fate of- one of 
the noblest of men, a man of splendid abilities, virtuous, 
gentle, brave and accomplished, whose frank and 
agreeable face and courteous bearing ever cheered his 



216 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

comrades in camp, march and bivouac, and whose bright 
eye and clear, ringing voice nerved them in battle, a 
Christian gentleman by instinct and a soldier without a 
superior. The following biographical sketch is from 
"Martial Deeds of Pennsylvania" : 

Richard Colegate Dale, Lieutenant-Colonel of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment, was born on the 19th of December, 1838, in the city 
of Alleghenj-. His father, Thom.as F. Dale, M. D., and his mother, 
Margaret Kennedy Stewart, were both natives of Delaware. He received 
a thorough English and a partial classical education in his native cit>'. 
He was, from early youth, characterized by strong individuality. He was 
engaged for a time as a clerk in commission and manufacturing houses, 
but finally became an active partner in a mercantile firm. When the war 
came, he frankly said to his father: "Mr. Lincoln has called for men. 
Many, on account of family or other relations, cannot go as well as L Do 
not think it is a fit of enthusiasm. I do not imagine it will be any pleasure 
to be a soldier. His is a life of trial and peril, and I do not know whether 
my constitution will be strong enough to bear those toils and exposures ; 
but I think it my dut>- to go". An only son and carefully reared, it was 
with great reluctance that the consent of his parents \\as given to his 
resolution ; but he would listen to no temporizing, and he enlisted as a 
private in Company A of the Ninth Reserves, in the spring of 1861. In 
the following August he was detailed from his regiment to serve in the 
United States Signal Corps. In a School of Instruction for that arm of 
the service, at Tenahtown, and afterwards as clerk to Major Myers, the 
commander of the corps in Washington, he was employed till the opening 
of the spring campaign under McClellan, with whom he went to the 
Peninsula, and ser\ed with fidelity and skill until the final battle at 
Malvern Hill had been fought. He then received leave of absence for ten 
days ; but in Washington, while on his way home, his furlough was 
extended by the Adjutant-General, and he was authorized to raise a 
company for signal duty. He opened a recruiting station at Pittsburg, on 
his arrival, but having been elected First Lieutenant of Company D, of the 
One Hundred and Twenty-third Regiment, he accepted the position, and 
at once entered upon his duties. For four months he served as Adjutant 
of the regiment, exerting himself to bring the organization up to an 
efficient standard, when he returned to his place in his company. At the 
battle of Fredericksburg, he acted with great gallantrj-, taking command 
of his company when its leader. Captain Boisol, was wounded, and had 
his haversack riddled with bullets, though he, himself, escaped without 
injur}-. He was soon afterwards appointed Assistant Adjutant-General 




LIEUTENANT-COLONEL RICHARD C. DALE 
Killed at Spottsylvania, May 12th, 1864 



Spotisylvania. 217 

of the brigade. A vacancy occurring in the office of Lieutenant-Colonel, 
he was promptly elected to fill it by the line officers, though the junior 
captain among them. So methodical and complete were all his acts, that 
when notified of his promotion, he was in readiness to turn over his 
business at the head of the brigade in a finished condition, and at once to 
assume the responsible one in command of the regiment. He was 
engaged at Chancellorsville, and when the term of the regiment had 
expired, which occurred soon afterwards, he returned with it to Pittsburg, 
where it was mustered out. 

When he heard the intelligence of fighting at Gettysburg, he 
hastened home, exclaiming, "Our boys are fighting and falling at 
Gettysburg, and I am here doing nothing. I cannot stand this!" 
Gathering up a few articles of clothing, he hurried away to the depot, and 
reached Harrisburg that night. He immediately reported to the Governor, 
and asked to be sent to the front, saying: " I must go. I can at least 
volunteer as aid to some General, to carry dispatches over the field". 
But the Governor could not provide transportation. Indeed, all the 
avenues were closed — even a private carriage could not be secured, the 
inhabitants fearing the action of the enemy's cavalry, and refusing every 
offer, unless bonds were entered for the safe return of the conveyance. 
Finding it impossible to reach the field, he was obliged, reluctantly, to 
return home. 

Soon afterwards. General Brooke, at the head of the Department of 
the Monongahela, offered him the command of a battalion of six months' 
cavalr>\ " I was drilled in cavalr>- movements when in the signal service", 
was his response, ' ' and I shall be glad to serve in any capacity to which 
you may assign me ". The companies were already recruited and in 
camp, and fears were entertained that officers who were expecting the 
command, much older than himself, would object to having a boy set over 
them. The ver\- troubles arose which were anticipated ; but so firmly and 
judiciously did he suppress the first rising of revolt, and so wisely and 
well did he enforce his discipline and drill, and instruct his charge, that a 
large part of the men were desirous of being led by him for a three 
years' term. He was stationed in Fayette county, and was charged with 
guarding the border, a duty which he performed to the satisfaction of 
General Brooke, and, what was more difficult, to the entire approval of 
the inhabitants among whom he was quartered. 

In January, 1S64, while General Hancock was engaged in reorganizing 
the Second Corps, which became famous under his leadership, Dale was 
offered the position of Lieutenant-Colonel in the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment, which was accepted, and he was immediately 
engaged in recruiting, it having been decimated in previous campaigns 
while still a part of the celebrated Irish Brigade. In the battle of the 



218 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Wilderness, where his command was closely engaged, a bullet penetrated 
his coat, but he escaped. On the 9th of .May, his Regiment was ordered 
to the picket line to support General Miles' s Brigade, and was under a hot 
fire of rebel grape and canister. On the following day it was again 
engaged in a long, hard fight, in which Colonel Mulholland was severely 
wounded in the head. The command then devolved on Lieutenant- 
Colonel Dale, and in the assault upon the enemy's worlcs, at the dawn of 
the 1 2th, while gallantly leading his Regiment into the " imminent deadly 
breach", he fell instantly killed or mortally wounded, as is supposed, no 
tidings having ever been had of him, and no information pertaining to his 
last resting-place having teen discovered. When a sufficient time had 
elapsed to preclude all hope of return, resolutions were passed by his 
brother officers commemorative of his great ability as a soldier and his 
many virtues as a man. The colonel of his Regiment said of him : " He 
was a man of splendid abilities, virtuous, gentle, brave and accomplished. 
He was remarkably calm in battle, and was verj- much beloved by his 
comrades". His two sisters, who surxive him, saj", in closing a 
communication concerning him, "No sisters ever had a more devoted 
brother". 

Lieutenant Henn- Keil, of Company E, was killed 
during the fight. He was a brave young officer, not more 
than eighteen years of age. He joined the Regiment as 
first sergeant of his company only three months before 
his death. He had not yet been mustered in as an officer, 
and his commission remained in the adjutant's desk for 
several months after Spottsylvania. It was not known at 
the time that he was killed, and he was reported "missing", 
but it was afterwards learned that he fell in the battle. 

Lieutenants Samuel G. \^anderheyden, of Company G, 
and Robert J. .Alston, of Company H, were both severely 
wounded. The wounds of many of the men were of a 
ver\- unusual character. Edward Savage, of Company K, 
had both eyes destroyed by the windage of a passing 
shell. He was led from the field, but died in a few hours 
from the shock and concussion. A Union officer had both 
eyes shot out, the ball passing just back of the eyeballs. 
He stood, blind and helpless, never uttering a word of 



Spottsylvania. 



219 



complaint, but opening and closing the sightless sockets, 
the blood leaping out in spurts. Numbers of men were 
killed and wounded by the bayonet, more, perhaps, than 
in any other fight of the war, and facilities for handling 
the immense numbers of wounded seemed more inadequate 
than usual. Thousands swarmed around the temporary 
hospitals, and the woods and the roads in the rear of the 
line were filled with stricken men, wandering around in 
the drenching rain, seeking assistance. Some few members 
of the Regiment were sent back to Army Headquarters 
with the prisoners, and they reported that, during the 
morning, the four thousand Confederates had arranged 
to make a break for liberty, and to try a rush for their 
lives. But General Patrick, Provost Marshal, had defeated 
and checked the eflfort. General Johnston and General 
Stuart were taken at once to the Army Headquarters, and 
were received with every courtesy and consideration. 
They were deeply interested, and Johnston eyed General 
Grant with great curiosity. The meeting was cordial and, 
on the part of the Union officers, very pleasant. 

On the morning of the 13th it was found that the 
enemy had abandoned the salient and retired to 
intrenchments, entirely cutting off that portion of their 
line, leaving great piles of dead and many wounded on 
the ground on which they had made such a ferocious fight 
during the preceding day. The picket details from the 
Regiment that had been on duty all the night of the 12th 
and until four o'clock on the afternoon of the 13th were 
relieved at that hour, and returned to the Regiment 
exhausted and worn out. They had been under fire 
continually for thirty-six hours, without food or rest. 
Lieutenant Yocum received unbounded praise for his 
action on the skirmish line. 



^-0 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

The losses in the Regiment during the battle of May 
12th could never be actually ascertained. Numbers that 
were reported missing were afterwards found to have been 
killed. The total loss of the Union Army on May 12th 
was : killed and wounded, 6,020 ; missing, 800 ; total, 
6,820. The Confederate loss, including the 4,000 prisoners 
captured by General Hancock and his Second Corps, was 
between 9,000 and 10,000. The loss to the enemy in 
general officers was extremely heavy — Brigadier-Generals 
Daniel and Perrin being killed, and Brigadier-Generals 
Walker, Ramseur, R. D. Johnston and McGowan severely 
wounded ; and Major-General Edward Johnston and 
Brigadier-General George H. Stuart captured. 

May 14th, under arms at daybreak, but the command 
was not called upon, and a most welcome rest until four 
a. m., May 15th, when the Regiment moved two miles to 
the left and bivouacked on the Fredericksburg Road, 
resting as best they could, the rain still falling at intervals, 
and the roads so heavy that it was impossible to move 
trains or artillery. During the afternoon an order from 
General Meade was read to the Regiment : — 

Headquarters Ar.aiy of the Potomac. 

May 13th. 

Soldiers : The moment has arrived when your commanding General 
feels authorized to address you in terms of congratulation. 

For eight days and nights, almost without intermission, in rain and 
sunshine, you have been gallantly fighting a desperate foe, in positions 
naturally strong and rendered doubly so by intrenchments. 

You have compelled him to abandon his fortifications on the Rapidan, 
to retire and attempt to stop your onward progress, and now he has 
abandoned his last intrenched position, so tenaciously held, suffering a 
loss in all of eighteen guns, twenty-two colors and 8,000 prisoners, 
including two general officers. 

Your heroic deeds and noble endurance and privations will ever be 
memorable. Let us return thanks to God for the mercy thus shown us, 
and ask earnestly for its continuation. 



The Battle of Spottsylvania Court-House. 221 

Soldiers, \()ur work is not yet over. The enemy must be pursued 
and, if possible, overcome. The courage and fortitude you have 
displayed renders your commanding General confident your future 
efforts will result in success. 

While we mourn the loss of many gallant comrades, let us remember 
that the enemy must have suffered ecjual, if not greater, losses. 

We shall soon receive reinforcement which he cannot e.xpect. Let us 
determine to continue vigorously the work so well begun, and under 
God's blessing in short time the object of our labors will be accomplished. 

George G. Meade, 
Commanding-General. 
Official— A. Williams, A. A. G. 
{Api)roved.) U. S. Gr.vxt, 

Lieutenant-General Commanding. 

Remained on the reserve until the 17th. On the 
evening of that day, General Thomas Smyth, commanding- 
the brigade, inspected the Regiment, and Captain Schoales 
and Lieutenant Robert J. Grogan, both of Company E, 
tendered their resignations, which were accepted. 

THE BATTLE OF SPOTTSYLVANIA COURT-HOUSE. 



During the night the division was moved to the vicinitv 
of the Landron House, and formed for the attack in the 
line of brigades. It was hoped that by an early attack the 
enemy might be surprised and his left flank turned. At 
dawn a general advance was made, but, early as it was, the 
enemy were found to be wide awake and fully prepared. 
They were strongly posted in the rifle pits. The ground 
over which the Regiment charged was very rough and 
broken, and it was with much difficulty that the regimental 
line was preserved. The command moved forward, how- 
ever, in excellent order, and held the right flank of the 
Irish Brigade. No sooner had the charge begun than 
the movement was discovered by the Confederates, who 



222 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

opened with a musketry fire, in which their batteries 
quickly joined, throwing shell and canister. It was a hot 
fire, but failed to break or retard the advancing Union 
line. Pressing forward and reaching the works to be 
assaulted, the men were confronted by a deep and heavy 
abatis that completely covered the Confederate line, the 
slashing being so dense that all efforts to penetrate were 
impossible. The Irish Brigade undoubtedly came nearer 
to getting through than any other, many of the men 
throwing themselves forward into the tangled wood and 
branches in their efforts to reach the works. One 
sergeant of the Regiment penetrated the mass for eight 
or ten feet beyond any of his comrades, and stood there, 
waist-deep in the abatis, while he loaded and fired three 
or four times. Many of the men of the Regiment were 
shot after they became entangled in the brush. The 
charge was a very noble efl^ort, but absolutely hopeless. 
The impracticability of reaching the enemy's line, or even 
piercing the abatis, was soon apparent, and the order to 
fall back was given, but not a moment too soon. To hold 
the men in front of the abatis to be shot down would be 
a useless waste of life. They fell back in excellent order, 
and, under the circumstances, behaved with wonderful 
steadiness. 

Every battle furnishes incidents and strange sights to 
be talked over by the survivors. Corporals Dick McClean 
and Daniel J. Crawford, of Company K, were chatting 
together just as the charge was ordered. " Do you see 
the Reb works? " said Crawford, "well, I will be killed 
just as I reach there ". And he was. He fell shot through 
the head as he came to the abatis. McClean lost his arm 
a moment later at the same spot. As the Regiment was 
falling back, a man of Company G, Franz Poffenberger, 



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{From a photograph taken at that time.) 



The Battle of Spottsylvania Court- House. 223 

received, perhaps, the most awful injury ever received by 
any man in the command, and still breathed. A solid shot 
or large piece of shell struck him in the body, literally 
tearing him to atoms, breaking the large bones and driving 
them through the flesh. He fell near the colors, and, 
notwithstanding the fearful injuries received, lived, 
seemingly sensible, for half an hour. No matter how 
terrible the surroundings in a fight, there seemed to be a 
ludicrous incident sure to pop up and cause a smile. One 
of these was when Robert Glendenning, of Company K, 
had his wig carried away by a passing shell, and the boys 
thought his head was gone, but he turned up all right, 
though very bald. It was a beautiful spring morning when 
the fight of May 18th took place. The rain had ceased and 
all nature seemed refreshed ; but on the ground occupied 
and fought over by the Regiment on this morning, 
nothing of charm or beauty was visible. The dead of the 
12th were there, unburied, and the scene was one of horror 
beyond the power of language to describe. The sight 
was hideous, the stench overpowering and sickening. No 
sooner was the fight over than almost the entire Regiment 
was ordered out on the picket line, remaining there during 
all the day and night, and getting a fearful dose of the 
offensive surroundings. The skirmish line ran over the 
part of the battlefield where the decaying dead were most 
numerous. During the day the pioneers did all in their 
power to cover up the ghastly sight, by digging up the 
earth and throwing it over the bodies — graves were a 
luxury not to be thought of. Darkness settled over 
the scene long before even a tithe of the dead could 
be hidden from view, and the night was passed with 
the living and the dead mingled together. The men of 
both armies were so totally exhausted that many slept 



224 The Story of the ii6lh Regiment. 

Standing at their posts, and the officers were forced to keep 
moving along the line during the entire night to keep the 
men at\-ake. Lieutenant Cosslett and a sergeant, while 
making the rounds, lost their way in the darkness, and 
wandered among the pickets of the enemy, whom they 
found all fast asleep, and hence got back to their own 
line in safety. Captain Frank R. Lieb, of Company G, 
was in command of the brigade picket, and received great 
praise for the tour of duty. It was a night of horror and 
hardship that will never be forgotten by the members of 
the One Hundred and Sixteenth. 

After daylight on the 10th, Captain Lieb was ordered 
to withdraw the pickets, the corps having moved to the 
left. He found great difficulty in getting them away, but 
succeeded in forming and falling back to a wood, pressed 
by a force of Confederate cavalry that had suddenly 
appeared. When the Captain reached the shelter of the 
timber, he fully expected to be captured with all his force, 
but, fortunately, and much to his surprise he found, just 
emerging from the forest, a force of Union cavalry who 
charged forward and struck the Confederate force in 
the open. Lieb and his men had the privilege and 
pleasure of witnessing one of the prettiest and most 
spirited hand-to-hand cavalry fights imaginable. It was 
of short duration, however, the Union men forcing the 
Confederates back and allowing the pickets to withdraw. 
While falling back one of the men of Company G had 
his leg cut off by a shell, and Lieb and the men put him 
in a blanket and carried him for nearly two miles, but 
were finally forced to leave the poor fellow to die on the 
roadside. During the night of the 18th, the Second Corps 
moved to the vicinity of Anderson's Mills, on the Xye 
River. 



The Battle of Spottsylvania Court-House. 225 

The glorious fight made by Captain Frank R. Lieb, 
on May 18th, calls for more than a passing notice. The 
brave fight that he made on the skirmish line was 
witnessed by thousands, and General Hancock personally 
thanked him, bringing blushes to his cheeks that were 
almost as red as the blood that was streaming down his 
face at the moment. No time was lost in acknowledging 
the gallantry of the captain, and the following was issued 
a few days after the event : — 

Headquarters Second Brigade, First Division, Second Corps. 
(Orders) June ist, 1864. 

The following is an extract from a communication just received from 
Headquarters First Division : 

The Brigadier-General commanding division desires that Captain F. 
R. Lieb, One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
Lieutenant Lynch, Company A, Sixty-ninth New York Volunteers, be in 
some way commended for their gallantry while on duty on the picket line 
lately. 

It is with great satisfaction that the Colonel commanding the brigade 
communicates the above to the command, and he hopes that for the 
creditable manner in which those officers have conducted themselves, they 
may be duly rewarded whenever an occasion may present itself. 

By order of Colonel R. Bvrnes, 

Commanding Brigade. 
(Signed) P. N. Black, 

Lieutenant and A. A. A. G. 

The above bore the following indorsements : — 

This is a case worthy of attention. Captain Lieb's recommendations 
are such that I have no hesitation in endorsing them, and recommend a 
favorable result to his application. Respectfully forwarded, 

VVinfield S. Hancock, 

Major-General, U. S. A. 

The within order complimentary to Captain F. R. Lieb, late of the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, is heartily endorsed. 

U. S. Grant. 



226 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

In addition to this the Captain was raised to the rank 
of Major, by brevet, and all the honors were well deserved 
by one of the most unassuming, gentlest and bravest of 
men. Captain Lieb was not the only one distinguished 
for braver}" on the 18th. Sergeant Alex. Chisholm and 
private Alfred Bails did a very noble act in rescuing a 
wounded comrade, though of another regiment and corps. 
After the fight, and when the command had fallen back 
behind the breast-works, a wounded soldier was seen lying 
out between the lines among the dead. He was fearfully 
wounded, and his limbs were crushed. Lieutenant Cope 
called for some one to volunteer and go out with him to 
bring the poor fellow in. Chisholm and Bails grabbed 
up a blanket, jumped over the revetement, ran out to 
where the man was lying, rolled him over into the blanket 
and succeeded in getting him in. Fortunately, neither of 
,them were hit, but it was a close call, as the balls whistled 
wickedly around them ; most likely, however, the 
Confederates fired a little wild,. and were not over anxious 
to kill — like our own men, they admired bravery, and 
were more than willing to give a gallant soul a chance 
for life. 

The 19th was a quiet day of perfect stillness until about 
four o'clock in the afternoon, when a burst of firing on the 
right told of a Confederate attack. The assault proved to 
be an attack by General Ewell, who had struck the right 
of the Second Corps on the Fredericksburg Road, at that 
time the line of supply. The Regiment was promptly 
under arms, but the attack was beaten off without the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth being called out of bivouac. This 
attack of Ewell was the reason of the Regiment getting 
a good night's rest, for had it not taken place, the 
command would have marched at midnight, or shortly 



The Battle of Spotisylvania Court- Ho7ise. 



227 



after that hour, as the following order had already been 
received at Corps Headquarters : — 

Headqi'arters Army of the Potomac. 

May 19th, 1864, 1.30 p. M. 

MaJOR-GeNERAL HAxNCOCK, 

Commanding Second Corps. 
The Major-General commanding directs that you move with your 
corps to-morrow, at two a. m., to BowHng Green and Milford Station, via 
Guinea Station, and take position on the right bank of the Mattapony, if 
practicable. Should you encounter the enemy, you will attack him 
vigorously, and report immediately to these headquarters, which you will 
keep advised of your progress from time to time. Brigadier-General 
Torbert, with a cavalry force and a battery of horse artillery, is ordered to 
report to you for duty. An engineer officer and guide will he sent to you. 
Canvas pontoons will likewise be put at your disposal. 

A. A. Humphreys, 

Major-General, Chief of Staff. 

On the 20th, General Thomas A. Smyth, who had 
commanded the Irish Brigade during the spring campaign 
up to this date, was assigned to a brigade in the Second 
Division. He was succeeded by the senior ofBcer of the 
brigade, Colonel Richard Byrne, of the Twenty-eighth 
Massachusetts. The departure of General Smyth was 
deeply regretted by every one. He was a very handsome 
man, of commanding appearance, winning and lovable, 
a noble soldier of great talent. He had been a soldier 
from early youth, having participated in an ill-fated 
expedition to Central America in 1854, where he saw 
some hard service. He had entered the field in the very 
beginning of the war, and rose rapidly to command of the 
First Regiment, Delaware Infantry. He was mortally 
wounded at Farmville, Va., a day or two before the 
surrender of the Confederate Army and lived until the 
next morning. General Grant called at the farm house 
where he was dying and told him of the triumph of the 



228 The Story of the ii6th Regivient. 

Union cause. He breathed his last a few moments 
afterwards, cheered by the knowledge that his life was 
not given in vain. He was, perhaps, the last officer 
killed in the war ; certainly the last general officer. He 
is buried at Wilmington, Del., on the banks of the historic 
Brandywine. 

Instead of marching at two a. m., on the morning of 
the 20th, the troops remained in bivouac until ten p. m. 
of that da}^ and then marched all night, the men in 
excellent spirits, having recovered from the fatigue of the 
18th by the twenty-four hours' rest ; crossed the Freder- 
icksburg and Richmond Railroad, and at daybreak on the 
morning of the 21st, reached Guinea Station. Here the 
Union cavalry met and drove in the videttes of the enemy 
and, after a slight halt on the road, pushed on and reached 
Bowling Green at ten o'clock, and Milford Station at 
about noon. Colonel Mulholland, who was wounded on 
May 10th, rejoined the Regiment on this day. 

Here the cavalry under General Torbert had a lively 
fight with the enemy's infantry that he found intrenched 
on the north bank of the Mattapony, By a most brilliant 
dash Torbert captured the rifle pits, taking sixty prisoners 
of Kemper's Brigade, driving the balance across the river 
and saving the bridge. Barlow's and Gibbons's divisions 
crossed the stream promptly. The men of the Regiment, 
wading through the water, pushed on for a mile and began 
intrenching on the high lands on the south bank. The 
firing sounded heavy as the enemy retired, but the 
Regiment lost none. Worked on the intrenchments until 
quite dark and resumed digging early on the morning of 
the 22d. The day was warm and the work trying. 
Captain Nowlen, overcome by the heat, fainted in the 
trenches but refused to go to the rear even for an hour. 



The Battle of Spottsylvania Court- Hoiise. 229 

The works were completed by noon and then a grateful 
rest, but not without anxiety on the part of all. 

The Second Corps occupied a position on the extreme 
left flank of the whole army, far from supports, and no one 
knew the moment that it might be called upon to meet 
the attack of a much larger force. However, when the 
intrenchments were finished, all rested easily, as the works 
were of the strongest character and were viewed by the 
officers of the other corps with astonishment and admira- 
tion. One could hardly believe that men could construct 
works of so powerful a nature in so short a time. 

May 23d, roll call at daybreak and marched at nine a. m. 
as rear guard of the Second Corps. Arrived at the North 
Anna River near Chesterfield in the afternoon and found 
the cavalry engaged in trying to drive the enemy across 
and capture the bridge. The Union artillery formed on 
the high lands of the north bank and opened fire on the 
enemy's infantry that could be seen forming on the opposite 
bank. In the evening the troops charged across the fields 
and drove the enemy from a small redoubt that covered 
the bridge, capturing the works, some few prisoners and 
saving the bridge that the retiring troops endeavored to 
burn. 

The fighting had been severe and the cannonading 
heavy, but with but slight loss in the Regiment during the 
afternoon. Rested on arms all night and crossed the river 
early on the 24th on a pontoon bridge that had been laid 
by the engineers. The firing and fighting was severe 
during the whole day and the position the Regiment had 
was a very trying one, supposed to be on reserve, yet so 
close to the line of battle that the men were exposed and 
for a large part of the day were under fire. 

The wounded were carried past in great numbers and 



230 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

many of the wounds were of the most ghastly description. 
Ever\'one would rather have been in the front line where 
they could have been firing and join in the excitement of 
the fray rather than be waiting during the long day under 
fire and witnessing the depressing scenes in the rear. 
The Regiment was ver\' fortunate, however, in losing 
but few men in the fight of the North Anna. The fight 
continued all day of the 24th and late into the night and 
was renewed early on the morning of the 25th, lasting all 
day. The artillen.- fire was incessant and heavy, but the 
position occupied by the One Hundred and Sixteenth was 
sheltered and the fire passed over, the shells exploding far 
in the rear and hence the loss was light. 

May 26th, roll call at four a. m. A morning of exciting 
rumors, and at eight o'clock the Regiment was detailed to 
destroy the tracks of the Fredericksburg and Richmond 
Railroad near Milford Station. Crossed to the north bank 
of the river and soon got to work ripping up the track 
and destroying the rails. Immense fires were made with 
the ties over which the iron rails were laid and, when red 
hot, were bent out of shape. A good day's work was 
done, ever}-one turning in with a will and enjoying the 
novelty of the employment. During the afternoon some 
of the enemy's cavalry succeeded in getting around in the 
rear of the Union Army and amused themselves by firing 
at 4 ver\' long range at the members of the Regiment who 
were at work. A squadron of cavalry went after them, 
charged the distant wood that sheltered them and drove 
them away. After night-fall returned to the brigade, drew 
rations, returned to the north bank of the river and rested 
until morning. 

May 27th, marched at ten a. m. A long and trying day, 
dusty roads, heat oppressive and water scarce, but men 



The Battle of Spottsylvania Court-House. 



231 



cheerful and all filled with hope that soon a great victory 
would reward the labor and suffering. Passed, en route. 
Concord Church, and camped at ten p. m. within three 
miles of the Pamunky River. 

May 28th, roll call at daybreak, marched at six a. m. 
and reached the banks of the river. Crossed at noon at 
Hundey's, about four miles above Hanovertown, advanced 
some distance and formed line of battle between the river 
and Haw's Shop, stacked arms and started vigorously to 
work, digging rifle pits and getting under cover. Heavy 
and continuous firing heard in the front, where Sheridan 
and his cavalry were having a severe fight with the 
enemy's cavalry reinforced with some of their infantry. 
Night came and we learned that Sheridan had driven the 
enemy towards Richmond. 

May 29th, completed the rifle pits and at eleven a. m, 
resumed the march to the front and towards the 
Tolopotomy. The enemy reported close at hand and 
everyone expected a general engagement. The march 
was slow,, the Irish Brigade and Barlow's Division in 
the advance, and after reaching Haw's Shop, saw the 
evidence of the cavalry fight of the day before. Dead men 
and horses were lying in the roads and fields everywhere. 
The trees were torn b}' the shells, fences leveled and farm 
houses and barns filled with the wounded. Barlow's 
Division met with no opposition until the column arrived 
at the junction of the Cold Harbor and Hanover Court 
House roads, when some cavalry disputed the way, but 
were quickly driven back. On the Tolopotomy the enemy 
were found in force, strongly intrenched, and line of battle 
was formed, Birney's and Gibbons's Divisions of the 
Second Corps coming up and forming on Barlow's right 
and left. The corps' artillery went into position along the 



232 The Siory of the ii6th Regiment. 

ridge, and the prospects were that a great battle was close 
at hand. Colonel Mulholland was detailed as corps officer 
of the day and put in command of the picket line. 

May 30th, hea\'y artiller}- duel nearly all day, but 
towards evening the Union guns succeeded in silencing 
those of the enemy. A delightful summer day, with 
charges on the enem\^'s works at intervals. General 
Brooke with his brigade carried the Confederate rifle-pits 
in a dashing fight. 

May 31, the battle was continued. Early in the day 
General Hancock, with the Second Corps, resumed his 
efforts to force the crossing of the river. The whole corps' 
line of battle was forced close up to that of the enemy at 
all points, but the position was found too strong to ca^r}^ 
The skirmishing and fighting on the picket line was 
heavy and incessant, and amounted almost to a battle. 
Colonel Mulholland, in command of the line, was shot 
through the body, and many men of the Regiment, who 
were on the line, were killed and wounded. Lieutenant 
Yocum, with a detail of the command, gained new laurels 
by charging and capturing a part of the Confederate line, 
but lost nearly all his men. Two balls passed through the 
Lieutenant's blouse, but he was unhurt. The losses 
in the Second Corps at the battles of North Anna, 
Pamunky and Tolopotomy were 1,651 officers and men 
killed, wounded and missing. The few reported missing 
were, no doubt, nearly all killed, as but few prisoners were 
taken by the enemy. 

During the battle of Tolopotomy an amusing, but 
rather tragic, incident occurred. While a liniber chest of 
one of the batteries was being refilled with ammunition 
in the yard of a farm-house in the rear, a negro woman, 
crazed with excitement and fright, came out of the kitchen 



The Battle of Spottsylvania Cotirt- House. 233 

with a shovelful of hot coals, which she emptied into the 
chest. In the explosion that followed two of the artillerists 
were killed while the woman escaped uninjured. A most 
ludicrous incident of the battle was a cool request, in 
writing, in language more vigorous than polite, and 
coming from some ladies living in a house that stood in 
the line of battle. They desired that General Hancock 
would change the line of battle so that they would not be 
disturbed. The General was a very courteous man, 
indeed, but could not comply with their wishes. He sent 
an ambulance, however, to convey them to a place of 
safety. They positively refused to leave the house and 
remained in the cellar, while many shells struck the house. 
They were Confederate missiles, and had the ladies been 
injured it would have been at the hands of their friends. 
Nevertheless, they notified the General that " if any of 
them were killed their blood would rest on his soul 
forever". Fortunately for all, the ladies lived through the 
battle unharmed. 

June 1st, remained in the rifle pits all day, the firing 
being continuous, as the pickets were engaged incessantly. 
A rigid inspection of the Regiment at five p. m., and 
orders to • march after nightfall. After dark, withdrew 
from the line of the Tolopotomy and began marching for 
Cold Harbor. Marched all night and arrived near the 
coming battlefield on June 2d. 



234 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



CHAPTER XL 
THE BLOODIEST SPOT ON EARTH. 

Fredericksburg, Chan'Cellorsville, Salem Church, The 

Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Spottsylvania Court-House, 

Todd's Tayern, Po River, Bank's Ford. 

■piFTY miles south of the capital of our country there is 
an old Virginia city, quiet, quaint and beautiful — 
Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock. There is a peculiar 
charm about the ancient town, and it is replete with 
historic interest. Mary, the venerable mother of Wash- 
ington, lived and died at Fredericksburg, and there the 
Father of his Country would often come to visit her. It 
was before the days of steam and train, and at least a day 
and a half from Mt. Vernon by coach and four was 
necessary when Washington made a call of affection on 
the old lady. It is not at all likely that Mary Washington 
ever saw her son after he became President, as she died 
in October, 1789, Washington having been inaugurated 
in New York on April 30 of the same year, the distance 
separating son and mother being very great in those 
days of stage coaches. She had, however, the satisfaction 
of knowing of the final success of the Revolution and of 
the great honors paid to her distinguished son. 

The old homestead of Mary Washington is still 
standing, and just in the rear, with only the garden 
separating, is "Kinmore", the house of her son-in-law^ 
Colonel Fielding Lewis, another old-time colonial mansion, 
and very interesting it is. The Hessians, after the 
surrender of Cornwallis, were camped for some time on 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 235 

the plantation, and there were artists among them who 
decorated the interior of "Kinmore" with plastic 
ornaments of much merit. Colonel Lewis was married 
to Betty, the sister of Washington, and the mother loved 
to stroll through the flowers of the back garden and over 
to " Kinmore " to spend the evening and take tea with 
Betty Lewis. 

Mary Washington was buried in the field just outside 
of the town. Her monument stood in full view of the 
Union and Confederate lines during the battle, and was 
smashed and shattered by the shells of both armies, the 
fragments still lying scattered on the ground. After the 
war the ladies of the South raised a more costly and 
stately memorial by the grave, and because of their love 
for the memory of the mother of Washington, we say : 
" God bless the ladies of the South !" 

About twelve miles south from Fredericksburg is 
Spottsylvania Court-House, and about the same distance 
west, perhaps* a little more, is the Wilderness Tavern. 
Draw a line from each of these points to the others — 
from Fredericksburg to Spottsylvania, thence to the 
Wilderness Tavern, and back to Fredericksburg — and 
you have a triangle in which were fought several of the 
greatest battles of the War of the Rebellion. Or, perhaps 
better still, draw a circle — say, twelve miles, or a little 
more, in diameter — with Fredericksburg, Spottsylvania 
and the Wilderness Tavern on the outer edge, and inside 
that circle were fought the battles of the first and second 
Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Salem Heights, the 
Wilderness, Po River, Todd's Tavern, Laurel Hill, 
Spottsylvania, Spottsylvania Court-House, Mine Run, 
and several minor fights and engagements. 

Within the circle more men have, perhaps, been killed 



236 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

and wounded than on any ground of equal area on earth. 
Forty years have made but little change in the appearance 
of the country. Signs of war are still strongly in evidence, 
the whole land torn, seamed and crossed in all directions 
by earthworks and revetements. Here and there are a 
few scattered farms, where the plowshare oftentimes turns 
up human bones, and where little children run out to the 
roadside to ofTer to the passing stranger relics of war, 
rusted bayonets, bursted shells and mouldering rifles, on 
which years of exposure have left their mark. 

The Wilderness is as of yore, and but little changed. 
Woods solemn and lonely ; primeval forests, where the 
wild turkey finds a home, where the piping quail greets 
the morning and the whooping owl and melancholy 
whip-poor-will make evening sad ; their song, harmonizing 
with the wind sobbing through the templed trees, sounds 
an eternal requiem over ground forever consecrated by 
martyr blood. Intervals there are where the undergrowth 
is rich and luxuriant, but dead trunks of 'massive trees, 
charred and blackened by fire, mark spots where flames 
swept over the fighting line, burning up alike the dead 
and the wounded. 

The same remarkable and appalling percentage of 
killed and wounded in individual commands in single 
engagements that has made the world's record for 
heroism was repeated time and again on every battlefield 
within the circle of fire and blood. Let us recall some of 
the organizations that lost 50 per cent., or more, on this 
ground, keeping in mind that there is no record of any 
European regiment that ever lost so great a percentage 
in battle. 

The first Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862, was 
redolent with heroic deeds. The fact that the battle was 



The Bloodiest Spot on Eatth. 237 

a mistake and a blunder, and the sacrifice useless, 
detracts not in the least from the honor that is rendered 
to brave men ; but when we recognize the fact that the 
troops marched to death, knowing how hopeless the 
struggle, we must acknowledge that the fact but adds to 
their glory. 

The Twentieth Massachusetts was a great regiment, 
and lost at Fredericksburg 68.4 per cent, killed and 
wounded. It was in Norman Hall's Brigade of the 
Second Corps. The fire of Barksdale's Brigade of 
Mississippians was so deadly that it was found impossible 
to construct the pontoon bridge opposite the city, and the 
engineers were forced to give up the job. 1 he fire of one 
hundred and fifty guns was concentrated on the river 
front, but even that failed to drive back the Confederate 
riflemen. Their fire was still sufficiently effective to 
prevent the completion of the bridge. It was then that 
the brigade of Norman Hall took up the work. The 
Seventh Michigan and Nineteenth Maine, manning the 
boats, rowed across under the terrific fire, and leaped 
ashore to attack the enemy. The Twentieth Massachu- 
setts was one of the first regiments to cross, and to it was 
assigned the task of clearing the streets of the town. In 
column of companies, led by Captain George N. Macy, 
the command forced its way literally inch by inch, met by 
a severe and deadly musketry fire from house tops and 
windows, but finally succeeded in reaching the main street, 
the Confederates giving up the struggle and retiring to the 
heights beyond the city. It was a gallant fight and cost 
the Twentieth just GS.4 per cent, in killed and wounded 
and not one missing. The command had fought on the 
Peninsula, at Antietam, and on every battlefield from 
the very beginning, and after Fredericksburg there was 



238 The Story of the ii6th Regi?nent. 

but little left of it. Four months afterwards it fought at 
Chancellorsville, and seven months afterwards went into 
action at Gettysburg with 2-30 officers and men and lost 
124 of them, killed and wounded. The Regiment had a 
remarkable fatality in field and staf? officers — the noble 
Colonel Paul Revere killed at Gettysburg ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Ferdinand Dreher killed at Fredericksburg ; 
Major Henry L. Abbott killed at the Wilderness ; Major 
Henry L. Patton killed at Deep Bottom ; Surgeon Edward 
H, Revere killed at Antietam ; and Adjutant Henry M. 
Bond killed in the Wilderness. This regiment had, all 
told, eighteen commissioned officers killed in battle. 
Captain George N. Macy was the senior captain — but a 
very young man — and, as acting major, commanded the 
regiment in the battle. When General Howard asked 
Colonel Hall who was to command the leading regiment 
and he pointed to Macy, Howard exclaimed, "What, 
that boy !" Colonel Hall replied, " Yes, that boy is all 
right and will lead it, and the regiment will follow any- 
where you wish". The " boy" afterwards lost an arm at 
Gettysburg, and at the close of the war was a Brigadier- 
General and Brevet Major-General. 

Meade's advance on the left, where, with the Pennsyl- 
vania Reserves, he struck the right of the Confederate 
line at Hamilton Heights, was a wonderful and brilliant 
charge. Looking over the plain where the charge was 
made, and remembering that it was swept by the enemy's 
artillery, one is astonished to think that the Reserves ever 
reached the Confederate line, but they did, and drove it in 
and back through the timber, and, in a hand-to-hand 
fight. Sergeant Charles C. Upjohn, of the Second 
Reserves, tore from the hands of the color-bearer the 
flag of the Nineteenth Georgia Regiment, the only flag 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 239 

captured in the battle. Had Meade been left to his fate 
and not promptly supported, the Pennsylvania Reserve 
division that he so nobly led would have been annihilated; 
but General William B. Franklin, seeing the trouble, 
promptly put in nearly the whole of the Left Grand 
Division, and the Reserves were saved, but not until after 
having met with an appalling loss. Gibbons's Division 
of the First Corps went into action on the right of the 
Reserves, and two regiments of that command were 
distinguished, not only because of the great loss, but of 
the splendid fight they made, the Sixteenth Maine losing 
54 per cent, killed and wounded, and the Twenty-sixth 
New York 56 per cent. 

The Sixteenth Maine was not exactly a new regiment, 
but had never been under fire until the morning of 
Fredericksburg. On that day it proved itself one of the 
finest regiments that ever left the Pine Tree State, and 
Colonel Charles W. Tilden made a name for himself in 
the half hour that the command was under fire. Seeing 
that he was losing many of his men while holding a 
position to which he had been assigned, he led a 
remarkably successful charge on the works in his front, 
capturing several hundred prisoners, and in the hand-to- 
hand fight the bayonet was not only used freely, but relied 
upon almost entirely. The regiment advanced unsupported 
and alone, and, after taking the line of works, pushed into 
the woods and struck an overwhelming force of the 
enemy. Colonel Tilden was compelled to order a retreat, 
but not until he had left just 54 per cent, of his command 
dead and wounded on the ground. The first one struck 
was the youngest soldier in the regiment. r\.s the line 
was moving forward, Benny Worth, a boy of 15, was 
struck in the head by a piece of shell. For a moment he 



240 The Story of the ii6th Regmient. 

was stunned and dazed, but, quickly recovering himself 
and pushing the blood back out of his eyes, he laughed 
and said, "All right; this is what I came for". He was 
ordered to go to the rear ; but no — he quietly picked up 
his musket and went on, never giving up until the last 
shot was fired. Charley and Monroe Lyford were 
marching side by side. They were brothers, and Charley 
was one of the brightest and handsomest boys in the 
regiment. He fell dead, and Monroe, as he saw him fall, 
became frenzied with anger, and, leaping over the works 
with the fury of a madman and with lightning speed, 
began bayoneting right and left, screaming, " You have 
killed my brother ; curse you ! " 

The horrors of the battle are never so great as to 
prevent a smile, and a veritable laugh passed through the 
ranks when a piece of shell struck one of the boys' 
knapsacks, tore it open and lifted a pack of cards high in 
the air, intact, when they suddenly spread out and came 
down like a shower of autumn leaves. 

The Twenty-sixth New York was in the brigade 
commanded by Colonel Peter Lyle. The regiment went 
into action commanded by Colonel Gilbert S. Jennings. 
He fell wounded early in the day, and Major Ezra T. 
Wetmore commanded. The regiment fought side by side 
with the Ninetieth Pennsylvania Infantry, from this city, 
and the two commands were placed in position by 
Colonel Peter Lyle. I regret that I cannot give particu- 
lars of the fight of the Twenty-sixth. No history of the 
regiment has been published and no data are obtainable, 
but the fact of losing 56 per cent, killed and wounded in 
one morning's fight is sufficient to embalm the organization 
in glory. 

The charge of Hancock's Division on Marye's Heights, 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 241 

in the rear of the town, was truly a superb exhibition of 
/American heroism. Going into an utterly hopeless 
struggle, simply to death and slaughter, in silence and 
without enthusiasm, was a supreme act of self-sacrifice at 
the call of duty and obedience. It was a tragic blunder, 
but a splendid effort. " O est magiiifiqiic, niais ce i{ est 
pas la guerre". Marching on the deserted streets that 
were raked by fire, the only living thing in sight a solitary 
pussy cat sitting on a gate post, mewing dolefully ; 
passing out of the town, debouching into the fields and 
forming a line as perfect as on dress parade ; then the 
advance of 1700 yards under a blizzard of shell and 
musketry, the men falling every step, singly and in 
groups, without any chance to strike back or even return 
the fire, only to march forward to be crushed and hurled 
back in defeat. It took great courage to advance under 
the circumstances, yet the division line did go forward 
without a break, the colors flying, and the gaps knocked 
in the ranks closing up as quickly as the rain of iron 
made them. And then the few minutes' firing at the base 
of Marye's Heights while the sheet of fire leaped from 
the stone wall by the sunken road, the order to fall back, 
and all was over. 

Of the gallant division that Hancock led forward 
exactly 40.2 per cent, were dead and wounded on the 
frozen ground. The First Brigade, General Caldwell, 
had lost 50 per cent, killed and wounded, and six 
of the seventeen regiments that composed the division 
had each lost 50 per cent, or over. None were missing, 
and no prisoners w^ere left in the hands of the enemy. 
The heaviest loss in killed and wounded was in the Eighty- 
first Pennsylvania Infantry, 67.4 per cent. The next was 
in the Fifth New Hampshire, 60 per cent. Then came 



242 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

the Sixty-ninth New York, with 53 per cent. ; then the 
Fifty-third Pennsylvania, Seventh New York and Eighty- 
eighth New York, each with 50 per cent, killed and 
wounded. The Fifty-third Pennsylvania Regiment was 
commanded by Colonel John R. Brooke, now a Major- 
General of the regular army. Hancock said of him : 
" Being unhurt, he was enabled to perform the highest 
service to his country, and added to the laurels he and 
his gallant regiment had already won on many fields ". 

The Eighty-first Pennsylvania was commanded in the 
battle by Colonel H. Boyd McKeen, a noble young officer, 
who was wounded at Malvern Hill, Fredericksburg and 
Chancellorsville, and killed at Cold Harbor. 

The Fifth New Hampshire was led into the fight by 
Colonel Edward E. Cross, who, six months afterward, was 
killed at Gettysburg. He fell early in the action with five 
wounds. Major Edward E. Sturtevant then took command, 
and was almost instantly killed. Captains Perry, Murray 
and Moore and Lieutenants Ballon, Nettleton and Little fell 
dead in quick succession. The color sergeant and all the 
color guards went down almost in a heap. Nineteen officers 
went in with the regiment, and seventeen of them were 
killed or wounded. 

The Irish and the Germans fought nobly side by side 
for the land of their adoption, and both nationalities were 
distinguished. The Sixty-ninth New York (Irish) was 
commanded by Colonel Robert Nugent, who fell badly 
wounded. Nineteen commissioned officers went into 
the fight with him, and sixteen of them were killed and 
wounded. 

The Seventh New York (German) was commanded 
by Colonel George von Schack, and went in with twenty- 
five of^cers, of whom eighteen were killed and wounded. 




(OHN R BROOKF.. M A |0K-(;F,N I'.RAI,. U S. A 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 243 

Colonel von Schack was a handsome and accomjDlished 
officer. He was a captain of cavalry in the army of 
Prussia. Securing three years' leave of absence, he came 
out here and commanded the New York regiment. He 
was as brave as he was handsome. After the close of the 
war he resigned his commission in the service of the King 
of Prussia, and settled in New York. Believing that to 
be an American citizen was better than to be a German 
officer, he took out his papers and became a full-fledged 
American, showing that he was as sensible as he was 
gallant and brave. 

It is difficult to say just what regiment went furthest, 
or what colors w^ere carried nearest to the celebrated stone 
wall, and it is of little moment, as they all were close, and 
it is a question of a few yards, but there seems to be but 
little doubt of the fact that the bodies found nearest to the 
mouth of the Confederate guns were those of Major 
Horgan and Adjutant Young, of the Eighty-eighth New 
York. 

The casualties among the officers were unusually 
great. The field officers were ordered to dismount and 
go in on foot, and regimental commanders walked in 
front of the colors. This would account in a manner for 
the severe loss, as the colors were conspicuous marks for 
the enemy. Many of the regiments had three or four 
commanders during the day. The Fifth New Hampshire 
had five commanders, the first four being killed or 
wounded. The Sixty-ninth New York was brought off 
the field by the fourth commander, the first three being 
killed or wounded. Colonel Nelson A. Miles commanded 
his own regiment. Sixty-first New York, and also the 
Sixty-fourth of that State. The third commander brought 
the two regiments from the field. Hancock says of 



244 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Miles : " He was severely wounded, and conducted himself 
in die most admirable and chivalrous manner, and his 
command behaved with a steadiness unsurpassed by any 
other troops". While Miles was badly wounded, he 
recovered quickly enough to be present at Chancellors- 
ville, less than five months afterwards, to be terribly 
wounded once again, distinguish himself still more and 
gain a Congress Medal of Honor. The Chancellorsville 
wound was pronounced by the surgeons mortal, the ball 
passing through the bowels and fracturing the pelvic 
bone. The doctors said that he had no right to live, and 
declared- that he could not, and for the honor of the 
faculty he should certainly have died, but he still lives. 
Miles is a hard man to kill, anyhow. 

The One Hundred and Forty-fifth Pennsylvania had 
two commanding officers, Colonel H. L. Brown, of Erie, 
being wounded. The One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Pennsylvania was brought from the field by the fourth 
commander, the three field officers being wounded. The 
Second Delaware had three commanding officers, the first 
two being wounded. The Eighty-first Pennsylvania had 
four commanding officers, the first three being shot down. 
The Fifty-seventh New York had three commanders. 
The Sixty-third New York had three commanders. The 
Sixty-sixth New York had four. During the battle 
Colonel James J. Bull and Captain Julius Wehle were 
killed, and another officer wounded, while in command. 
The color sergeants and color guards of the different 
commands suffered equally with the officers, many being 
killed under the flags, but never did the colors fall but 
gallant souls rushed forward to raise them. Not a color 
was lost. The color sergeant and all the color guard of 
the Sixty-ninth New York were shot down close to the 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 245 

enemy's guns, and when the regiment feh back the colors 
were misshig. Two days after, when the detail went back 
to bury the dead, the color staff was found ; near it lay 
the color sergeant, cold in death. When they were about 
to lay the body in the shallow grave the flag was found 
tucked into his blouse. In his dying agony he had 
stripped it from the staff and placed it near his heart. 

While the fighting at Chancellorsville, May 2d and 3d, 
was severe and the losses in both armies very great, yet 
there was but one regiment on record that lost in that 
battle 50 per cent, in killed and wounded. It was the 
One Hundred and Forty-first Pennsylvania Infantry, 
recruited in Bradford, Susquehanna and Wayne counties, 
of this State, by Colonel Henry J. Madill. The regiment 
was heavily engaged during the evening of the 2d, and 
was on the picket line and under fire during the entire 
night of that day. On the morning of the 3d it charged 
the enemy's line and fought with the greatest persistence 
and courage. Lieutenant-Colonel Guy H. Watkins was 
twice wounded, but refused to leave the field, and was 
finally shot through the breast and taken prisoner by the 
enemy. He was shortly afterwards exchanged, and was 
killed in front of Petersburg, June 18th, 1864. Captains 
Abram J. Swart and James L. Mumfor^ and Lieutenant 
Logan O. Tyler were killed, and Captain Tyler and 
Lieutenants Ball, Hurst and Atkinson were wounded. 
The color sergeant fell, and Captain Swart seized the flag, 
raised it and fell dead. Twelve of the officers of the 
regiment were killed and wounded, and, notwithstanding 
the fearful loss at Chancellorsville, this magnificent 
regiment, just three months afterwards, lost at Gettysburg 
63 per cent, of those present, killed and wounded. 

At one time during the heaviest firing the men seemed 



246 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

for a moment to waver. Human nature was exhausted, 
and could stand no more — incessant marching and 
fighting and want of sleep ; the men were becoming 
dazed, and when half the command was down, dead or 
wounded, there came a time when it would seem that the 
brave line would give way. Colonel Henr}- J. Madill 
quiedy took the flag from the hands of the color-bearer, 
and, planting the staft in the ground, with his hand on the 
bunting, he burst into song with : 

" Rally round the flag, boys, 
Rally round the flag. 
Shouting the battle cr\" of freedom." 

The men took up the refrain, new life animated the 
tired souls. Without another word the line braced up, 
and many a man fell with the song on his lips. 

The fighting at the second battle of Fredericksburg 
was severe, and heroic actions were numerous, but as no 
regiment lost 50 per cent, killed and wounded, we shall 
pass it over. However, a day or two afterwards, at Salem 
Heights, there were several commands that met with the 
losses mentioned. The Xinety-fifth Pennsylvania had 
ever}- second officer and man killed or wounded. This 
splendid Philadelphia regiment held an advanced position, 
where the fighting was desperate and severe. The losses 
among the officers were extremely hea\y. All the field 
and staff were killed or wounded. Colonel Gustavus W. 
Town, Lieutenant-Colonel Elisha Hall, Adjutant Eugene 
D. Dunton, Captain D. G. Chapman and Lieutenant 
David T. Hailer were killed, and Major Thomas J. Town, 
Captains H. Oscar Roberts and George Weest, and 
Lieutenants Samuel H. Town, Frank Stewart, Samuel 
H. Jones, Samuel Topham and William J. Gelson were 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 247 

wounded. The Ninety-fifth ranks with the Twentieth 
Massachusetts in having the largest number of field and 
staft' officers of any regiment killed in battle, each having 
six. Of the Ninety-fifth, Colonel John M. Gosline and 
Major William B. Hubbs were killed at Gaines's Mill, 
Colonel Town, Lieutenant-Colonel Hall and Adjutant 
Dunton at Salem Heights, and Lieutenant-Colonel Edward 
Carroll fell in the Wilderness. 

The three Town boys were brothers, and the fact of all 
three falling in the same battle, the Colonel being killed 
and the Major and Lieutenant badly wounded, was one 
of those coincidences that go to show the severity of the 
fighting. 

In the battle of Salem Heights the One Hundred and 
Twenty-first New York made a great record and a noble 
fight. The regiment was recruited in Otsego and 
Herkimer counties, in New York State. The original 
Colonel was Richard Franchot. He resigned early in the 
war to take his seat in Congress, and a young graduate 
of West Point, Emory Upton, succeeded him. The 
organization was afterwards called " Upton's Regulars". 
The regiment made a sweeping charge in this battle, 
and burst through the lines of Confederates. The loss 
in killed and wounded was 62 per cent., and the fight did 
not last more than twenty minutes. Captains Nelson O. 
Wendell and Thomas S. Arnold and Lieutenants Ford, 
Upton, Doubleday and Bates were killed, and almost 
every other officer was wounded. Just one year afterwards 
Upton led the regiment in a cyclonic charge at Spottsyl- 
vania, in which the command again sufifered a fearful 
loss. Captains Butt and Fish and Lieutenants Pierce 
and Pettengill were killed. The regiment captured four 
Confederate flags at Rappahannock Station and two at 



248 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Sailor's Creek, During its term of service it had fifteen 
officers killed in battle and four died of disease, and 
twenty-seven officers were wounded, and only two 
regiments from New York, the Fortieth and Sixty-ninth, 
had more men killed in battle. 

In the Wilderness campaign promotion was rapid. 
An officer w^ho remained with his command was sure to 
be quickly advanced or surely killed. The brigade to 
which the writer was attached began the Wilderness 
campaign May 5th with ten field officers present for duty. 
AA'ithin six weeks six of the ten were dead, killed in 
battle, and the other four were in the hospital badly 
wounded, and the brigade was commanded by a captain. 
The nine brigades of the Second Corps had thirty-seven 
commanders during the first six weeks of that campaign. 
An average of three to each brigade had been killed or 
wounded. 

"The Ninety-third New York Infantry was recruited in 
Washington county of that State, and on the first day of 
the Wilderness made the sanguinary record of GO per 
cent, killed and wounded. The regiment fought in the 
forest, in front of the Brock Road, just to the right of 
the Orange plank road. It was in Hays's brigade of the 
Second Corps, and was placed in position by General 
Hancock himself. It held the extreme right of the corps, 
and as the head of the column arrived near the point of 
attack Hancock ordered Colonel Crocker to form line 
quickly and move into the woods. Unsupported and 
alone, the brave regiment advanced through a dense 
thicket of bushes, briars and brambles, and within five 
minutes was hotly engaged. The command had met the 
head of Heth's division of Hill's corps. The regiment 
made a glorious fight, holding the line with unflinching 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 249 

courage, although outnumbered and outflanked. Half an 
hour passed, with no supports or assistance coming, and 
the reason then became apparent. General Hays, the 
brigade commander, had been killed, and hence confusion. 
Colonel Crocker, finding himself in command of the 
brigade, hastened to bring up the other regiments, and 
not a moment too soon. The brave boys of the Ninety- 
third were still on the line, but 60 per cent, of them were 
dead and wounded. After the sun went down and 
darkness fell, the survivors, after sending the wounded to 
the rear, gathered picks and spades and reverently buried 
the dead on the line they had held so nobly. "Ah ", said 
one of them, " tenderly and with sad hearts w^e buried our 
dead comrades. Parting with them in the dark forest was 
a sad thing to do. We had long been friends, tried and 
true friends ; we had messed together ; shared with them 
our store of rations ; drank from the same canteen ; slept 
under the same blanket in all kinds of weather, whether 
the stars were shining or the storms were beating upon 
us. In danger, shoulder to shoulder ; in sickness, hands 
rough but tender soothing the fevered brow ; and so at 
midnight we had them buried ; then, exhausted, we sank 
to sleep by their new made graves until the morning, 
when the thunder of cannon and rattle of musketry awoke 
us to another day of strife". Four officers were among 
the dead and thirteen others were sent to the rear 
wounded. 

The State of New Jersey gave to the Union many 
noble regiments, but none superior to the Fifteenth 
Infantry. It fought at Fredericksburg, and at Salem 
Heights lost heavily. When the Wilderness campaign 
opened it had been reduced in numbers to fifteen ofBcers 
and four hundred and tvventv-nine muskets, and it crossed 



250 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

the Rapidan \rilii Grant with this number. Of the four 
hundred and forty-four total, three hundred fell at 
Spottsylvania, one hundred and sixteen of them being- 
killed. Within two weeks the command was reduced to 
four officers and one hundred and thirty-six muskets, and 
the color sergeant and all the color guard, save one, had 
been killed and wounded. Corporal Joseph G. Runkle, 
of the color guard, had seized the flag when the color 
sergeant fell. A few minutes afterwards he, too, was 
mortally wounded. He was first shot in the right arm, 
and it fell paralyzed by his side. He then raised the 
colors in his left hand, and insisted upon carrying them 
until the end of the fight, and then he lay down and died. 
The remnant of the regiment fought under Sheridan in 
the Shenandoah Valley, and sustained another terrible 
percentage of loss at Cedar Creek, where Major Lambert 
Boeman was killed. 

Among the regiments with records of having lost 50 
per cent, killed and wounded in single engagements, 
those from our own State hold a distinguished place. The 
Forty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry was one of the 
regiments of Hancock's original brigade, and with that 
command won distinction at Williamsburg, where, by its 
excellent work, it contributed greatly to the victory. The 
command formed one of the twelve picked regiments that, 
led by Colonel Emorv^ Upton, made a charge on the 
enemy's works at Spottsylvania on the evening of May 
9th, 1S64. The regiment crossed the Rapidan with five 
hundred and thirty officers and men, and within six days, 
at the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, three hundred and 
seventeen of them were killed and wounded. In the 
charge of May 9th the loss was 57 per cent. On 
the evening of that day the regiment, emerging from the 



The Bloodiest Spot on Earth. 251 

woods where it had formed, was met by a sheet of fire 
from the enemy's rifle pits, but, never faltering for a 
moment, it rushed on, capturing the works, guns and 
many prisoners. The enemy rallying *in great force, the 
Forty-ninth was compelled to abandon its captures. The 
return was more terrible than the advance, the enemy 
swarming on the fianks, and the whole plain over which 
the regiment crossed being swept by fire. Colonel 
Thomas M. Hulings, Lieutenant-Colonel John B. Miles, 
Captain Robert C. Barr and Lieutenant Decatur G. Lytel 
fell dead, and Captain Stuart and Lieutenants Thompson, 
Irvin, Russell, Downing and Hylands were wounded. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Miles at the moment of starting, 
feeling that he was going to be killed, made the Adjutant 
promise to have his body sent home. The dead, however, 
were left in the hands of the enemy, and the spot where 
Colonel Hulings and Lieutenant-Colonel Miles are buried 
is unknown. So they sleep where they fell — no better or 
more honorable sepulchre for a soldier. 

Within the circle we are writing about, more than half 
a million of men fought in the different battles, and 
nineteen general officers were killed — ten Union and nine 
Confederate. The Union Major-Generals were John 
Sedgwick, Hiram G. Berry and Amiel W. Whipple, 
Brevet Major-Generals James S. Wadsworth and Alex- 
ander Hays, Brigadier-Generals George D. Bayard, 
Conrad F. Jackson, Edmund Kirby, James C. Rice and 
Thomas G. Stevenson. The Confederates were Lieutenant- 
General Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson, Brigadier- 
Generals Thomas R. R. Cobb, Junius Daniel, Abner 
Perrin, Maxey Gregg, E. F. Paxton, J. ]\L Jones, Leroy 
A. Stafford and Micah Jenkins. 

Sixteen thousand five hundred Union soldiers are 



252 The Story of the 116th Regiment. 

buried in the National Cemetery, and many thousands in 
that dedicated to the Confederates, but this is but a part 
of the dead. The whole ground is a vast cemetery. 
Chaplain Haines,* of the Fifteenth New Jersey, notes in 
his diary : " We halted in the evening for a short time. 
Private Berry died, and we buried him at midnight in an 
orchard, rolling him up in a shelter tent and covering him 
with green boughs, and then hurried on". Again he 
writes : " We tried to bury our dead comrades, and 
succeeded in laying Captains Shimer and Walker, 
Lieutenant Justice and eight others into shallow graves, 
and then we were summoned to follow the regiment, and 
we had to leave Lieutenant Vanvoy and some forty others 
of the regiment unburied ". 

Yes, in the gardens and orchards, in the deep woods 
and by murmuring streams, everywhere throughout the 
region, the men of both armies lie singly and in platoons, 
and where the forest fires sw^pt through the fighting 
ranks their sacred dust rests among the fallen leaves. 
Brave men from every state in the Union met and fought 
here. 

The splendid fighting and the supreme heroism 
displayed by the citizen-soldiers of both North and South 
on this ground, and on every battlefield of the Civil War, 
have never been equaled by any army that ever marched 
on earth, and will never be excelled while time endures. 



Cold Harbor. 253 



CHAPTER XII. 

COLD HARBOR. 

T^HE night march to Cold Harbor was one of the most 
trying experiences. It was very dark and very warm, 
the dust stifling and no water to be had. The road was 
unlcnown, and Captain Paine, of the engineers, who was 
sent to lead the column and show the way, in his efforts to 
find a short cut, got the troops entangled in by-paths 
where artillery could not follow and much' time was lost. 
In consequence the head of the Second Corps did not 
reach Cold Harbor until half-past six in the morning, too 
late to move to the attack that had been ordered for the 
morning of the 2d and which was changed to five o'clock 
in the afternoon. The men were in an extremely exhausted 
condition, and the day was spent in throwing up earth- 
works and in resting. Some firing took place during the 
day and several of the men of the Regiment were wounded. 
Lieutenant Cosslett was sent with a detail for intrenching 
tools and, on returning, the men were seen by the men 
of a Confederate battery who opened fire and caused 
the party to run for the shelter of the works. It was a 
close call but no one was hit. 

The regiment held the right of the brigade and rested 
in an apple orchard, and when the men had an opportunity 
they would pull the green apples and eat them, from the 
effects of which it is feared that some of them suffered 
more than from the bullets of the enemy. The 
sharpshooters were vigilant during the day and 
gave but little chance to climb trees in search of fruit. 



254 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Color Sergeant T, A. Sloan concluded to cook a cup of 
coffee, and starting a small fire with pieces of cracker 
boxes, held his tin-cup over the blaze. Just as it was 
beginning to boil a rifle ball knocked the cup out of his 
hand and spoiled the anticipated meal. During the 
afternoon the order to attack was countermanded and the 
assault was postponed until day-break next morning. At 
five p. m. the rain began to fall, a great relief from the 
oppressive dust and heat. 

The men of the Regiment slept soundly during the 
night of June 2d. Everyone was so exhausted that they 
slept even when the artillery was roaring. Sergeant 
William Chambers, of Company C, was fortunate enough 
to possess a blanket, and at day-break the next morning 
he awoke and remarked to his comrades with whom he had 
shared the cover : " This is my birthday — I wonder what 
kind of a present I will receive?" Five minutes afterwards 
he received a ball in his arm — not exactly the kind of 
present he desired. His birthday was spent in wandering 
around the field hospitals, trying to get his wound dressed 
and pouring water over the limb in a vain effort to keep 
down the inflammation. At night, when he finally found 
a heap of straw to lie down on, he was astonished to find 
on each side his two companions of the night before, 
both wounded, and the same blanket covered the three 
again. 

At half-past four in the morning the battle of Cold 
Harbor began by the advance of the Second Corps, 
Barlow's and Gibbons's Divisions in the front line, 
supported by Birney's Division. The fight was short, 
sharp and decisive. It was not the enemy that 
was surprised this morning, as they were on May 
12th, but it was the Union troops that were astonished. 



Cold Harbor. 255 

No sooner had the attacking- party begun moving than 
the enemy opened fire, and a terrible and destructive fire 
it was, sweeping the ground in all directions. The Irish 
Brigade was in the second line, but soon caught up with 
those in front and joined in the fray. The Confederates 
were found strongly posted in a sunken road in front of 
their works, from which they were driven after a severe fight 
and followed into their works. Three hundred prisoners, 
one color and three pieces of artillery were captured in 
the first rush, but the victory was quickly turned into 
a most disastrous defeat. Many of the troops succeeded 
in gaining the main works of the enemy and the men of 
Barlow's Division exhibited a wonderful persistency in 
holding to the captured works, but they were soon forced 
out by the heavily reinforced Confederates and fell back, 
exposed to a severe musketry and artillery fire. Falling 
back a short distance the defeated troops halted about 
seventy-five yards from the enemy's line and quickly 
covered themselves with rifle pits or took advantage of 
such shelter as the broken ground afforded. The One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment was halted and aligned 
in a ravine, ordered to lie down and had to remain in that 
position for an hour, exposed to not only a direct but an 
enfilading fire of the batteries, which threw shell and 
canister. So long as the men could hug the ground the 
loss was not great, as the pieces could not be depressed 
sufficiently to strike the line, but when the attempt was 
made to withdraw from the position the men felt the full 
force of the fire. The order was given to go back at a 
run, but the command had to ascend a hill in the rear 
and, as the men were absolutely without shelter, they fell 
in great numbers. Reaching the crest of the hill the 
Regiment was rallied and aligned. Captain Taggart, 



256 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Lieutenant Yocum and others of the officers displaying- 
great bravery in re-forming, still under a heavy fire. 

The Battle of Cold Harbor was less than one hour in 
duration, yet one of the most bloody battles of the war. 
The Second Corps lost in a short half hour 3,000 men and 
officers. Among the latter were many of the most trusted 
and best brigade and regimental commanders. The 
One Hundred and Sixteenth lost seventy men and officers, 
killed and wounded, and among the latter were Captains 
Lieb, Cosslett and Crawford and Lieutenants Sacriste and 
Wright. The wound of Captain Frank R. Lieb was 
of such a severe nature, his foot being destroyed, that he 
never rejoined the Regiment, and the command lost a 
most gallant and excellent officer. Colonel Richard Byrne 
(Twenty-eighth Massachusetts Infantry), commanding the 
Irish Brigade, was mortally wounded and died in the field 
hospital, where he had lingered for a few days. He was 
captain of cavalry in the regular army and had been 
detailed to command the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts 
Regiment and, as senior colonel, was present in command 
of the brigade. He was strict, reserved and reticent and 
one who did not know him would think him severe, but 
he was a man who did his full duty and expected every- 
one else to come up to the full measure of all demands. 
To those who knew him best he was kindly and lovable. 
A few days before the battle he had some words with 
Captain Lieb, then commanding the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth, and may have been a little harsh in his 
remarks, but, when borne to the field hospital and learning 
that Lieb was there also, he had himself carried to where 
the Captain was lying and the dying officer apologized 
in the most courteous manner for anything rude that he 
might have said. 



Cold Harbor. 257 

After the repulse of our army (and that repulse had 
been uniform along the whole six miles of the battle line) 
the troops clung tenaciously to the ground. Spade, 
bayonet, tin-plate and knife, anything that would throw 
up a little dirt, was used to throw up the earth and assist 
to get under cover. From time to time bursts of firing 
occurred along the line and the sharpshooters were so 
vigilant during the 3d and following days that it was 
impossible to expose even a hand without being fired at. 
And to show a head meant instant death. 

The suffering from thirst was very great, and it was 
impossible to get water without a serious risk. Corporal 
Lot Turney, Company E, volunteered to fill some canteens 
at a spring, but was instantly shot through the head. 
Another corporal of this company, Aaron Tomlinson, was 
not so anxious for water as he was for food ; his leg was 
cut ofif by a shell, and he lay mortally wounded, but 
positively refused to allow the stretcher carriers to take 
him to the hospital, unless he was allowed to take his 
haversack full of crackers along with him. Captain 
William M. Hobart, Company A, who was serving on the 
division staff, greatly distinguished himself during the 
battle by carrying an order to Arnold's Battery that had 
been accidentally left between the lines. He was so much 
exposed that his escape from the fire of the enemy's 
sharpshooters seemed miraculous, his horse being killed. 
Color Sergeant T. A. Sloan was wounded by a shell 
when advancing on the morning of the 3d. Then it was 
thaf the young boy. Corporal James M. Seitzinger, of 
Company G, rushed forward and raised the flag and, 
waving it aloft, called to his father, " Go in. Pap, I'm 
coming". He was promoted sergeant on the field and 
complimented by the Colonel commanding : — 



25S The Story of th-e Ii6th RegimeJit. 

He-vdquarters 11 6th Regiment, Pexnsvlvaxia Volunteers. 
Sergeai«t James M. Seitzinger, Company G : 

The Colonel commanding directs me to express to jou his gratification 
upon learning of your ver\' gallant and meritorious conduct in bearing 
the colors of the Regiment in the late engagement at Cold Harbor, 
June 3d. By order of 

Colonel St. Clair A. Mulholl.axd. 
Francis A. McGuigan, 

First Lieutenant and Acting Adjutant 

But young Seitzinger was too small and slender to 
carrv- the large flag, and he reluctantly surrendered the 
dangerous honor to Sergeant Peter Kelly, of Company D, 
who had volunteered. 

Dr. Albert W. Hendricks, of Company F, was brigade 
hospital steward during the Cold Harbor fight, and he 
afterwards wrote of the day : " From the evening of Ma}' 
27th, 1S64, to the night of June 4th, our forces in the 
hospital departments were busily engaged in performing 
amputations and dressing the wounded brave men who 
faced the various charges in the blood}' battle of Cold 
Harbor. As the wounded were brought in on stretchers, 
or in the ambulance, those of them who could speak 
were by the surgeons requested to give their names, and 
the singularit}- with which the answer came, ' The One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment Pennsylvania \'olun- 
teers', led us to beUeve a general and thorough 
decimation of the Regiment had taken place. I 
witnessed their braver}', their fortitude in suffering, and 
the noble manner in which they sacrificed Hfe and limb 
in devotion to their countr}'"s cause. Oh, how grandly 
they gave all — even life. Regiment after regiment has 
its histor}', brave men their tales of glorious deeds, but 
no regiment, nor no men, can tell with truth its histor}^ 
of battle, its sacrifices or devotion in time of danger. 



Cold Harbor. 259 

surpassing the One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment of 
Pennsylvania Volunteers. On every field of battle in 
which it was engaged there remains a monument to its 
valor in comrades slain". 

The Regiment remained in the works at Cold Harbor 
until the night of June 12th, and during that time there 
was not a moment, night or day, that rest was known. 
Roll-call was at three p. m., and from that hour until 
darkness came again there was no moment of peace. 

On the 5th, the position of the Regiment was changed 
half a mile to the right, and on that evening at eight 
o'clock the enemy made a vigorous attack, which was 
repulsed. The dead and -wounded of the Union Army 
remained on the -field between the lines until a truce was 
arranged on the 7th. For five days the thousands of 
wounded men had been lying under the boiling sun 
without even a mouthful of water. Many had been killed 
by the cross-fire, and when the truce was declared there 
were but few left to tell the awful tale of their intense 
suffering. The details from the Regiment for picket were 
frequent and large, and, once on the skirmish line, there 
was no chance of beiii^ relieved until after dark the 
following night. Every man had to get under cover, dig 
a hole the best way he knew how and get into it. The 
lines were very close, at some places only a few feet 
separated the men, and while Lieutenant Frank McGuigan 
was on the line a Confederate lieutenant walked into his 
pit and became his prisoner, very much astonished, 
indeed, that he had wandered from his own line. 

On the evening of June 12th the army quietly 
withdrew from the works at Cold Harbor and began 
moving to the left, the Regiment marching all night. 

When the battle of Cold Harbor closed, within an hour 



260 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

of the first shot being fired, the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment had finished the first month of the 
campaign of 1S64. Two officers had been killed, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Richard C. Dale and Lieutenant 
Henr)- Kiel. Nine officers had been wounded, several 
of them more than once : Colonel Mulholland, at the 
Wilderness, May 5th ; Po River, May 10th ; Tolopotomy, 
May 31st. Captains Lieb, Crawford and Cosslett, and 
Lieutenants Sacriste, Alston, \'anderheyden, Wright, 
Springer and Yocum. Fifty men had been killed, one 
hundred and twenty wounded and thirty missing, the 
larger number of the latter, no doubt, killed, making an 
aggregate loss during the month of May of two hundred 
and eleven men. 

The Regiment had been under fire almost ever}- day 
of the time in the Wilderness : May 5th and 6th, at 
Todd's Tavern ; May Sth, at Po River ; May 10th, at 
Spottsylvania ; May 12th and 13th, at Spottsylvania 
again ; Ma\^ 18th, 19th and 21st, on the south bank of 
the Mattapony ; May 23d, 24th and 25th, at the North 
Anna ; May 28th, on the south side of the Pamunkey ; 
May 29th, 30th and 31st, on the Tolopotomy, and on 
June 2d, 3d and 4th, at Cold Harbor, making nineteen 
days out of thirty-one that the Regiment was actually in 
battle and under fire. No wonder the loss was over two 
hundred in killed and wounded. It is only remarkable 
that it was not still greater. These, losses, however, do 
not include Company B, which was at division head- 
quarters as provost guard, nor those who were sent to 
the rear sick, many of whom died of the diseases 
contracted during this month of constant fighting, 
hardship and exposure. The abo^•e figures tell only of 
the killed and wounded. 



Cold Harbor. 261 

Neither was the heavy loss of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment exceptional. All the army had 
suffered quite as severely, and many regiments had lost 
more, in proportion to numbers. The Second Corps had 
been almost annihilated. The official returns of casualties 
in the Army of the Potomac, from May 5th until May 
21st, were 39,791, and these appalling figures do not 
include the losses of the Ninth Corps, which the writer 
has no means of ascertaining. 

The continuous strain, constant marching, fighting, 
want of sleep, absence of food and water, sleeping, when 
a chance offered, on the groun'd without even the slight 
protection of a shelter tent, sometimes in a drenching 
rain, and most times catching an hour's sleep under the 
broiling sun — all this was beginning to tell on the strongest 
constitutions, and even afTecting the minds. Lieutenant 
Peter S. Frailey, Company E, had been one of the bravest 
in the beginning, but at Cold Harbor his mind gave way, 
and he was compelled to resign. Captain Michael 
Schoales and Lieutenant Robert J. Grogan broke down 
early in the month and resigned on the 17th. One 
officer, Captain Wellington Jones, brought disgrace on 
himself by resigning in front of the enemy for no other 
reason than that he could not face the music. 

Several other changes took place among the officers 
during the month. Lieutenant Charles Cosslett was 
promoted to Captain of Company E, and mustered in 
June 13th ; First Sergeant Henry Kiel, of that company, 
was commissioned First Lieutenant, but was killed before 
being mustered in, and Color Sergeant T. A. Sloan was 
.promoted to Second Lieutenant of Company E. 

" Blinkey " Bell, of Company K, who distinguished 
himself on the morning of the battle of Spottsylvania was 



262 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

a queer character. He was a veteran when he joined the 
Regiment, having enlisted as one of the Eighty-fifth 
Pennsylvania in the early days of the war. " Blinkey " 
at first failed to see the necessity of many things in 
military life, to which, by force of circumstances, he 
afterwards became reconciled. Guard and picket duty 
he could not learn for a long time. One evening after 
dark, while on his first tour of duty, " Blinkey " was 
marching up and down on his post when the officer of 
the day approached. Without a salute or challenge 
" Blinkey " w^as allowing him to pass. The Lieutenant, 
disgusted at the seeming ignorance of the sentinel, seized 
his musket to show him how he should have acted. 
" Now, Bell ", said he, *' walk ofl[ a short distance and 
then approach me, and when I challenge, you must say, 
* Friend with the countersign ' ". " Blinkey " obeyed, 
and when nearing the officer w^as confronted with a loud 
" Halt ! who goes there " ? and a bayonet leveled at his 
breast, " Blinkey ", to say the least, was astonished at 
what seemed to him to be a very rude way of greeting an 
acquaintance and, after catching his breath, exclaimed in 
a startled voice full of sweet confidence : " Oh ! I say 
now, look here, Lieutenant, don't you know ' Blinkey ' 
Bell?" 

*' Blinkey " was certainly a little green in those days, 
but no braver or better soldier died in the Bloody Angle 
at Spottsylvania than Henry J. Bell. 



Petersburg. . 263 

CHAPTER XIII. 
PETERSBURG. 

A FTER dark on June 12th the Second Corps withdrew 
in silence from the line of Cold Harbor. Not a 
sound broke the stillness of the summer night. The men 
had learned very thoroughly when to make a noise and 
when to keep still, and on this occasion no extra 
cautioning of the troops was found necessary. Every 
man had his tin cup tied fast and his tin plate, if he 
was rich enough to have one, safely stowed in his 
haversack, so when the movement was begun there was 
not a rattle or a jingle to be heard. The picket was not 
notified nor relieved until the army had been gone for 
some hours, and it was thought by almost everyone that 
the detail would be lost ; but a very judicious officer, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hammill, of the Sixty-sixth New York, 
was in command, and he succeeded in quietly withdrawing, 
with a few exceptions, all the men from the picket line. 
Forming them in the dark, he moved in quick time after 
the corps and succeeded in overtaking the main body 
before noon of the 13th. Captain Charles Cosslett, of the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth, was in charge of the detail 
from the Regiment and succeeded in bringing all in safely. 
It was a narrow escape and all were rejoiced to get away, 
as they were told when going out on the line that it was 
to be " killed or captured ". The Second Corps marched 
all the night of the 12th and reached White Oak Bridge, 
on the Chickahominy, at daylight on the 13th. Marched 
all day on the 13th, through White Oak Swamp, and 
reached Wilcox Landing, on the James River, before 



264 The, Story of the ii6th Regivtenf. 

sundown. When, on the evening of the 12th, the column 
of retiring troops had cleared the works and gotten well 
under way, a thrill of pleasure passed through the ranks, 
all were so rejoiced to leave the lines of Cold Harbor ; 
and when the men knew that they were far enough away 
from the enemy not to be heard they burst into song. 
Many a long march was enlivened in this way. Some 
musical member would start a patriotic song, and the 
whole regiment, joining in the chorus, would go swinging 
along hour after hour, forgetting the fatigue and 
hardship. "The Sword of Bunker Hill" was a favorite 
and hundreds of voices would make the Virginia night 
resound and the dark woods re-echo to the music : — 

" The old man died, but in his hand 

His sword he retained still, 

And thirty millions lived to bless 

The sword of Bunker Hill ". 

It w^as thirty millions during the war. Now, forty 
years after, it is seventy millions ; and how many hundreds 
of millions will in the future bless " The Sword of Bunker 
Hill " ? 

The march from Cold Harbor to the James was over 
historic ground. Two hundred and fifty years before, 
Captain John Smith, "the father of Virginia", was taken 
prisoner by the Indians here and surprised his captors by 
showing his watch and compass, and, after being carried 
from tribe to tribe as a- curiosity, w^as finally doomed to 
die. Then it was that the gentle Pocahontas encircled his 
head with her arms, begging for his life, and induced her 
father, the Chief Powhatan, to spare the brave 
Englishman. And here in the forests of the 
Chickahominy, John Rolfe wooed and won the sweet 
young Indian maiden and carried her oflf to England, 



Petersburg. 265 

never to return to Virginia again, but in a foreign land to 
droop and die so young. The blood of the heroine still 
flows in the land of her childhood, for some of the best 
known families in Virginia are descended from the one 
son that was left by the Lady Rebecca, as Pocahontas was 
called in England. 

The peninsula of the Chickahominy had been the scene 
of fierce and bloody war two hundred years before the 
Union Army appeared. During the life of Powhatan 
peace reigned along the valley of the James, but after his 
death and after the influence and memory of his gentle 
daughter Pocahontas were forgotten, Opecancanough, 
the brother of Powhatan, became chief. Observing with 
sorrow the decline of his people and the encroachment of 
the whites, he resolved to destroy them. A bundle of 
arrows wrapped in the skin of a rattlesnake sent to the 
English Governor was the declaration of war and 
massacre that continued at intervals for twenty years and 
ended in the extermination of the red men. 

When the Second Corps massed on the banks of the 
James River it bivouacked on the spot where the founda"- 
tion and prime reason of the War of the Rebellion was 
laid in September, 1620. In that month a small Dutch 
vessel landed here twenty negroes from Africa, who were 
sold to the planters as slaves. Within ten days from the 
landing of those slaves on the shores of the James River 
the "Mayflower" landed on the shores of Massachusetts 
a cargo of very difterent character — a set of men and 
women who had fled from slavery and come to the new 
land in search of freedom. The lowering storm that hung 
over the bay as the Pilgrim fathers leaped on the Plymouth 
Rock seemed to herald a life of strife for principle, and a 
struggle that culminated at Appomattox. 



266 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

As the years rolled by, the people of the South, by 
force of circumstances, naturally became more attached 
to the institution of human slavery. It had been shorn of 
its chief horrors, the slave ship was a thing of history, 
and in many cases the slaves had come to be regarded as 
members of the family in which they resided and were 
often regarded with affection. But to the descendants of 
the Pilgrim fathers the years failed to soften the hatred of 
slavery in all its forms. It was so totally in opposition to 
the Puritan's faith, in which all of his descendants and 
nearly all the people of the North held almost as firmly 
as the original passengers of the " Mayflower ". And so 
the armies of the North and South were here on the very 
spot where slavery was founded, and the descendants of 
the Pilgrim fathers and those who believed with them 
that human slavery was a crime were there in force and 
in earnest. Much has been said and harsh feelings 
engendered in the two sections of our country endeavoring 
to fix the blame of originating the war on the North and 
South, but happily these feelings are becoming less harsh 
as time rolls on, and now the spirit of mutual love, 
patriotism and friendship is possessing the whole country. 
Had that litde ship from the Netherlands never brought 
that cargo of negroes from Africa to the South, we never 
would have had the War of the Rebellion ; and would it 
not be a good idea for the future to stop all recrimination 
and further argument on a subject so harsh and so 
fruitful of bad humor by putting the blame where it 
properly belongs — on the Dutch I 

When, on the evening of the 13th, the Regiment 
reached the north bank of the James, no time was lost in 
intrenching. The men were tired, but were never too 
weary to get under cover. When the line of works was 



Petersburg. 267 

finished a grateful night's rest followed. June 14th, the 
Second Corps began crossing the James River to the south 
side, but the means of transportation were limited, and the 
Regiment did not cross until the evening. During the 
day the men rested, and some of them spent a pleasant 
hour or two in fishing, and were quite successful. All 
the hardships and fighting of the past two weeks were 
forgotten in the hunt for fishing tackle and bait, and the 
fish caught were a treat, for the commissary was very low. 
At dusk the Regiment fell in, marched a short distance to 
Wilcox Landing, crossed on a ferryboat, and landed on 
the south side at Windmill Point. Rested until eleven 
a. m. on the loth and took up the line of march for 
Petersburg, seventeen miles. It was understood that 
three days' rations would be issued before starting, but 
no commissary stores arrived, and the Second Corps 
began the long march in a very hungry condition indeed. 
The march was severe and trying, the day hot and the 
water scarce. The route of Barlow's Division and, in 
consequence, that of the Regiment, lengthened out to 
twenty miles, and the column did not reach Petersburg 
until nearly midnight, and were cheered upon their arrival 
by seeing sixteen field pieces that the negro troops under 
General Hincks, had captured during the afternoon. 

BATTLE OF JUNE 16th. 

Roll-call at daybreak, and in the morning moved a 
short distance, passing the colored division of General 
Hincks. The negroes had abundance of rations, and 
liberally shared with the men of the Regiment. Never 
did the army cracker and raw salt pork taste so sweet. 
No meal prepared by the most accomplished cook could 
have been relished better than that furnished bv the 



268 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

colored troops. About noon, drew full supplies of 
rations from General Butlers commissary. Built earth- 
works, and towards evening prepared to advance and 
assault the enemy's line of works. 

Petersburg was defended by a line of intrenchments 
surrounding the city at a distance of two miles from it. 
The defences consisted of a series of well-constructed 
redans connected by infantrv^ parapets with ditches, and 
nearly all covered by slight abatis. During the. 
afternoon of the loth, five of the redans had been taken 
'by the colored troops, but during the night of the loth 
and morning of the 16th the Confederate troops had been 
coming up, occupying and strengthening the works ; 
and when, on the afternoon of the 16th, it was finally 
determined to storm the enemy's line, their works had 
become too strong to carr}' by direct assault. The 
attempt, was made, however, and at six o'clock in the 
evening, the Second Corps moved toward the attack. 
Barlow's Division was on the extreme left of the army, 
and the weight of the attack fell upon his division and 
that of General Birney. The Regiment charged over 
broken and open ground near the Hare House, where 
Fort Steadman was afterwards built. No sooner had the 
line started than the Confederate batteries opened. The 
men moved forward steadily in quick time, keeping the 
alignment beautifully, although exposed to a terrible fire 
of shell and musketry, and when within a hundred yards 
of the enemy, took the double-quick and went through 
the slight abatis and over the works at a run. For a few 
moments, a hand-to-hand fight took place, the bayonet 
being used. It was soon over, and the Union forces 
retained possession, capturing guns and prisoners. 
General Barlow displayed great gallantry in leading the 



Petersburg. . 269 

division, cap in hand, and cheering the men on. It was 
a most successful and glorious charge, and resulted in 
the capture, by the two divisions engaged, of redans 3, 
13 and 14, with their guns and connecting works. Among 
the prisoners were some of the oldest and youngest men 
as yet seen by the troops ; " the robbing of the cradle 
and the grave", as General Grant afterwards expressed 
it, had already begun. The Regiment lost quite severely 
in this fight. Lieutenants Detwiler and McKnight being 
severely wounded, the latter losing his hand. Forty-six 
enlisted men were killed, wounded and missing. 
Lieutenant Yocum was knocked senseless by the windage 
of a passing shell, but recovered sufficiently to report 
for duty in a couple of hours. The noble commander of 
the Irish Brigade, Colonel Patrick Kelly, was killed, 
being shot through the head. He will ever be remem- 
bered, by all who knew him, as one of the bravest and 
most lovable of men. Captain B. S. O'Neill, of the 
Sixty-ninth New York, was also killed. He was a very 
handsome man, and much thought of by the men of the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth. He had left Ireland on the 
breaking out of the war, and came to America for the 
sole purpose of joining the Irish Brigade. Every fight 
seemed to have a ludicrous feature, and the one connected 
with the 16th of June was a dull-witted son of Ireland in 
Company I. Daniel Dugan had mysteriously disap- 
peared at the beginning of the charge, and next morning 
when Captain Taggart charged him with straggling and 
deserting in battle, Dan replied demurely : " Ah, then, 
Captain dear, sure it's many a poor fellow that's after bein' 
hit on the field lasht noight, an' here oi am shtill aloive !" 
"Well", replied the Captain, " if you had been killed 
you would have lived in the hearts of your countrymen ". 



270 The Siory of the Ii6th Regiment. 

"Oh, thin" said Dan, " bedad but its a moighty 
hard place to Hve in. I'd sooner be livin' on Uncle Sam's 
hard tack " ! 

On June 17th, as on the day before, the Regiment was 
engaged in an assault on the enemy's works. General 
Barlow led the division in on the right of the Ninth 
Corps, and lost heavily, the firing continuing until long 
after dark. The Regiment never looked better than when 
in moving forward in one of the assaults of this day. Not 
until the men got entangled in the abatis, in front of the 
enemy's earthworks, did the lines show an\' signs of 
breaking an almost perfect alignment. Several of the men 
penetrated the works, but were either captured or killed. 

June 18th, roll call at daybreak. General Hancock, by 
reason of his wound breaking out afresh, was forced to 
relinquish command of the Second Corps, and was 
succeeded by General Da^•id B. Bime3\ General Birney 
was a Pennsylvanian, a most gallant soldier, and one of 
the very best of the volunteer officers, who rose to 
distinction and prominence during the war, and as such, 
he was warmly welcomed by the Second Corps. Marched 
as line was formed, to the right, to participate in a heavy 
assault on the enemy's position to the right and left of the 
Prince George Court-House Road. Formed behind a 
hill in double column by division, closed en masse, and 
moved forward in support of Mott's Division. The result 
was a bloody repulse. General Gibbons's Division had 
been repulsed earlier in the day on this same ground, 
and this fight ended in the effort to carry the intrenched 
line of Petersburg by direct assault. On the evening of 
June 18th the struggle settled down to a siege operation. 
The loss of the Regiment on this afternoon was slight — 
three men killed and about a dozen wounded. 



The Battle of William's Farm. 271 

June 19th, under arms at daybreak, but no movements 
of importance during- the day. At ten p. m. the enemy 
attacked tlie advance hue but were repulsed. 

June 20th, roll call at half-past three in the morning. 
Moved at eight a. m. to the rear and understood that the 
Regiment, with the Second Corps, was on the reserve : 
but, as a member of the Irish Brigade remarked at 
Gettysburg, it was " Resarved fur hivy foighting"! 
Grateful rest during the day and night, although heavy 
and continuous firing in front and to the right and left. 

June 21st, reveille at daybreak. Rest was promised 
to the troops, but at ten a. m. the division moved to the 
left, crossed the Petersburg Plank Road and advanced 
several miles in the direction of Reams Station, on the 
Weldon Railroad, when the Regiment was thrown out 
as skirmishers and had a severe skirmish fight, while the 
division moved by the right flank and formed line of 
batde on the left of the Ninth Corps. Threw up strong 
intrenchments and settled down for a night's rest, but the 
Sixth Corps that was to join on the left failed to connect, 
leaving a gap of nearly a mile, through which a 
Confederate cavalry force raided during the night, 
creating alarm and commotion amongst the teamsters, 
commissaries and hospital attendants. 

BATTLE OF WILLIAM'S FARM, 
Or, as the Confederates Called It, "Johnston's Farm". 

JUNE 22d, 1864. 

When General Grant finally determined to suspend 
the direct assaults upon the Confederate's positions and 
begin siege operations, both armies began intrenching, 
the right of the Union army resting on the Appomattox 



272 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

River below Petersburg, for the purpose of cutting tlie 
Weldon and South Side Railroad, and extending the left 
of the Union line, so as to accomplish that object and, 
if practical, to envelop the whole region on the left of 
the river. 

The first extension'of the line towards the south was 
inaugurated during the night of the 21st. The Sixth 
Corps came up and formed on the left of the Second and, 
on the morning of the 22d, the Second Corps was ordered 
to advance, keeping connection on the right with the 
Fifth Corps, on which the Second pivoted, and on the left 
with the Sixth Corps, that was moving slowly through 
the dense woods. Roll call at daybreak, and then rested 
in the intrenchments until nearly noon, when the advance 
began but, owing to the greater distance over which the 
Sixth Corps had to march and the difficulty in penetrating 
the tangled bush of the deep forest, the wheeling 
movement to the right was necessarily slow. Finally, 
General Meade, becoming impatient at the progress 
made, ordered the Second Corps to advance without 
waiting for the Sixth. General Birney did as directed 
and, as he swung forward, the left of the Second Corps 
left the right of the Sixth Corps far in the rear. The 
movement of the Second Corps took place in the woods 
west of the Jerusalem Plank Road and a little south of 
Fort Sedgwick, afterwards known as " Fort Hell ". 

The Confederate line of works running north and 
south turned abruptly within half a mile of the fort, at 
an angle of their line known as " Reeves's Salient ", and 
crossing the plank road ran directly west. On the 21st 
of June General Lee, looking across the half-mile of open 
country in front of that line and seeing the dense timber- 
land beyond, anticipated the very movement that Grant 




MAIOK-GENERAL DAVID BELL BIRSEY 



The Battle of William s Farm. 273 

had ordered, and on that day he (General Lee) ordered 
Wilcox to take his division, occupy the woods and feel 
for the Union line. Wilcox remained in the forest all 
day long of the 21st and 'returned to the camp in the 
evening, reporting to General Lee that he had 
accomplished nothing. On the morning of the 22d, 
Wilcox was again ordered into the timber with the same 
instructions. He formed his line in the deep woods south 
of the Johnston house and seems to have quietly rested 
without making an effort to ascertain the whereabouts or 
purpose of the Union troops. When the Second Corps 
changed front and pivoted on its right, which rested near 
the plank road, the left of the First Division must have 
actually passed within a few hundred yards of Wilcox's 
line — the latter evidently taking things easy and not 
making a very vigorous search for the Union troops — 
while the left of the Second Corps swung past oblivious 
to the fact that a Confederate division was there with 
orders to strike. When the Second Corps had made a 
half-wheel and the line suddenly emerged from the woods 
and stood at right angles with the plank road and was 
then parallel with and half or three-quarters of a mile 
distant from the Confederate line that also ran at right 
angles west from the Jerusalem Plank Road, the men of 
the Second Corps promptly stacked arms and began 
intrenching. It so happened that General Lee was at 
that moment in a little detached work that had been 
erected in the field two or three hundred yards in front of 
his main line. To his astonishment he saw in the distance 
the troops of the Second Corps vigorously throwing up 
the dirt at the edge of the wood and prolonging their 
line in the direction of his right. The ever vigilant and 
active General Mahone was chatting with General Lee at 



274 The Sto7y of the ii6th Regiment. 

the time and, seeing a chance to hit the left of the 
Second Corps, which was then in the air, suggested to 
him the feasibility of striking with promising results. 
In a letter from General Mahone he tells of June •22d, 
1864, in his own way : — 

Petersburg, May 7th, 1895. 

Dear General Mulhollaxd : I am just in receipt of \our esteemed 
letter of the 30th ult., and it gives me pleasure to comply with your 
request. 

The "occasion " of the 22d of June, 1S64, was fought on Johnston's 
Farm. I enclose a pen diagram of the occasion that you may the better 
understand this letter. On the morning of the 21st of June General 
\\'ilcox was sent out \\ ith his di\ ision of four brigades, passing on the 
west side of the Johnston House into the woodland beyond to feel for the 
left flank of your line, which at that time had not been extended west of 
the Jerusalem Plank Road, and I was directed to move out of the 
trenches and co-operate with Wilcox in any attack he should make upon 
\our people, as he should in it uncover m\- front. General Wilcox went 
out and returned that night failing to discover your line. On the morning 
of the 22d of June General Wilcox was again sent out to find the left 
flank of your army and to strike it a blow, and my instructions were for 
that day as for the day before. My division occupied the intrenched line 
from the Reeves Salient to the ravine of Lieutenant Run. I had gone 
out to the detached fort in which no artiller>- had yet been placed as had 
been pre\-iously ordered by General Lee. Then and there I saw the 
Federal troops moving in orderly fashion across the Plank Road in the 
direction of the Johnston House, the leading regiment halting, stacking 
arms and the men going deliberately to intrenching ; and the next 
regiment passing on and, after clearing the leading regiment, halting, 
stacking arms and then proceeding to intrench. Thus the prolongation 
of the Federal line west of the Plank Road was commenced and 
proceeded. I did not see or know of the second line the Federals were 
projecting until after the engagement which I followed was over. There 
never was a time in all the siege of Petersburg when the detached fort 
could have been of any service. Your projecting front line would have 
been in easy reach of guns in that fort. It ^\•as not within practicable 
range of the artiller\- in the intrenched line. That detached fort was a 
blunder and I urged that it shoiJld be levelled, that at some time your 
people would take it and use it as a cover to annoy the intrenched line, 
and so precisely it came to pass, but my division was not on that front at 
that time. At this juncture, that is, while you were so deliberately 



The Battle of William s Farm. 275 

projectini;- your line, GeiiL-ral Lee- came upon the ground and expressed a 
desire tliat sonietliin.i; should be done to arrest the progress of the Federal 
prolongation. General Wilcox, who was now supposed to be in the very 
place to deliver a telling blow, had not been heard from. In res])onse to 
General Lee's expressed desire, 1 caused the two right brigades of my 
division to drop quietly to the rear so as to. avoid discovery and then 
moved them up the ravine of Lieutenant Run, all the way out of view 
till reaching the open field in front of the Johnston House, and there they 
were formed in line of battle, a skirmish line put out and the march 
commenced, so as to strike the head of the Federal projecting column, 
meanwhile sending an intelligent staff officer to find General Wilcox and 
explain to him what I was about and to request that he bear down on my 
firing ; that he was in the right position to take the Federals in the rear. 
General Wilcox was found resting in the woods and that message 
delivered, but he did not comply or, in my judgment, we should not only 
ha\e swept from the field all the Federal force west of the Plank Road, 
but materially disorganized your intrenched line east of that road. 
Meanwhile, my two brigades quickly struck the head of your front 
projecting column and rolled it up like a scroll until we reached the brush 
where you were planting four Napoleons. Here I found that my two 
brigades had been severely depleted in carrying off prisoners, and, after 
a hurried reconnoissance which disclosed that the Federals were in great 
force on the Plank Road and that you had a rear projecting column now 
rapidly falling back on the Plank Road, I determined not to press further. 

At this juncture General Wilcox came up, having strangely marched 
out of the timber and all around the fringe of the woodland to meet me. 
I urged him to throw in his division and join me with the remnant of my 
two attacking brigades in a vigorous assault on the Plank Road. He 
wanted orders from the corps commander, two miles away — so then and 
there the idea of any further advance on my part was abandoned. I held 
the ground until daylight next morning when I withdrew my force, 
meanwhile repulsing during the night several brisk attacks made by the 
Federals. The right of my two attacking brigades luckily swept in front 
of the second projecting column of Federals just far enough away not to 
be seen, for in sending Major Mills in the midst of the fight with a 
message to the right of the attacking force, I cautioned him to be careful 
and not to go too far. I suspected that there might be another line of 
Federals there. He rode right into the line of that second projecting 
column. 

In this little affair, which might have been turned into a serious 
disaster to the Federals had General Wilcox borne down on my firing, 
we captured 1,650 officers and men, a large number of muskets, any 
quantity of tools and four splendid Napoleon guns. 



276 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Here, my dear General, of the "occasion" of 220! of June, 1864, 
which I hope may interest you. And with best wishes for your every 
success, I am, 

Yours truly, Mahone. 

In this characteristic letter General Mahone tells the 
story of William's Farm, or, as the Confederates knew it, 
"Johnston's Farm". The attack was to the Union troops 
more than a surprise. It was an astonishment. It so 
happened that the One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment 
held the extreme left of the Second Corps and, con- 
sequently, was the first to receive the assault. Charley 
Barth, of Company C, had wandered out to the left and 
was kneeling by some water, filling the company canteens, 
when, zip ! went a ball into the water. Looking up he 
saw the Confederates not fifty yards away. As he 
afterwards remarked, he made " a blue streak for the 
Regiment !" 

The startling intelligence he brought could hardly be 
credited, and Lieutenant Cope and Sergeant-Major Burke 
started on a reconnoissance to learn the truth. They, 
too, came tumbling back and had hardly uttered a word 
of warning when, suddenly, a heavy musketry fire was 
opened, not only from the left flank but from the rear as 
well. The surprise was complete, the attack sudden and 
totally unexpected. Some regiments of the corps seemed 
paralyzed, the men running in every direction, and many 
of them going directly into the Confederate ranks. The 
One Hundred and Sixteenth never faltered nor broke, 
but after receiving the first fire quickly replied and made 
a noble stand. It was useless, however, and after a ten 
minutes' fight the order came from the brigade com- 
mander to fall back. The Regiment moved off by the 
right flank, leaving behind the dead and wounded. 



The Battle of Williams Farm. 277 

Captains Nowlen, Megraw and Taggart were everywhere 
on the Hne, keeping the men together and showing the 
greatest valor. Lieutenant Henry D. Price, who was 
then on the division staff, soon learned of the perilous 
position of the Regiment and, galloping down the left 
where he knew the command was surrounded, he threw 
himself into the midst of the men, urging them to retire 
fighting. He exhibited in the hour of trial the highest 
qualities of the brave soldier that he was. Captain 
Nowlen was in command of the Regiment during the 
engagement, and he and every one of the officers and 
men behaved in the coolest manner. The large majority 
of the men had been in the field but a few weeks, yet 
they behaved better and exhibited less confusion than 
many of the regiments that had been two or three years 
in the service. The excellent conduct of the officers and 
men was the only thing that saved the organization. 

Passing to the right and still firing, the command 
succeeded in clearing the Confederate line in the rear and 
moved to a position where the division was being rallied by 
General Barlow. Lieutenant Yocum was severely wounded, 
but with twenty of the wounded men got away with the 
Regiment. Tom Scarlett and a dozen or so of the men 
were for a time completely hemmed in by the enemy but, 
hiding in the laurel bushes, they succeeded in evading 
capture although not escaping the fire. While hiding in 
the bush the party got foul of a lot of wild hogs, and the 
grunting and squealing of the animals drew the attention 
of the Confederate cavalrymen who were riding through 
the woods in squads, picking up prisoners. The 
cavalrymen fired at the sound and not only hit the hogs 
but some of the men as well. 

Captain Cosslett, Lieutenant Cope and Sergeant-Ma j or 



278 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Burke were captured and spent many months in southern 
prisons. The number of dead of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth of this fight was never ascertained, as the 
enemy held the ground. Thirty-five were missing and a 
few of them were afterwards heard of as dying in 
southern prisons, but most likely the greater part of them 
still hold the lines where they fell, in the forests of William's 
Farm. A Confederate colonel was captured during the 
fight. He was mounted on a superb gray horse which 
General Barlow afterwards purchased and rode in battle. 
The splendid animal became very fond of the General and 
would follow him around the camp begging for the lumps 
of sugar that the General would be pretty sure to have in 
his pocket with which to treat his equine friend. 

The 22d of June was the saddest day ever experienced 
by the Second Corps. Up to that day the corps had never 
lost a color and but one gun, but on this occasion the 
splendid record was lost and the day's disaster cost the 
Second Corps four guns, one flag and seventeen hundred 
prisoners that were left in the hands of the enemy. On 
the morning of the 23d the Second and Sixth Corps moved 
forward to attack on the same ground fought over the day 
before, but the enemy had retired into their works and the 
fighting on the left of the army was ended for a time. 

After the fight at William's Farm, sometimes called the 
" Petersburg Affair ", the Regiment enjoyed for a few days 
a well-earned rest, if continual digging, intrenching and 
picket duty could be called by that name ; but compared 
with the long night marches and incessant assaults upon 
the strong position of the enemy that occupied every 
hour of May and June, it was repose and rest of the most 
welcome character. Once more the mail was handed 
around and " news from home " cheered the weary men. 



The Regiment Leaves the Irish Brigade. 279 

But, ill sorting the regimental mail that had accumulated 
for weeks, almost half the letters were returned to the 
writers with the endorsement : " Absent ", " Wounded ", 
or, still worse, " Killed ". 

A few days after the battle of William's Farm General 
Hancock returned and resumed command of the corps, 
and on July 11th the corps was withdrawn from the 
intrenchments that they had erected and went into camp 
near the " deserted house" on the Norfolk Road. 

THE REGIMENT LEAVES THE IRISH BRIGADE. 

The Regiment remained here for two weeks and during 
this time was transferred from the Second (Irish) Brigade 
to the Fourth Brigade. The transfer of regiments and 
consolidation of brigades was rendered necessary at this 
time by the heavy losses of men and officers. In some 
brigades not a field officer remained to take command. 
The Irish Brigade was commanded by a captain. Six of 
the ten field officers who had started with the campaign on 
May 5th had been killed and the other four severely 
wounded. 

The members of the Regiment left the Irish Brigade 
with regret. They had participated in all the glories and 
triumphs of that famous brigade for two years, and 
although the One Hundred and Sixteenth was composed 
almost entirely of American-born citizens, the men had 
learned to love and esteem the men of the Emerald Isle. 
The brigade to which the Regiment was assigned was in 
no way less brave than the one from which it was parting. 
It was the brigade of General John R. Brooke, one of the 
bravest and best of officers, who had commanded the 
brigade with great honor to it and to himself. When 
the Civil War closed General Brooke remained in the 



280 The Story of the ii6th Regmient. 

regular army and retired on age in 1903 as full Major- 
General. General James A. Beaver, who succeeded him 
in command of the Fourth Brigade, had a like distin- 
guished career. Wounded at Chancellorsville and Cold 
Harbor, he returned to the front just in time to reach the 
field at Reams Station as the fight opened. Within half 
an hour he had been wounded for the third time, losing 
a leg, the amputation being so close to the body as to 
render him unfit for further service in the field. Retiring 
to private life, he was elected Governor of Pennsylvania, 
and then elevated to the position of Judge of the Superior 
Court of the State, a position that he still occupies and 
honors. He had been wounded on several occasions, 
and when the Regiment joined the Fourth Brigade the 
gallant soldier was absent, suffering from a wound 
received at Cold Harbor. The members of the Regiment 
soon felt at home, for the men form friendships quickly 
when under fire and sharing each other's dangers. Every 
regiment in the brigade with which the command was for 
the future to be associated were veteran organizations 
that had been tried on every field from the very beginning 
of the war. The regiments composing the brigade were 
the Fifty -third. One Hundred and Forty-fifth and One 
Hundred and Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, Second Dela- 
ware, Sixty-fourth and Sixty-sixth New York, and Seventh 
New York Heavy Artillery, acting as infantry. The arms 
of the Regiment were changed at this time. The old 
pattern smooth-bore musket, with ball and three buck shot, 
calibre 69, was withdrawn, and the Springfield, calibre 58, 
with a rifle barrel, substituted. It was a welcome change, 
for, while the old weapon with the buck and ball was an 
excellent one at close quarters, the men felt that the new 
rifle piece was far superior, especially on the skirmish line. 



The Regiment Leaves the Irish Brigade. 281 

Towards the end of June and during July the siege of 
Petersburg was pressed along the whole line, from the 
right on the Appomattox River to the left near the 
Jerusalem Plank Road, and the spade and pick were in 
active use by night and day. Redoubts and siege 
batteries rose in rapid succession, and nearly all the men 
became quite expert in forming fascines, gabions, sap- 
fagots and all the paraphernalia incidental to siege works. 
A siege train arrived on the ground, and thirty-pounder 
Parrott guns soon added their thunder to the general 
roar. Ten-inch mortars and several batteries of Coehorn 
mortars were placed at intervals along the line and rained 
vertical fire upon the enemy. To the Confederates this 
sort of dropping fire from heaven, as it were, was a 
surprise. It was so unexpected and astonishing. They 
were not prepared for a fire of this nature, and for some 
days suffered heavily without being able to give adequate 
reply ; but they quickly built strong bomb-proofs and in 
a short time had lots of mortars themselves sending 
showers of iron down into the camps when the Union 
people worried them in like manner. To the men on the 
main line of battle the mortar firing seemed to matter but 
little, as they learned to scuttle into the bomb-proofs and 
thus find security and shelter ; but to the men on the 
picket and reserve the fire of the mortar batteries was a 
serious matter. The mortars were not fired singly but in 
volleys. Half a dozen mortars would be fired at once, 
and six immense shells would fly skyward in a bunch, 
and, slowly curving, high above the camps, would begin 
their downward course, gaining speed at every foot and, 
finally, with a scream and a rush, drop among the men, 
bursting and scattering death in all directions. As these 
ponderous shells descended in groups, it was impossible 



282 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

to avoid them, although after dark one could see the 
streaming fire from the burning fuse as the shells ascended 
and fell ; but as running from one meant simply running 
into another, it was felt that trying to avoid them was 
useless. Just to stand and take the chances was all that 
could be done. 

The danger from the mortar shells was not confined 
alone to the picket or main line of works, but sometimes 
the shells would reach to the camp of the army reserve, 
far away from the main line, and men were frequendy 
killed while sleeping in what they fancied was perfect 
security. As a member of the Irish Brigade remarked, 
that he " never knew when he went to sleep at night 
whether he would not wake up dead in the morning". 
Eleven men were killed in a Michigan regiment at one 
discharge of a Confederate mortar battery, and it was 
said that thirty-one men were killed in a Confederate 
regiment when a shower of mortar shells from one of the 
Union batteries fell among them. This mortar business, 
raining down shells from the clouds at all hours of night 
and day, was, perhaps, the most annoying feature of the 
siege. As General Humphreys remarked : " It was 
depressing"; and that was putting it very mildly. It 
certainly was depressing. 



First Deep Bottom or Strawberry Plains. 283 

CHAPTER XIV. 
FIRST DEEP BOTTOM OR STRAWBERRY PLAINS. 



T 



O WARDS the end of July, General Grant determined 
to send a force of infantry and cavalry to the north 
bank of the James River, to make a dash on Richmond 
and destroy the railroads to the north of the city, and also 
for the purpose of drawing away from the defences of 
Petersburg-, and to the north bank of the James a portion 
of the Confederate Army. General Sheridan was placed 
in command of the cavalry, and the whole expedition was 
under General Hancock. At four o'clock in the afternoon 
of July 2Gth the Second Corps left camp near the 
" Deserted House ", marching for Point of Rocks. Just 
after dark, the corps crossed the Appomattox River on 
the pontoon bridge at Point of Rocks and continued the 
march during the night by way of Jones's Neck. The 
night was warm and very dark, but by order of General 
Butler, small fires had been lit at intervals along the 
route which aided much in getting along. The James 
River was reached about two a. m. on the morning of the 
27th, and, crossing on the pontoons, the corps was massed 
in the woods to await daylight. As soon as it was 
sufficiently light to see, the advance was ordered, Barlow's 
Division leading. The Regiment was commanded by 
Captain Garrett Nowlen, and he handled it beautifully. 
No sooner had the line begun moving forward than the 
skirmishers of the division became engaged and, with a 
rush, they captured the works of the enemy, with four 
twenty-pound Parrott guns and a lot of prisoners. 



284 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



The Twenty-eighth Massachusetts was one of the 
regiments that fought on the skirmish line and, when the 
four large guns with the caissons were hauled to the rear, 
the men of the One Hundred and Sixteenth seemed 
almost as glad to witness the glor}^ of the regiment with 
which they had been associated so long as though they 
had made the capture themselves. The regiment met 
with a heavy fire while passing over the plain, but finally 
reached the Confederate works without serious loss. 
The fire of the enemy was diverted and rendered less 
destructive by the firing of the gun-boats, which threw 
their immense shells over the heads of the men and into 
the works of the enemy. These tremendous hundred- 
pound shells made a sound that was awe-inspiring, and 
when they burst in the timber they tore the giant trees 
into ribbons. 

During the 27th and 2Sth, Barlow's Division did heavy 
marching and intrenching, moving far out to the right, 
trying to find the enemy's fiank, but without avail. The 
whole movement, so far as making a dash on the Confed- 
erates' Capital, failed, but the second object for which the 
expedition had been organized — the drawing of a large 
part of the Confederate Army to the north bank of the 
James River in order to leave an opening for a successful 
assault on Petersburg — had been successful. Five-eighths 
of the whole of Lee's army had hastily concentrated in 
front of Hancock. 

As soon as it was dark, on the evening of the 29th, 
the return march to Petersburg was commenced, and the 
whole force got back in time to see the explosion of the 
mine in front of the Ninth Corps, and witness the 
miserable fiasco that cost the Union Army four thousand 
men. The Second Corps returned to the camp near the 




MAJOR-GENERAL FRANCIS C. BARLOW 



Second Deep Bottom. 285 

"Deserted House", and the Regiment enjoyed another 
rest of two weeks. Picket duty, however, was always 
in order, and the loss of men on the outer line was 
frequent. 

SECOND DEEP BOTTOM. 

Early in August, General Grant deemed it advisable 
to again send a strong force to the north bank of the 
James to threaten Richmond. General Hancock was 
again selected to command the movement and, in order 
to deceive the enemy, the troops were ordered to march 
to City Point and embark on steamboats, to give the 
Confederates the impression that the expedition was 
destined for Washington ; then sail up the river by night 
and land at Deep Bottom by daylight, ready for the attack. 

At noon on the 12th of August, the corps marched to 
City Point, and on the following day began embarking on 
the fleet of steamers that had been gathered there. Not 
only was the enemy deceived by the movement via the 
boats and river, but also the men who composed the 
force. No sooner had they begun marching on board the 
steamers than their spirits rose, and " On to Washington !" 
was the cry. As night settled down the surmise deepened 
into a certainty, and laughter and happiness prevailed to 
an extent altogether beyond reason. The men of the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth shared in the good feeling, 
and when, at ten o'clock at night, the steamboats pulled 
out into the stream and the voyage began, general hilarity 
and wild delight took possession of everyone. Songs 
were started in which all joined, and "The Sword of 
Bunker Hill " was sung with an enthusiasm that was 
universal. It was a lovely night on the water. The stars 
never looked so bright, nor the river so calm and beautiful. 



280 The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

No one thought of sleep. There was no time to even 
doze while the boys were having such a good time. 
Were they not on their way to the North ! With the 
tolling of the midnight hour came a sad ending to the 
Washington dream. The steamer, on which the Regiment 
was rejoicing and having such a jolly time, slowed up 
and a tug came alongside with the orders. In five 
minutes every man knew that it was Deep Bottom and a 
fight in the morning, instead of Washington and a trip 
to the north. The singing quickly died away. The river 
did not seem half so beautiful nor the stars half so bright. 
Quickly everyone lost interest in the passing shores. The 
silence of disappointed hope settled over the men, who 
at once felt tired and sleepy instead of wide-awake and 
full of happy song. The steamer went ploughing through 
the water and soon all hands were slumbering. It was a 
cruel disappointment, to be sure. 

The sleep of the men was ended in a couple of hours, 
and before daylight the troops disembarked and massed 
on the shore. At five o'clock the firing commenced, and 
the sun had risen on the hottest day ever experienced by 
the members of the Regiment. As Colonel W^alker, 
Adjutant-General of the Second Corps, remarked : " The 
rays of the August sun smote the heads of the weary 
soldiers with blows as palpable as if they had been given 
with a club". Hundreds of men of the army fell during 
the awful heat of this day. During this, the 14th of 
August, the Regiment marched, intrenched and counter- 
marched from sunrise until dark and participated in the 
assault made by General Barlow at four o'clock in the 
afternoon near Fussell's Mill, which was unsuccessful, 
and at dark the division was massed at the junction of 
the Darby and Long Bridge Roads. 



Second Deep Bottom. 287 

The 14th of Aiio^iist will long be remembered by every 
member of the Regiment as one of the most intense 
suffering. Not one of them will ever experience a 
warmer day in this world or, let us hope, in the next. 
Certainly not if they have done their duty in the Union 
Army and have an honorable discharge. 

The 15th of August passed with the picket fighting 
and intrenching. General Birney with his Tenth Corps 
was moving to find the enemy's left, and it was almost 
night before he found a place to attack. A day had been 
lost without anything gained. 

During the l(3th the Union cavalry, supported by 
Miles's Brigade, advanced up the Charles City Road and 
drove the Confederate cavalry as far as White's Tavern, 
within seven miles of Richmond, but were compelled to 
fall back again. General Chambliss, the Confederate 
cavalry commander, was killed during the fight. His 
body was lying on a stretcher on the roadside as the 
Regiment passed. He was a handsome man, extremely 
neat in dress, his mustaches nicely waxed and pointed. 
He looked as trim and neat as though just fresh from 
the barber shop. A small Testament found in his pocket 
testified as to his identity. On the fly-leaf was his name 
and the words: "A gift from his mother". Towards 
evening the Fourth Brigade, to which the Regiment was 
now attached, was ordered to reinforce General Birney at 
Fussell's Mill. 

During the 17th there was heavy skirmishing along 
the whole line of the Second Corps and the men of the 
Regiment suffered severely. From four until six o'clock 
on the afternoon of this day a truce was declared for the 
purpose of removing the dead and wounded from 
between the lines. The body of General Chambliss, that 



288 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

had been buried within the Union Hnes, was taken up 
and deHvered to his friends. 

On the morning of the 18th General Barlow was 
compelled to relinquish for a time the command of his 
division by reason of his wounds and disease. He was a 
man absolutely without fear, and was succeeded by 
General Nelson A. Miles, a brilliant and fearless soldier. 

With the exception of picket firing the day was 
uneventful until half-past five in the afternoon, when the 
enemy came out of their works near Fussell's Mill and 
attacked the line of General Birney's Division. General 
Miles moved forward with the First and Fourth Brigades 
and struck the flank of the attacking column. For half 
an hour the roar of musketry was tremendous, and at the 
same hour a heavy attack was made on the Union cavalry. 
Everything indicated a battle of some magnitude, but 
while the Union cavalry were driven back, the attack on 
the lines at Fussell's Mill failed and the Confederates were 
driven back, leaving the field covered with dead and 
wounded. The Regiment participated in the movement 
on the enemy's flank and did noble service in pouring in 
a most destructive fire. 

During the 19th and 20th nothing but heavy picket 
firing occurred, the regiment furnishing large details for 
the skirmish line ; and on the night of the 20th the whole 
force was withdrawn from Deep Bottom and began the 
return to Petersburg. The march of the Regiment was 
another of the many disagreeable incidents of the 
campaign. It was a terrible night. The rain fell in sheets 
and the roads were in a frightful condition in the ink-like 
darkness. The thunder rolled and lightning flashed 
incessantly. As the pickets were being withdrawn, the 
storm's fury seemed to be concentrated on the picket line. 



Second Deep Bottom. 289 

The thunder pealed through the woods and the Hghtning 
flashed among the rain-soaked men. Several large trees 
were struck and torn to ribbons, and while the storm was 
at its height the army withdrew. 

Returning by way of Point of Rocks, the Regiment 
reached the old camping ground early on the morning of 
the 21st. The casualties of the Regiment during the 
Second Deep Bottom campaign are not known to the 
writer and cannot now be ascertained. The men who 
were missing were never heard of again and most likely 
all were killed. 

The casualties of the Second Corps were nine 
hundred and fifteen, more than one-half of which were 
in the First Division, to which the Regiment was 
attached. When " arms were stacked " in camp once 
more, it was thought by everyone that after the fearful 
fatigues of the last week a rest of a few days would 
be given to the exhausted troops who had participated in 
the Deep Bottom campaign, but no such good luck was 
in store for them. Despite the fearful condition of the 
worn-out men they were allowed to remain just long 
enough to cook their coffee and then ordered to the 
vicinity of the Strong house to slashing and work on 
the intrenchments. It was more than human nature 
could endure and, although the distance was short, many 
of the men fell on the way, utterly unable to move ; and, 
worse still, as soon as the weary and foot-sore men arrived 
at the first point of destination they were ordered to 
continue the march to the Gurley House, on the Weldon 
Railroad, several miles further. Slowly dragging their 
weary limbs along, through a steady and pouring rain, 
they finally reached their position late in the afternoon. 
Too weary and tired and without life or spirit enough to 



290 The Story of the ii6th Regijiient. 

even light a fire, the men of the Regiment sank on the 
wet ground and slept in the softest of \^irginia mud. 

The morning of August 22d broke gray and wet. 
The men made coflee with water thick with clay from the 
muddy streams, and many of the stragglers who had 
fallen by the way the day before came in and joined their 
companies. At noon, the First Division was set to work 
destroying the Weldon Railroad. All the afternoon of 
that day and all day of the 23d the work went on. It 
was not the first experience of the Regiment in this line 
of business and, when the fatigue of Deep Bottom wore 
ofif, the men rather enjoyed the work. It was certainly 
better than building breast-works with the sharpshooters 
cracking at the workers ; and the roaring fires of the 
railroad ties at internals along the line, on which the rails 
were bent and roasted, looked cheerful and ga\-e the boys 
a chance to dr}' their clothes after the rain. During the 
afternoon, several miles of the railroad were effectually 
destroyed and on the 23d the work was continued. On 
the evening of that day the First Division reached as 
far as Reams Station and the Regiment was placed in 
intrench ments there. 



Battle of Reams Station. 291 



CHAPTER XV. 

BATTLE OF REAMS STATION. 

/^N the morning of August 24th, the First Division was 
^^^ relieved by the Second, and proceeded in the work of 
destroying the railroad beyond the station. The advance 
of the working party was covered by Colonel Spear with 
two regiments of cavalry, while General Gregg's Division 
of cavalry held all the roads by which the enemy could 
approach from Petersburg or Dinwiddle. During the day, 
Spear had a brush with the enemy's cavalry, but, with the 
assistance of some of the infantry of the First Division, 
drove them off. General Barlow was again forced, by 
reason of his wounds, to relinquish command of the First 
Division on this day, never to return, and was succeeded 
by General Nelson A. Miles. It was not without regret 
that the men of the Regiment saw General Barlow take 
final leave of the division. He was a fearless officer, 
perfectly reckless as regarded his own person and, in spite 
of wounds and disease, stuck to the work and remained 
with the command long after a man with less force of 
character would have given up the struggle. 

During the day the working party succeeded in 
destroying the railroad to a point three miles beyond, and 
to the south of, the station, to a place known as 
Malone's Crossing. At dark the division returned to the 
intrenchments at Reams Station. The members of the 
regiment were in good spirits, and, after cooking coffee, 
sat around the camp-fires for awhile, enjoying the usual 
smoke and chat that almost invariablv marked the close 



292 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

of a day like this. The night of the morrow and the 
Regiment would be stealing away in the darkness from the 
bloody field, leaving many members, the dead of August 
25th, to hold the works forever. 

Orders were issued for the Second Division of the corps 
to move out and resume the destruction of the railroad on 
the morning of the 2oth, but at midnight a despatch from 
the headquarters of the army notified General Hancock 
that a force of the enemy, estimated at eight to ten 
thousand, had been seen leaving their works at Petersburg, 
moving south, and cautioning him to look out for them. 
This Confederate force was afterwards learned to be a very 
heavy column of infantry and cavalry (the numbers have 
never been ascertained), under command of General A. P. 
Hill, consisting of nearly all of his own corps, Anderson's 
Brigade of Longstreet's Corps, and two cavalry divisions 
under General Hampton. This force began to develop in 
Hancock's front early in the forenoon of the 2oth ; and, 
in consequence, the Second Division, that had started to 
destroy the track, was at once recalled and placed in the 
intrenchments. The pickets of the Second Division, who 
had been on duty during the night were relieved by those of 
the First Division shortly after daylight, and a large detail 
of the One Hundred and Sixteenth went out on that 
duty. The line of works into which the two divisions of 
the Second Corps had retired to await the assaults of the 
Confederate column were slight and faulty in construction. 
They had been constructed in June by some of the cavalry. 
They ran along the railroad for some ten or twelve hundred 
yards, having a return almost at right angles at each end, 
of about the same length, and were thrown up in such a 
way that the troops occupying them would be exposed to 
an enfilading fire. The First Division, to which the One 




NF.LSON A. MILES, LI tL TENANT-GENERAL, U.S.A. 



Battle of Reams Statioyi. 293 

Hundred and Sixteenth was attached, commanded by 
General Nelson A. Miles, occupied the right half of these 
intrenchments, and Gibbons's Second Division the left. 
The pickets were thrown well out into the woods in front, 
and towards noon they felt the approach of the enemy. 
In front of that part of the line there was open ground 
of about one hundred and fifty yards to the timber, and in 
this wood the picket ran in a line parallel with the works. 
At noon the Confederates advanced along the 
Dinwiddle Road striking the picket of the First Division, 
driving in the picket line and taking possession of these 
woods, the sharpshooters occupying every tree and 
available spot along the front of the Union line. At one 
o'clock an attempt was made to drive the Confederates 
back into these woods and re-form the picket line, and the 
Regiment went out to support the movement, leaving the 
colors with a guard in the works, but the effort was not 
successful. In this fight, which was at very 'close 
quarters, the Regiment lost some good men but did 
effective work. Sergeant Edward S. Kline behaved nobly 
and was severely wounded. Sergeant T. A. Sloan, while 
in the act of loading his rifle, was ordered by a big fellow 
to surrender. Sloan had just got his load down but the 
ramrod stuck and he could not withdraw it, so he let him 
have it, ramrod and all. (When it came to a question of 
surrender Tim Sloan was ever ready to enter a very 
earnest protest.) At about two o'clock the Confederate 
General Wilcox made a very determined and spirited 
attack on that part of the Union line held by the First 
Division, but each time was driven back with great loss. 
A second attack was made and was vigorous and close, 
many of the men falling within musket reach of the 
Union works. Captain Garrett Nowlen, then in command 



294 The Story of the ii6th Regiinent. 

of the Regiment, stood up in front waving his sword and 
cheering on the men. At that moment a ball pierced his 
heart. For an instant he was motionless, then turning 
quickly to where the men of his own company were in 
line, he looked towards them and waved his hand : — 
"Good-bye, boys, good-bye — good-bye". He was falling 
when he repeated the last words, and when he struck the 
ground he was dead. Captain Samuel Taggart then 
took command of the Regiment. A few minutes elapsed 
and Taggart, passing down the line (it is thought for the 
purpose of seeing Nowlen's body), crossed an opening in 
the line. He walked slowly, knowing no fear. As he 
approached the spot that was so exposed to the fire some 
of the men called out : " Hurr\', Captain ; they may kill 
you, too ". But the brave soul never hastened a step, 
and as he reached the spot where Xowlen fell he was shot 
through the body. The men ran forward and carried him 
behind the works and laid him beside Xowlen. He was 
perfectly sensible and tried to speak but could not. He 
turned his head a little, and smihng on the men who had 
gathered around him and who loved him tenderly, he 
awaited death, calm, serene and fearless, as became the 
gallant martyr that he was. He lived fifteen minutes 
after he was struck, the smile never leaving his face for a 
moment, and his pure spirit ascended to heaven, bright 
with the light of battle and radiant with the light of a 
stainless life. 

As the hours passed in the afternoon the position of 
Hancock's forces became extremely critical, the enemy 
concentrating for a tremendous onslaught and no forces 
to which Hancock could look for assistance within sup- 
porting distance. At five o'clock the enemy inaugurated 
the final attack bv a verv heavv artillerv fire that 



Battle of Reams Station. 295 

demoralized to a great extent many of the recruits and 
substitutes who had recently joined the Second Corps. 
The shelling continued for about fifteen minutes, and then 
the whole Confederate force, led by Heth's Division, 
assaulted the Union line. The principal attack was made 
on Miles's First Division and on that part of the line held 
by the Fourth Brigade. The men of the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth stood shoulder to shoulder, pouring in their 
fire on the advancing hosts, and had the other troops of 
the corps made as noble a fight as the Fourth Brigade, 
Reams Station would have been a great Union victory. 
But it was not to be. 

While the brigade was hurling death into those in the 
front, two New York regiments on the right gave way 
and went to the rear. The victorious enemy poured 
through the opening, capturing flags, guns and prisoners. 
Hancock and Miles were everywhere, cheering, rallying 
and urging the men, but the break was too great to 
repair and the line was forced back. Fighting on and 
contesting the ground inch by inch the Regiment fell 
back, but not until the works on the right were in the 
hands of the enemy and they were receiving on the left 
an enfilading fire of the most destructive character. The 
line gradually fell back across the space enclosed by our 
works until the men of the Regiment found themselves 
fighting among the troops of the Second Division, who, 
in turn, were forced out of their works and were obliged 
to occupy and fight from the reverse side of their own 
intrenchments. 

To go into further details of the Battle of Reams 
Station is not necessary in a regimental history. Suffice 
to say that the fight continued until dark and then both 
sides in the struggle withdrew from the field. The loss 



296 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

of the Regiment was never actually known. After the 
command returned to Petersburg and the members 
compared notes, the names of seventeen men killed and 
ten wounded were all that could be accounted for, but 
there were thirty-one missing. Only four or five were 
ever heard of again and they were heard of as dying in 
southern prisons. The others were undoubtedly killed. 
Captain Francis E. Crawford and Lieutenant Zadock 
Springer were taken prisoners. Notwithstanding the 
crushing defeat sustained by the two divisions of the 
Second Corps and the terrible loss in the ranks of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth, the Regiment never broke once 
during the afternoon and the men never abandoned the 
bodies of the two dead captains whom all had loved so 
dearly ; and when darkness fell and the retreat began the 
bodies were placed on stretchers and carried mile after 
mile through the gloom.y forest back to the camp at 
Petersburg, then embalmed and sent home. 

It is difficult to understand the reason for the battle 
and disaster of Reams Station. It was known to the 
commander of the army the night before that a large 
force had left Petersburg for the purpose of attacking 
either Hancock or Warren's Fifth Corps, which was five 
miles on his right and between Reams Station and 
Petersburg. At nine o'clock on the evening of the 24th 
General Warren telegraphed to General Meade that he 
felt certain that the force of Confederates had gone out to 
interfere with General Hancock and added : " They can 
not do anything with me here ". It would seem that it 
should have been determined then to either reinforce 
Hancock that he might fight to win a victory and beat 
back the column sent against him and then continue the 
destruction of the railroad, or, if that was not considered 



Battle of Reams Station. 297 

of sufficient importance to make a fight for, then to have 
called him back and abandon the work without risking a 
battle. But no doubt General Meade thought that 
General Hancock and the two divisions of the Second 
Corps were fully able to hold the ground and render a 
good account, and so they would had it been the same 
Second Corps that charged Marye's Heights at Freder- 
icksburg or held the Brock Road in the Wilderness. 
Death had been busy in the ranks and but few men of 
the early part of the year's campaign were left. All the 
brigade and regimental commanders had fallen in the 
first three months of the campaign. All had been replaced, 
not once or twice, but several times. At least thirty 
brigade commanders had fallen during the three and 
one-half months ending at Reams Station, and at the 
latter end of October thirty-seven brigade commanders 
had been killed and wounded, an average of three to each 
of the brigades in the Second Corps in this one summer 
campaign of less than six months. The men, too, had 
gone down in brigades and regiments, and the veterans 
of the Peninsula and Antietam had been largely replaced 
by recruits and substitutes who had but little heart in the 
work. 

The number of Confederates engaged in the battle 
has never been ascertained. The force that Hancock 
fought with consisted of 8,000 infantry and cavalry, of 
which he lost 2,400 killed, wounded and prisoners. The 
loss of officers in the Union ranks was out of all propor- 
tion. The Confederate sharpshooters picked them off, as 
in the case of Nowlen and Taggart. Captain E. P. 
Brownson, of Hancock's staff, was among the killed. He 
was a brave and handsome young officer, and fell while 
leading forward some troops to the attack. Colonel 



298 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

Francis A. \\'alker, also of the staff, in his daring got 
into the enemy's hne and was captured. Just before the 
fight commenced General Hancock placed Tom Scarlett, 
of Company A, on the Spires House as a safeguard. 
Tom climbed to the top of the carriage house to watch 
the fight, but the bullets came so lively around the spot 
that he thought it judicious to get down and forego 
sightseeing. But he found it not less dangerous on the 
ground. A negro and dog were wounded in the garden.- 
The family retired to the cellar and left Scarlett in sole 
possession. So well did he do his duty that Mrs. Spires 
not only kept him safely concealed during the next day 
when Hampton's Confederate cavalry surrounded the 
house, but after dark crammed his haversack with all the 
good things she could raise, and then personally 
conducted him through the lines and put him on the road 
back to his own camp. Sergeant James Cavanaugh, of 
Company B, distinguished himself greatly by defending 
one of the guns of Battery B, First Rhode Island Artillery. 
When the enemy rushed over the works Cavanaugh lost 
his musket in the struggle, but seizing a spade he fought 
like a tiger until knocked down, overpowered and taken 
prisoner. 

A letter from General Heth, who commanded the last 
charge on the Union works, is of interest: — 

Washington, May 13th, 1895. 
General St. Clair Mulholland, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dear General : Yours of May ist \\■^s duly received. I am afraid I 
cannot give you the information 3 ou most desire in reference to the Reams 
Station fight, August 25th, 1864. 

I have, assisted by Mr. Kirkly, one of the board compiling the official 
records of the Union and Confederate armies, examined the records, 
hoping to find some data which would give us the information as to the 
strength of the brigades that carried your works on August 25th, 1864. 



Battle of Reams Station. 299 

I am sorry to say that there is absolutely nothing that throws any light 
upon this subject. On the 25th of August, 1864, General A. P. Hill, with 
Wilcox's Division, or a part of it, and two brigades of my division, took 
up the march to Reams Station, where General Hancock with his corps, 
or a part of it, was engaged in destroying the Weldon Railroad. 

Wilcox's Division was in the advance and, on reaching Reams 
Station, was ordered to attack the works held by Hancock's troops.^ He 
attacked and was repulsed. My two brigades, commanded by Generals 
Cooke and McRae — North Carolina troops — arrived, and I was ordered 
by General Hill to carr>' the works. Lane's North Carolina Brigade, of 
Wilcox's Division, was assigned to my command to assist in the attack. 
The works I was to attack ran parallel with the railroad in front of quite 
a deep cut. A heavy body of woods was in front of the works I was to 
attack with an open field between the woods and the works. Probably 
the distance across this open field was two hundred yards, more or less. 
I formed my command for the attack in these woods, as near to the open 
field as possible, without being exposed to view, and parallel to your 
works — Cook or McRae on the right and Lane on the extreme left. I 
placed two or more batteries under Colonel Pegram, commanding, in a 
good position still further to the right, having an oblique fire on your line 
of works and your artillery in rear of the works. Adjusting our watches 
so that they indicated the same time, Pegram w^ ordered to open all of 
his guns and fire as rapidly as possible at the works and at your artillery-. 
At the end of thirty minutes he was to cease firing, when the infantry- 
would charge the works. Pegram' s fire was wonderfully accurate and 
effective. Some of your guns were dismounted, caissons blown up and 
many horses killed. His fire had a demoralizing effect temporarily upon 
the troops behind the works, and before they had time to recover their 
normal status my infantry was in possession of the works. My loss in 
crossing the field was ver>- small. The left brigade met with abatis in 
front of the works it was to carry and sustained greater loss. The 
number of prisoners, guns, etc., captured by my command in this fight 
will be found in the Official Records, Vol. 42, Part i, page 851. 

General Lee says in a despatch, dated August 26th, 1864, to Hon. 
Jas. A. Seddon, Secretary^ of War: "Cooke's and McRae's North 
Carolina Brigades, under General Heth, and Lane's Brigade, under 
General Conner, with Pegram's artillery, composed the assaulting column. 
Seven stands of colors, 2,000 prisoners and nine pieces of artillery are in 
our possession. The loss of the enemy in killed and wounded is reported 
to be heavy— ours relatively small ". 

Thirty years have elapsed since this fight. All my papers and retained 
returns were destroyed at Appomattox, April 9th, 1865, so any estimate 
of the attacking force under my command when your works were carried 



300 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

August 25th, 1864, would be merely guesswork. I should say that the 
attacking force was between 4,000 and 4,500 strong. 

Verj- truly yours, 

H. Heth. 

REAMS STATION. 

'Captain and Brevet-Major Garrett Nowlen, who 
fell in the battle and died so heroically, was born in 
Philadelphia, on March 6th, 1835. He entered the army 
as second lieutenant of Company G, August 2d, 1862, and 
was promoted to first lieutenant and adjutant, March 1st, 
18G3 ; to captain of Company D, November 21st, 1863 ; to 
brevet-major, August 25th, 1864. He was severely 
wounded at Fredericksburg, December 13th, 1862, the 
ball shattering his hip bone. He was a man delicate by 
nature, thoughtful and studious, of liberal education and 
a graduate of the Philadelphia High School ; most 
generous, unselfish and self-sacrificing ; simple and gentle 
as a boy, with a high sense of honor and truth that 
directed every action of his life. His body was embalmed 
and brought to Philadelphia and buried at Laurel Hill, 
on the banks of the beautiful Schuylkill where he had 
often played in childhood's happy days. He is interred 
among the friends of his youth who loved him in life, 
and he sleeps in good and honorable company. By his 
side lie General Meade, the Commander of the Army of 
the Potomac ; General Mercer, who fell at Princetown ; 
General Hector Tyndale, who died of wounds received 
at Antietam ; Colonel Sargent, who fell at Petersburg, and 
young Colonel Dalgren, who went down in front of 
Richmond, and many another patriot and hero. Some 
loving friend has marked on his tomb the words : O, 
brave heart !" Truly a loyal and noble heart was stilled 
when Garrett Xowlen fell. 




J 



CAPTAIN AND BREVET MAJOR GARRETT NOVVLEN 
Killed at Reams Station, August 25th, 1864 



Reams Station. 301 

A letter written by Lieutenant Franlc McGuigan, a few 
days after the battle, tells in graphic language how 
Captain Nowlen fell : — 

HeADQIAKTEKS IKiTH REGIMENT, PENNSYLVANIA \'OLUNTEEKS. 

In the field near Petersburg, Va., September 9th, 1S64. 

Major Charles W; Matthews, Philadelpjhia, Pa. 

Dear Sir : Yours of the 4th instant has been received. It was my 
intention to write to the relatives of the late Captain Garrett Nowlen and 
give them a history of the sad event, but owing to circumstances over 
which I had no control I was unable to do so. 

Captain Nowlen was killed at the battle of Reams Station, on the 
afternoon of August 25th. Our Regiment had been on picket duty for 
several days previous to the fight. On the evening of the 24th our brigade 
was withdrawn from the left of the line and fell back about two miles to 
the breastworks at Reams Station, on the Weldon Railroad. Nothing 
unusual occurred during the n'ght. The next morning we received orders 
to strengthen the works. The men had scarcely begvm to work before 
orders came to march the brigade to the left into a large cornfield. We 
did not remain in the latter position long, but advanced into the main line 
of works where we remained about half an hour and were again ordered 
to move. This time only our Regiment was ordered to move. We then 
deployed our line as skirmishers and at once advanced on the enemy. 

The Regiment had gone but a short distance when the enemy opened 
with a heavy fire of musketry- which made our line give ground for a 
moment, but they soon rallied and returned the compliment. At this 
moment the support, composed mainly of dismounted cavalry, broke, 
which compelled our line to fall back. At this time Captain Nowlen gave 
us another proof of his bravery and coolness in time of danger. He 
succeeded in bringing his Regiment out with comparatively small loss 
and gained the shelter of the works without personal injury. But a few 
moments only elapsed before the enemy advanced in great numbers and 
charged our line. They were driven back with terrible loss of life during 
this charge. Captain Nowlen was at his post cheering his command and 
exposing himself to great danger. After the latter charge an interval of 
about half an hour occurred, nothing of any consequence going on e.xcept 
now and then a shell from our batteries would fall among the " Rebs" 
and make them stir. 

About three p. m. the enemy began to show signs of moving, and 
not many minutes elapsed before they began to advance in our front from 



302 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

the woods in great numbers, with the evident intention of charging our 
works again. We were not kept long in suspense as they at once 
advanced "three lines of battle deep". Our men ^but two small 
divisions) remained firm and held their fire until the word was given, 
when they opened on the enemy volley after volley of musketry. But still 
the enemy advanced, the fire of our men staggering them somewhat, but 
not breaking their lines. At this moment Captain Nowlen sprang up 
from behind the works and, waving his sword, cheered the men. It 
seemed but an instant he stood and the next he fell, shot through the 
heart by a minie-ball, the brave soldier and courteous gentleman who had 
won the confidence and esteem of every ofticer and man in his command. 
His loss is deeply felt by every mejiiber of the Regiment, more especially 
by the old officers of the Regiment who had been his companions in arms 
for more than two years. 

With the assistance of three of the men I had his body carried of? the 
field and conveyed to the rear. Next morning, with the help of the quarter- 
master of our Regiment, I had the body removed to City Point, where 
it was embalmed and from thence sent home to his relatives. All the 
eftects that were on his person at the time of his death will be sent to you 
in his valise at the earliest opportunity. 

Enclosed you will find the blank you sent to be filled as the questions 
required. I did as you requested, but thinking a detailed account would 
be more satisfactory, I have taken the liberty to write the above. 

Yours respectfully, 

Francis A. McGuigan. 



Captain and Brevet-Major Samuel Taggart. 

It is difficult to find words in which to describe the 
high and lofty character of Samuel Taggart. It is rare, 
indeed, that we meet in life with a human being so replete 
in every good attribute that adorns a life or forms a perfect 
man. As a soldier he was " sans peter et sans reproche^'. 

He was born in Pittsburg, Pa., on the 10th of May, 1841. 
He received his early education in the Second and Sixth 
Wards schools of his native city and was among the first 
to enter the High School on the opening of that institution 
in 1855. He graduated therefrom in February, 1860, and 
entered the Western University for the purpose of 



Reams Station. 303 

preparing for college. After continuing at the University 
for six months he taught a public school near Woodville, 
Allegheny County, Pa., the term commencing in 
September, 18G0, and ending the following March, In 
the fall of ISGl he entered Westminster College, New 
Wilmington, Lawrence County, Pa., from which he was 
graduated in June, 1862. He entered the United 
Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., in 
the spring of 1863, and continued there for one year. 

Under the first call of Abraham Lincoln for troops he 
felt a strong desire to enter the service, and joined a 
company organized at that time, but there being no 
scarcity of recruits, he yielded to the persuasion of friends 
and applied himself to preparing for the ministry, having 
early resolved to make that profession his calling in life. 

After graduating at Westminster he enlisted in 
Company H, One Hundred and Twenty-third Regiment, 
Pennsylvania Volunteers, and was appointed first sergeant 
of his company. He participated with the regiment 
in the battles of Antietam, Fredericksburg and 
Chancellorsville, and was mustered out in May, 1863, the 
regiment having been organized under the call for nine 
months men. Shortly after this he entered the Theological 
Seminary. While a student at the Seminary in the winter 
of 1863 he laid aside his books and organized a company 
of infantry, which was assigned as Company I, of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers. Of his 
services in that regiment his surviving comrades need not 
be reminded. He was a young man of spotless character, 
brave heart, brilliant mind and genial temperament. 

The following fitting tribute to his worth is from the 
pen of an intimate friend and classmate at High School 
and College : — 



304 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

" He was my intimate and beloved friend for years and his death has 
been to me a hfe-long regret. I never can restrain my tears when I think 
of it. The pure-minded boy, the faithful friend, the gifted student, the 
manly man, the devoted Christian, the patriotic soldier. No costlier 
sacrifice was ever laid on the altar of the country than when that precious 
life went out on the battlefield of Virginia. The church was looking forward 
to his useful services as a minister. Teachers and classmates at the school 
and college expected and predicted great things for him. His talents and 
temperament would have given him an honorable place anywhere, but 
he cheerfully gave all, youth, strength, education, prospects — he gave all 
to the cause of his country. It is only when we think of him and 
thousands who, like him, counted not their own lives dear to them, that 
we can realize what the preservation of the Union cost. It would take 
not a hasty sketch but a volume to do justice to his memory ". 

The writer, who has seen Major Taggart on the 
battlefield and in camp, and who loved him as a brother, 
joins in every word of praise offered in his saintly 
memory. A soldier of the most exalted type, and a man 
whose daily life was a sermon on Christianity, he met 
death with the most serene composure, and a smile that 
betokened the eternal bliss that awaited his pure and 
noble soul. He is buried in Allegheny Cemetery, near 
Pittsburg, and the ground where he rests is a sacred spot. 

" How glorious fall the valiant, sword in hand, 
In front of battle for their native land ". 

A few days after the battle General Gibbons, 
commanding the Second Division of the Second Corps, 
issued an order depriving several regiments of their colors 
on the ground that their conduct at Reams Station had 
rendered them unworthy to carry them. The order was 
approved by General Meade, but General Hancock felt 
that the action taken was unjustly severe and entered 
his protest against it in a strong letter to General Grant. 
In this communication the commander of the Second 
Corps tells in plain language the eloquent story of that 
organization : — 




CAPTAIN AND BREVET MAJOR SAMUEL TAGGART 
Killed at Reams Station. August 25th, 1864 



Reams Station. 305 

Headquarters Second Corps, 

September 28th, 1864. 
Lieutenant-General U. S. Grant, 

Commanding Armies of the United States. 

General : I have the honor to solicit your attention to the enclosed 
copy of an order published by Major-General Gibbons, of the 30th ult., 
with my endorsements thereon, and to the printed order of the Major- 
General commanding the Army of the Potomac, confirming and approving 
General Gibbons' s order. 

It will be seen that General Gibbons deprived three (3) regiments of 
his division of the privilege of bearing colors (they having lost their 
colors at the battle of Reams Station, August 25th), that I approved of 
the principle but requested that if it was adopted the rule might be made 
general and affect other corps as well as my own, and, finally, that 
General Meade overruled my suggestion and singled out these regiments, 
the Eighth New York Heavy Artillery, One Hundred and Sixty-fourth 
New York X'olunteers and Thirty-sixth Wisconsin Y'olunteers, to be 
published to the army as having rendered themselves unworthy to carry 
colors. This without regard to the fact that in the same action other 
divisions of my command lost colors and that but a few days before 
several regiments of another corps had met with the same misfortune. 
Under the circumstances I respectfully submit that these regiments have 
been proceeded against with unnecessary severity and a slur cast upon 
the corps which I have the honor to command, which, in view of the past, 
might well have been omitted. It is, perhaps, known to you that this 
corps has never lost a color or a gun previous to this campaign, though 
oftener and more desperately engaged than any other corps in the army 
or, perhaps, in any other in the country. I have not the means of knowing 
exactly the number of guns and colors captured, but I, myself, saw nine 
in the hands of one division at Antietam and the official reports show 
that thirty-four fell into the hands of the corps at Gettysburg. Before the 
opening of this campaign it had .captured at least over half a hundred 
colors from the enemy and never yielded one, though at a cost of over 
twenty-five thousand (25,000) casualties. During this campaign you can 
judge how well the corps has performed its part. It has captured more 
guns and colors than all the rest of the army combined. Its reverses have 
not been many and they began only when the corps had dwindled to a 
remnant of its former strength ; after it had lost twenty-five brigade com- 
mandeFs and over one hundred and twenty-five regimental commanders 
and over twenty thousand men. 

I submit that with the record of this corps it is in the highest degree 
unjust, by a retrospective order, to publish a part of it as unworthy to 
bear colors. It is not necessary, perhaps, to speak more particularly as 



306 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

to the injustice done these regiments, the principle discussed covering 
their case. I may say, however, that these regiments first appeared at 
the battle of Spottsylvania. At Cold Harbor the colonel of the Thirty- 
sixth Wisconsin — as gallant a soldier as ever lived— fell dead on the field, 
as did the colonel of the Eighth New York Heavy Artillery. The colonel 
of the One Hundred and Sixty-fourth fell mortally wounded beside his 
flag on the breastwork of the enemy. These regiments have since that 
action suffered sexerely, one of them, at least, having lost two com- 
manding officers. 

I respectfully request that these colors may be returned to them. 
They are entitled to the same privileges as other regiments — that is, the 
right to strive to avoid the penalties of General Order No. 37, current 
series, headquarters Army of the Potomac. 

I am. General, your most obedient servant, 

W. S. Hancock, 
Major-General, Commanding Second Corps. 

In compliance with this request the colors of the 
regiments named were afterwards restored to them : — 

Headquarters of the Armv of the Potomac. 

November 7th. 
The Eighth New York Heavy Artillery, One Hundred and Sixty- 
fourth New York Volunteers and the Thirty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, 
having been reported to the major-general commanding as having behaved 
with distinguished bravery during the engagement of October 27th, 1864, 
on Hatcher's Run, he takes pleasure in restoring to these gallant regiments 
the right to carrj' the colors of which they were deprived by his General 
Order No. 37, of September 23d, 1864. 

By command of Major-General Meade. 

S. Williams, 

A. A. General. 



Petersburg. 307 

CHAPTER XVI. 

PETERSBURG. 

A FTER the battle of Reams Station the Regiment 
remained on the reserve for two or three weeks, 
moving from one point to another in rear of the line, 
but furnishing full details for picket and being constantly 
exposed to the fire of the enemy's batteries, if not under 
that of the infantry. 

In September the command moved into the front line 
and then remained in the trenches for two months — a 
continuous battle night and day. A letter of General 
Hancock to the commander of the army tells in pathetic 
words the story of this time : — 

Headquarters Second Corps. 

November loth, 1864. 
Brigadier-General S. Williams. 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Army of the Potomac. 

General : I have the honor to invite the attention of the major- 
general commanding to the following remarks : — 

General Mott's Division, of my corps, took up the intrenched line 
near Petersburg from near the Norfolk Railroad to the left on the 20th of 
August. On the 24th of September the other two divisions relieved the 
Tenth Army Corps, holding the line from the Norfolk Railroad to the 
river. My corps has held the centre line from Battery No. 24 to Redoubt 
Converse since that time, Mott's Division having been withdrawn on one 
occasion for a few days, Mott and Gibbons for a few days during the 
operations of October 26th, 27th and 28th, and Miles's Division for two 
days after the return of Mott's and Gibbons's Divisions. With these 
exceptions, when the troops were withdrawn to participate in movements 
against the enemy, my command has been under fire in front of Petersburg 
for two months and a half, holding the only part of the lines of the army 
in close proximity to the enemy. They have been subjected night and 
day to the fire of artillery and have frequently been engaged in considerable 



808 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

picket skirmishes. I have about two thousand men on picket daily and 
sixteen hundred of these are in action, it may be said, day and night. 

The troops in the enclosed works and rifle pits are subjected to a 
constant fire from the enemy's mortars, and are obliged to live in under- 
ground holes and bomb-proofs, and are called upon almost nightly to 
get under arms and to be in readiness to resist an attack. They cannot 
even walk about in safety in their own camp on account of the danger of 
stray bullets, mortar shells or the fire of sharpshooters. They have no 
opportunity for drill or instruction. 

My command is composed largely of new men. 

From the left of my corps to the left of the army, I believe there is 
hardly a place where the enemy are in sight. The troops are not harassed 
by being called up in the night, or by constant skirmishing during the 
day, and their camps are not disturbed by the enemy's artillery. They 
are comfortably camped by regiments and brigades, with abundant 
opportunit>' for exercise, drill and instruction. 

I submit that my command has been a long time without rest and in a 
state of constant and wearying strain, and has been ver\- disadvantageously 
situated in every respect compared with the other corps. 

I do not speak of it complainingly, and do not know that there is any 
remedy for it, but consider it a proper matter to lay before the major- 
general commanding the army I am, General, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

WiNFiELD S. Hancock, 

Major-General of \'olunteers. 

During the whole time of the siege there occurred 
continual fights between the pickets. Frequently whole 
brigades and divisions would be drawn into these affairs, 
which would result in serious loss. After dark the attacks 
and counter-attacks were of nightly occurrence, and 
sometimes the firing of a single picket would quickly 
develop into an engagement extending for a mile along 
the line. The lines were very close at places, and the 
inter\'ening space between them would be frequently 
swept by fire from dark to sunrise. Even when peace 
would reign for a short time, and not a sound be heard 
in front, half the picket would be standing at a " ready ", 
and at the slightest sound would begin firing and then 



071 the Picket Reserve. 309 

blaze away for hours lest some force might be moving to 
the attack. The more intense the darkness the heavier 
the fire, and brigades would fire twenty or thirty thousand 
rounds of ammunition during a single night. Morning 
and daylight would reveal the same open spot just as it 
was the evening before, without a single indication that 
anyone had been moving over it during the darkness. A 
load of powder and ball had been expended and nobody 
hurt ; no, not even kept awake or disturbed in their 
slumbers by the noise, for everyone became accustomed 
to the row and would dream in perfect peace, if not in 
security, even when siege guns, mortars, musketry and 
all were blazing away for miles along the line. 

But danger was ever present on the picket line at 
Petersburg. Many a night, from sundown to sunup the 
next morning, the dead were almost as numerous as on 
some of the celebrated battlefields of the world's history, 
as many as twenty bodies being carried in from the 
front before daybreak in the Fourth Brigade alone. The 
line of newly made graves would be extended and reach 
a little further, that was all. Before dinner time the 
incident would be forgotten and life go on as usual. 

ON THE PICKET RESERVE. 

The lines were so close at many points that the men 
could have reached over and touched the muzzle of each 
other's muskets, and the line of earthworks occupied by 
each line was almost as heavy as the usual field works 
that sheltered a line of battle. Thousands of ever wakeful 
eyes were watching and thousands of ears were constantly 
listening. Thousands of rifles were continually pointed 
through chinks in the log revetement, and the vigilant 
sharpshooter, finger on trigger, was ever ready to draw 



310 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

a bead on any moving object, not only on the picket line> 
but, by using the telescope affixed to the barrel, on 
moving figures a mile in the rear. To expose a head on 
the picket line meant instant death, and many points far 
in rear of the main line of battle were so acutely covered 
by the sharpshooters that it was almost impossible to pass 
without being hit. These dangerous places soon became 
known to everyone, and when it became necessary to 
cross, one had to dash past on a run. But no matter how 
great the speed, half a dozen bullets would sing around 
and urge still more rapid flight. The relief went out in the 
dark, as changing in the sunlight was out of the question. 
The relief that went on before dawn in the morning had to 
remain on the line until after dark in the evening, but the 
firing was principally at night and was then continuous. 

It is questionable if there was a single hour from the 
first shot fired at the siege of Petersburg until the Con- 
federates evacuated the works ten months afterwards, that 
there was not firing on some part of the line. It might be 
on the immediate front, or on the right or left, or maybe 
miles distant, but night or day, listen when one would, 
the firing could be heard. 

The reserve of the picket was sometimes quite a 
comfortable place and, although out in front, was less 
exposed to danger than the main line of works. Generally 
in a hollow of the ground or otherwise sheltered, the men 
could be quiet, and pass the day well enough, but it was 
necessary to keep very still, and in daylight all commu- 
nication with the line in the rear and the picket in front 
was impossible. The hours seemed long, but sometimes 
the shelter afforded a chance to rise from a reclining 
posture sufficiently to allow a game of cards. Where that 
was not possible the men hugged the ground and chatted, 



On the Picket Reserve. 311 

bantered jokes and took a whiff of the pipe, provided the 
enemy would not see the smoke. Stories were told and 
every incident was seized upon for pastime. While the 
nervous tension of being- constantly exposed to danger 
was very great, yet as the months passed away everyone 
became in a measure reconciled to the situation and found 
pleasure in the most trivial things of life. 

A group of soldiers on the reserve lying on their 
stomachs, chins resting on the hands, and elbows on the 
ground, found entertainment in watching a tumble-bug 
rolling before him a ball of earth three times as large as 
himself, and admired the perseverance of the little insect 
in doing his work all over again every time the men would 
set the ball back a foot, A stunning hour's amusement 
was furnished by a " battle royal " between two colonies 
of ants, who advanced in line and fought just as the men 
were fighting here, the only difference being in the size of 
the combatants and the arms used. The ants tore each 
other's limbs off and left lots of dead in the field, just as 
men do, and as someone remarked : " No doubt they are 
fighting for some principle just as we are". " With this 
difference", said another, " that a storm may come up in 
an hour and a flood will wash away the sand bank. The 
ants, their principles and quarrels will all be swept away 
together and that will be the end, while the principle for 
which we are fighting will remain forever, even \i we to a 
man are swept away in the storm of battle". " Well, it 
is only a question of time", put in a third. " The day 
will come when all men, their ideas and principles^ will 
have passed away as completely as these ants". " That 
all may be ", said another, " but men do not end with 
this life and maybe what we do here will have an influence 
on the hereafter. Who knows ?" 



3i2 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

" Well ", said Lieutenant Halpin, " I will tell you what 
I know. I know that there is a hereafter for I once saw 
the ghost of a soldier." 

" Oh, I say, that is something worth listening to ", 
cried one of the men. " Tell us about the ghost." 

" Be quiet, then, and I will relate an incident that 
occurred to me in India." 

Halpin Tells a Ghost Story. 

" I had the militarj^ fever ever since I was able to stand, 
and when I was a bit of a chap in Ireland I remember 
sidling up to every red-coat I met in the street to look at 
the little cap on the top of his head and make mental 
calculations as to how long it would be until I was big 
enough to enlist. Time passed, however, and one day I 
found myself quite tall enough to don the red cap, so I 
took Her Majesty's shilling and for a week stalked around 
the country with a bunch of ribbons fiying over my left 
ear, mighty proud of all my new fixings, and, bidding 
all my friends good-bye, I was soon off for the East Indies, 
for the regiment in which I enlisted was under orders for 
that sweet clime when I took the shilling. I need not tell 
you of my two years' experience up to the time I saw the 
ghost, but will come right to the point and place at once. 
I just arrived in India as the murmuring of the great 
mutiny of 1857 was being heard, and soon the storm broke 
in all its fury. It offered a splendid opportunity for death 
or promotion. The fighting, to be sure, was not so 
vigorous as we have it here, but the men who were not 
hit by the Sepoys were pretty sure to catch the cholera, 
so chances were about even. Lots of fellows went down 
in the regiment to which I was attached and half the 
non-commissioned officers and men were laid awav in the 




LIEUTENANT GEORGE HALPIN 
Died at close of War of disease contracted in Prison 



On the Picket Rese^'ve. 313 

gullies and jungles as we marched from one place to 
another under the hottest sun that a man ever endured. 
Promotion was rapid in consequence, and I wore 
sergeant's stripes before the mutiny was well under way. 
Now, the ghost I am going to tell you about was not of 
our people, but a native, and maybe one of the fellows 
that we shot away from the cannon, only he was not in two 
pieces as a ghost of that kind would naturally be. It 
happened at the siege of the ancient city of Delhi. The 
Sepoys got possession of that place early in the trouble, 
and we had a mighty big time getting it back. The 
whole country for miles around the city is covered with 
palaces, mosques and splendid ruins of the tombs of 
emperors and princes of the Mogul dynasty, and near the 
Cashmere gate the bungalows of the English residents 
cover the hills. I was sergeant of a picket reserve, and 
instead of lying out on the ground as we do here, the 
reserve occupied the second story of a large stone building 
near the English settlement. It was a quiet moonlight 
night and red hot. My relief had come in and, piling up 
their arms in a corner, they dropped on the floor and in 
half an hour every man was fast asleep. I did not feel 
like sleeping and, lighting my pipe, I sat myself on a 
large table in the centre of the floor in the immense room 
to enjoy a smoke. While sitting there I heard a step 
ringing on the stairway and it became more distinct 
every moment as it neared the top. I naturally looked 
toward the open door and was astonished to see a Hindoo 
walking in. He was turbaned and draped in white, with 
the saddest, queerest eyes I ever saw. As he entered the 
room I jumped from the table and called to him, demanding 
his business. He looked straight at me with those 
infernal queer eyes and walked right into the room, 



314 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

moving as though he would walk around the table and 
avoid stepping on the sleeping men. When he had 
almost completed the circuit of the room and was abreast 
with me I yelled at him to halt, but he still kept staring 
at me with those coal black eyes and moving right on. I 
made up my mind that he would not leave the room until 
I knew what his business was and, grasping my sword — 
the sergeants at time carried a short, thick weapon, like 
the old Romans used to do — I ran to the door and as he 
approached I ordered him to halt or I would run him 
through. The sinner never took his terrible eyes off 
me nor stopped for a moment, and when he came close 
I could stand it no longer but involuntarily stepped aside 
to let him pass, and as he did so I once more screamed at 
him to halt. He did not obey, so I ran my sword right 
through him, but there seemed to be nothing there and 
the phantom Hindoo was going down the steps with a 
stately, even tread. I then called down to the sentinel at 
the door to stop that man, but the sentinel saw no one 
pass either going in or coming out. Gentlemen, that is 
my ghost story. It ain't much to be sure, but it is true." 

" Very good, Halpin, but what was in the canteen 
that night before you saw the spectral form ?" 

" Not a blessed thing but water, and the water from 
the Jumna is not fit to drink, neither". 

" Now "', put in Lieutenant Brady, " let me tell you a 
stor\' of a real Christian ghost, and a soldier at that. 
You all remember that on Saturday evening, May 2d, at 
Chancellorsville, the fight was pretty hot for a while, and 
a good many of our people dropped in the woods on the 
right of our line ? Well, it is of one of them that I will 
tell you. There was an old lady living at that time in the 
little village of Hockendaque, on the Lehigh River, who 



On the Picket Reserve. 315 

had a son in the Eleventh Corps. On Sunday morning, 
May 3d, the old lady crossed the river to Catasauqua, a 
village just opposite to where she lived, and called upon 
the pastor of a church, with whom she was acquainted. 
She told him that her son was home and walking around 
the streets, but he would not speak to her. ' Last evening 
(Saturday)', said she, *I was washing out somethings, 
the door was open, and who should walk in but my son 
John. I did not expect him, and I was so astonished for 
a moment, I did not realize his presence, then quickly 
drying my hands on my apron, I ran towards him. 
Would you believe it, he never offered to come towards 
me but, giving me such a sad, strange look, and without 
uttering a word, he turned and walked up the stairs. As 
soon as I could come to my senses I ran after him, but 
he was gone. The window was open and he must have 
climbed down the trellis-work that the grape-vine clings 
to, and so left the house. I lay awake all night thinking, 
and expecting him to come back, but daylight came and 
no John. I got the breakfast and started out to hunt him 
up, and as I was walking along the street I saw my son 
just in front of me. I ran to catch up «but he turned a 
corner, and when I reached there he was gone. I dare 
say he went into one of the neighbor's houses, but which 
one I could not find out. Now, sir, you can see that my 
son is evidently angry at something and will not speak 
to me. Won't you come over to Hockendaque to see 
him, and find out what is the matter ' ? The reverend 
gentleman, pitying the poor woman, returned with her 
to her home, hoping to find her boy and have mother and 
son reconciled. He hunted everywhere through the 
village, but could learn nothing of the soldier. No one 
had seen him but his mother. On Tuesday morning, 



316 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



May 5th, a letter came saying that the boy had been 
killed on Saturday evening, just at the time that he walked 
in to see his mother. Gentlemen, that is a true story of 
a Christian soldier in full uniform and in broad daylight, 
and no sad-eyed Hindoo prowling around at midnight, 
dressed in white, like Halpin tells about". 

"It's my turn now", said another officer, "and I 
also will tell you of a Union soldier who fell at Chancel- 

lorsville. You all recollect Captain Harry G , of 

the Seventy-third Pennsylvania Volunteers. He was a 
frequent visitor in the camp of the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth and we all loved him. He was one of the best 
and most lovable men in the army. I remember that he 
spent Sunday before the fight with us. Well, on that 
same Saturday evening that the dead boy went home to 

see his mother. Captain G was killed during the 

charge of Stonewall Jackson on our right. Within a very 
few minutes of the time he fell his family heard his 
footsteps walking up the stairs and into his o\Vn room in 
his home in Philadelphia. The foot-fall was a heavy one, 
made by an army boot, and his sister remarked at the 
time : * That is Harry's wraith !' " 

"Very good ", chimed in Captain McGraw. " Now, I 
will tell you of a ghost in Ireland, who galloped on 
horseback on certain nights of the year ". 

" Oh, no !" chorused ever}'one, " no Irish ghosts 
to-night, especially midnight shadows on horseback. That 
fellow must have belonged to the cavalry. Give us plain 
United States broad-daylight spectres. None of those 
dressed-in-white midnight gentlemen who only appear in 
India or Ireland ". 

" But what puzzles me ", said another, " is how 
Captain G got his boots home. We can understand 



On the Picket Reserve. 317 

how a man can get through space himself, when a piece 
of shell or minie-ball releases him from his earthly- 
tenement, but how he can take his army boots along ! 
That is the mystery". No reply greets this psychological 
query, however, for it is getting dark, and the firing is 
getting brisk on the picket line. It is almost time for the 
relief to go out, and who knows but that some of us will 
be ghosts before morning. 

It is dark enough now to creep out to the front without 
being seen, and here is the detail with the canteens refilled ; 
but, before we go, " maybe Halpin will give us a song ". 

" Well, I don't mind ", says Halpin, " but one has to 
be careful to sing in a low tone, or our friends on the other 
side of the works might hear. I will give you a new song, 
just out, and by a namesake of mine. Colonel Charles G. 
Halpin. It is a mighty fine thing, and is written^by a 
good soldier and an able all 'round man : — 

THE OLD CANTEEN. 

There are bonds of all sorts in this world of ours, 
Letters of friendship and ties of flowers, 

And true lovers' knots I ween ; 
The girl and the boy are bound by a kiss, 
But there's never a bond, old friend, like this — 

We have drank from the same canteen. 

It was sometimes water and sometimes milk. 
And sometimes applejack, fine as silk ; 

But whatever the tipple has been, 
We shared it together in bane or bliss, 
And I warm to you, friend, when I think of this — 

We have drank from the same canteen. 

The rich and the great sit down to dine, 

And they quafT to each other in sparkling wine 

From glasses of crystal and green ; 
But I guess in the golden potations they miss 
The warmth of regard to be found in this — 

We have drank from the same canteen. 



318 The Story of the ii6th Reghneyit. 

We ha\ e shared our blankets and tents together, 
And have marched and fought in all kinds of weather, 

. And hungry and full we have been ; 
Had days of battle and days of rest, 
But this memory I cling to and love the best — 
We have drank from the same canteen. 

For when wounded I lay on the outer slope, 
With my blood flowing fast, and but I'ttle hope 

Upon which my faint spirit could lean ; 
Oh, then, I remember, you crawled to my side. 
And bleeding so fast it seems both must have died — 

We drank from the same canteen. 

" Beautiful, beautiful. It is dark enough now and we 
had better get the men out on the line before the moon 
comes up ". 

"Second relief, fall in !"' 

Many an amusing incident and manv a narrow escape 
occurred during the siege. One day while occupying the 
line in front of Fort Steadman, \Vm. J. Curley, drummer 
boy of Company E, came from the fort across the field and 
above the rifle pits, looking for his company. Lieutenant 
Brady, of Company D, seeing his danger, called to him 
to jump into one of the rifle pits. Before he had time to 
do so, however, a Johnny let go and sent a ball through 
the head of Curley's drum. Curley was almost a child ; 
but the youngest member of the Regiment was a drummer 
boy of Company H, Christopher H. Moore, who enlisted 
when he was nine years and eight months old. Chris- 
topher was much better at foraging on the enemy than 
in getting music out of his drum. Because of his abihty 
in preying upon the country he was nick-named " Mosby", 
after the celebrated cavalr}'man. If there were any 
chickens left on the line after the musician of Company 
H had passed along it was not his fault. " Mosby " 
seemed to have but one tune on his drum, but the music 



On the Picket Reserve. 319 

he gave the farmers when he was hustHng for something 
good to eat was of many kinds and full of melody and 
sweetness. 

About October 1st the Regiment moved from the left 
to the right of Fort Steadman, a position which the 
colored troops had occupied previously. The Regiment 
got into position somewhat earlier than our colored 
friends expected. Consequently they did not get all their 
commissary stores packed up as quickly as they should 
have done. The boys of the Regiment were out of 
rations and very hungry. Private Caldwell, Company 
E, known all over the Regiment as " Big Jim", was one 
of the company cooks. He had a plan to get a supply 
without waiting for the commissary. He asked two men 
to go with him on a foraging expedition, and he did not 
have to ask twice. Away they went and in less than an 
hour they returned with sixty pounds of smoked bacon, 
two bags of beans, three boxes of hard tack and one jug 
of molasses. The colored boys had to suffer the loss, to 
be sure, while the boys of the Regiment were swimming 
in bean soup for a week. 

In a letter written by Charley Barth we learn in his 
own language of an incident in the trenches : " About 
the first week in October we lay in front of Fort Steadman 
in the extreme outer works (the same that the Regiment 
leveled to the ground later on). There was nothing 
between us and the enemy, two hundred yards away, 
and we were in full view of each other. If you showed 
your head you could hear the "zip" of the ball from the 
sharpshooters' rifles. One day, about four p. m., the 
Confederates began to cheer along their whole line, and 
'about five p. m. Sergeant McElroy said : " Barth, you will 
report for special duty". In a short time I was called in 



320 The Story of the Ii6th Reghyient. 

line with about thirty or forty of our Regiment. An 
officer called, "Attention !" we were counted of? in fours 
and a sergeant placed in command of each group of four, 
(The sergeants were from the Sixty-fourth New York, I 
think. They, were not of our Regiment.) Then he gave 
us our instructions that after dark the sergeants were to 
take their men over the works and try to get close enough 
to the Johnnies to find out what they had been cheering 
about, but to be sure and come in before daylight, as it 
would be sure death to remain out longer. Well, to say 
that I was scared is putting it very mildly. I looked over 
that corn-field that lay between us and the enemy, and 
they had full command of the field. The sergeant was 
to do the advancing and we were to support him. Well, 
after dark we went over the works and on our hands and 
knees crawled towards the enemy. Oh, how still we 
were and how careful not to break a stalk of corn ! 
Finally, we came to a small pit, dug, no doubt, by one of 
our pickets before the lines were made. Here the sergeant 
told us to remain until he came back as he was going on 
further. Well, that was the last we saw of him. In a 
short time the Johnnies opened on us, and how we four 
did hug the sacred soil of Virginia ! What a rattling the 
balls made among the cornstalks and what a long night 
that was to us ! 

During September and October the Regiment was 
moved from one part of the line to another, but always in 
the trenches — sometimes in Forts Morton and Rice, again 
in Forts Haskell or Steadman, but always under fire. 

Colonel Mulholland returned October loth, having 
been absent, suffering from wounds, from June 1st, and 
assumed command of the brigade, relieving Lieutenant- 
Colonel Glennv, Sixtv-fourth New York. 



Petersburg. 321 



CHAPTER X\'II. 

PETERSBURG. 

Turning Movement Against Lee's Right. 

October 27th. 

A S the end of October approached, General Grant, 
wishing to make a vigorous effort to capture 
Petersburg or, at least, to seize the Boydton Plank Road 
and South Side Railroad before the bad weather set in 
and compelled the suspension of active field operations, 
sent the larger part of the Second, Fifth and Ninth Corps 
to find and strike the right of the Confederate line. The 
expeditionar}^ party marched during the night of October 
26th and fought the battle of Boydton Plank Road on the 
2Tth. The withdrawal of so large a force from the works 
in front of Petersburg necessarily left but a ver\- thin line 
in the intrenchments. The First Division, Second Corps, 
commanded by General Nelson A. Miles, then numbering 
about 6,000 men, was spread out so as to occupv the 
whole line from the Appomattox River on the right to 
Battery 24, half way between the Jerusalem Plank Road 
and the Weldon Railroad. The Fourth Brigade of the 
Division, then commanded by the writer, occupied the 
line immediately opposite the Crater, where the mine 
explosion of July 30th had taken place, the left of the 
brigade occupying Fort Rice and the right extending 
towards Fort Steadman. The One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Regiment was stationed in the intrenchments near Fort 



322 ■ The Story of the Ii6th Regiyjient. 

Haskell. The picket firing was brisk during the day and 
rumors of the battle which was then in progress on the 
left were flying, and an anxious spirit was manifest among 
the men in the works. Towards evening General Miles, 
wishing to deceive the enemy as to the force then holding 
the Union line, ordered an attack on the works in front to 
be made by a small party from each of the two brigades, 
commanded by Colonel McDougal, and the writer, being 
one of the principals in the afiair, will tell the story of the 
event as it occurred to him personally : — 

"About half-past five in the evening, I received an order 
from General Miles to take one hundred men and make a 
demonstration on the enemy's works. Believing it quite 
possible to capture one of the forts in my front, I selected 
for the attempt one hundred men of the One Hundred and 
Forty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment. I took the men 
from this organization because I could not withdraw the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth from the position occupied 
without endangering that important point in the line, and 
I knew the men of the One Hundred and Forty-eighth 
Regiment to be excellent and reliable, and a big 
consideration was that they were armed with the Spencer 
magazine rifle, capable of firing seven shots without 
reloading. 

• The storming party was under command of Captain 
J. Z. Brown, Lieutenant P. D. Sprankle and Lieutenants 
Alexander Gibb and John F. Benner. 

''Addressing the men, I told them of the desperate 
nature of the duty required, and I said that no one need 
go unless willingly. E\-er}' man was not only willing but 
anxious to go. As it was impossible to reach the picket 
line (from which the attack ^vas to be made) in a body, 
since the sharpshooters were vigilant and covered the 



Petersburg. 323 

ground between our main line and the picket, I ordered 
the party to break ranks and go out individually, take 
different routes and, creeping through the low brush, be 
able to assemble at a point indicated without being seen 
by the enemy. In fifteen minutes every man of the party 
met me as ordered. We were within fifty yards of the 
object of attack, and, so far, all had gone well. Forming 
the party into two sections, I ordered one under Captain 
Brown, to run around the right of the fort and enter the 
sally port, while the second section was to charge up the 
face of the Banquet slope and, gaining the crest, pour their 
fire down into the works. 

" Ten of the men were given axes instead of rifles, and 
were to run ahead, cut the wires that joined the 
chevaux-de-frise together, and open a section for the 
storming party to get through. The twilight was gathering 
by the time all was ready, and the orders were to * make 
the demonstration at six o'clock '. As I was about to 
give the order to charge, I looked back and saw a horseman 
galloping rapidly towards me. He was coming from the 
direction of Division Headquarters, and thinking that he 
might be bringing some last order, I paused until he 
came up. It was Captain Henry D. Price, my Adjutant- 
General. He threw himself from his horse and said : 
' Colonel, what's up ? I have been at Division 
Headquarters, and heard that you were going to make an 
attack. I am going along'. 

" I did not wish him to go, but he insisted upon it 
and, knowing his value, I finally consented with much 
reluctance. He drew his sword, unbuckled the belt and 
handed it, together with the scabbard, to Lieutenant Tom 
Lee, one of my aides, saying : ' Tom, if I am killed, send 
these to my mother'. 



324 The Story of the ii6th Regimejit. 

" I gave the order, and the gallant little band, leaping 
over the slight earthworks of the picket line, ran direct 
for the enemy's fort, not fifty yards distant. With a few 
blows the axemen cut the fastenings that lashed the 
chevaux-de-frise together, dragged out a section, and the 
party ran through. 

"The attack was a complete success, Brown entering the 
fort from the rear and Price mounting the slope in front. 
The defenders for a few moments made a gallant defence, 
but in vain. In ten minutes from the starting on the 
charge, the fort was carried, and all in it was in our 
possession. It was getting quite dark when the rush was 
made, and Captain Price disappeared from my view. I 
could not see him after he reached the crest, but I heard 
his voice as he called to the men to follow him, and then 
I heard him directing their fire. Suddenly his voice 
ceased, and I felt sure that he had fallen. As soon as the 
fort was won, the prisoners were sent into our lines, and 
an effort made to bring in or destroy the artillery, but 
little could be accomplished with the latter, as the noble 
band that had done so well were now few in number. 
There was no possibility of getting reinforcements. None 
could be spared from the thin line that held the Union 
works and, after holding the Confederate fort for twent}^ 
minutes, I very reluctantly gave the order to abandon it 
and return to our own line, and not a moment too soon, 
for the enemy had been concentrating a force to recapture 
the works and their forts, and from the right and the left 
of the one captured there poured in a terrible fire on the 
little band of Union men then in possession." 

The following account of the action is from the 
Philadelphia Press of November 1st, 1864 : — 




CAPTAIN AND BREVET MAJOR HENRY D PRICE 
Killed at Petersburg. October 27th, 1864 



Pctershirg. 325 

[Special correspondence to the " Press ".] 

From General Grant's Army — Brilliant Affair on the Centre — 
Capture of a Rebel Fort and Fifty Prisoners— The Garrison 
WAS Completely Surprised — A Confederate Colonel in our 
Hands— Important Information Gained — The PZnemy's Line 
Very Weak — Their Picket Line Cut into for Several Hours. 

(Mr. C. Edmund's Despatches). 

Before Petersburg, October 28th, 1864, 9 p. m. 
The tremendous artillerj^ firing which took place last evening, 
commencing about nine o'clock and continuing until past midnight, turns 
out not to have been altogether without cause. One of the most brilliant 
affairs in which the Second Corps has participated has just been enacted 
by a portion of the Fourth Brigade of the First Division. About one 
hundred and fifty yards beyond our picket line, and scarcely a fourth of a 
mile from the famous mine which was exploded by the Ninth Corps 
under Burnside some months ago, stands one of the strongest and best 
constructed fortifications in the enemy's outer line. It is an earthwork, 
with bomb proofs, and is environed with abatis of novel construction. 
Between this fort and Fort Rice, held by one brigade, is a ravine which 
the adjacent enemy's forts may sweep. The order for the assault was 
issued by General Miles, who intended the affair mainly as a reconnoissance, 
having no idea that the enemy could be so easily caught napping. To 
Colonel Mulholland,One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania \'olunteers, 
the general management of the work was intrusted. Much against the 
wishes of the Colonel, Captain Henry D. Price, of the same Regiment, 
volunteered to lead the charge, and a detachment of one hundred men 
from the One Hundred and Forty-eighth Pennsylvania Regiment also 
volunteered. Shortly before six p. m. the brave little band passed out 
from the defences and silently formed inside our picket lines. Colonel 
IMulholland instructed Captain Price as to the method of removing the 
abatis and directed the men not to fire a shot but to use the bayonet. 
They were likewise ordered not to cheer unless they should succeed in 
entering the fort, when a single cheer would be a sufficient signal for 
sending forward reinforcements. About six o'clock the men started 
forward on double-quick. It was raining at the time. The evening was 
dark and they had almost reached the fort before the enemy perceived 
them. Still no shot was fired. They sprang over the earthworks and, 
before the garrison could recover from its surprise, the victory was ours. 
The Confederates made some little resistance but they had been taken 
completely by surprise and, save a few who effected their escape, the 
garrison, numbering about fifty men, were taken prisoners. We 



326 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

succeeded in taking the following officers : Colonel Harrison, Forty-sixth 
Virginia Regiment, commanding the fort ; Lieutenant-Colonel Wise, 
Forty-sixth Virginia Regiment ; Lieutenant Bylen, Thirty-fourth \'irginia 
Regiment ; Lieutenant Coxe, Forty-sixth Virginia Regiment, and about 
forty private soldiers. Colonel Harrison could not at first be induced to 
believe that he was a prisoner, so astonished was he at the audacity of 

the enterprise, and pronounced the affair to be a "d d Yankee trick". 

We learned from the prisoners that Wise's Brigade, Bushrod Johnson's 
Division of General Anderson's Corps, together with Ransom's and 
Finnegan's Brigades, held the line opposite us. In addition to the 
prisoners taken, numbers of the enemy were killed or wounded in the 
trenches, refusing to surrender. Colonel Harrison admits that if our 
assailing party had been supported by two hundred men they could have 
maintained their position in the fort. But this was not to be. As soon 
as we took the fort our men gave a cheer as a signal and Colonel 
Mulholland despatched his aides to the adjacent fortifications to obtain 
the needed reinforcements. It was in the plan of arrangements that the 
Twenty-sixth Michigan should be held in reserve. But this regiment did 
not arrive upon the grounds in time and no available troops could be got 
ready to send forward for half an hour. In the meantime the enemy 
rallied, about seven hundred strong, and drove out our men. About 
fifty men out of the himdred are missing, the majority being wounded. 
Captain Price, the leader of the charge, was the only officer killed. His 
body is still in the enemy's possession. A complete list of the casualties 
is subjoined. During the fighting which this rencontre led to, neither 
side used artillery, each fearing that it might inflict more damage upon 
its own men than on the enemy. But immediately upon the return of our 
assaulting party with their prisoners all our forts in this vicinity opened 
upon the Confederate forts a terrific cannonade, to which they responded 
with equal vigor. The firing commenced about nine o'clock, as I have 
stated, and lasted until one o'clock this morning. During the whole time 
the rain was falling. 

From the Philadelphia Press of November 2d, 1864 : — 

The body of Captain Price has been recovered. A flag of truce will 
be sent for it in a day or two. A couple of deserters who came in last 
night state that they saw the body of a captain lying in a trench fronting 
the fort, and from their description there can be no doubt that it was the 
body of the lamented officer referred to. 

The Colonel Wise captured turns out to be a nephew of ex-Governor 
Wise. He was in Philadelphia at the breaking out of the war and was a 
student in the office of one of our most eminent members of the bar. At 



Petersburg. 327 

the time of his capture Governor Wise was in the fort but escaped by 
concealing himself in one of the bomb proofs. He had just despatched 
a courier to one of the adjacent regiments with a circular. The courier 
was taken but chewed up the missive in such a hurry that its contents are 
unknown. All the prisoners admit that their line was weaker than it had 
ever been before since the campaign commenced. They say that if we 
had had one regiment in reserve to reinforce the storming party we could 
have held the fort permanently, and with this fort we could have swept 
the whole outer line of their works. No better evidence of the weakness 
of Lee's army is needed than this fact. 

As soon as the storming- party returned to our own 
line all the forts on both sides opened a terrific fire that 
continued until midnight. The rain fell and the darkness 
became intense. The Regiment stood in line during the 
fight, ready to move forward if ordered to do so. When 
the men learned of the death of Captain Price there was 
many a tear shed for the gallant boy whom we all loved 
so much. Lieutenant P. D. Sprankle, of the One Hundred 
and Forty-eighth Regiment, was severely wounded and 
left in the hands of the enemy, as were nearly all the 
wounded of that regiment. In the darkness and confusion 
it was impossible to remove them. 

I have said that I selected the men of the One 
Hundred and Forty-eighth Regiment for this affair 
because I believed them to be reliable. I will add that I 
now think that in point of discipline, material of which 
it was composed, gallantry, and every quality necessary 
to make a perfect organization, that regiment had no 
superior and but few equals in the army. The article taken 
from the Philadelphia "Press" and quoted here does an 
injustice when it says that the storming party was led by 
Captain Price. The attack was led by Captain J. Z. 
Brown and Captain Price was with the party as a staff 
officer but took a very active part until he fell. I had the 
very great pleasure of recommending Captain Brown for 



328 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

the brevet rank of major and also a Congress medal of 
honor for his distinguished bravery and excellent conduct 
on this occasion, and I rejoice that the well-deserved 
honors were accorded him. 

A few days after the fight a flag of truce went out, and 
the body of Captain Price recovered. We learned that 
on the morning after the assault, an Irishman of a Georgia 
regiment had seen the body and recognized it by the 
number of the Regiment as a former member of the Irish 
Brigade. He had tenderly wrapped him in a blanket and 
carefully buried him. When the body was brought into 
our lines, it was embalmed and sent home. The ball that 
killed him had entered his forehead just above the eye. 
When he was embalmed he looked smiling and natural, 
his lips partly open, showing his beautiful teeth — and so 
died one whom we all loved and knew as " Little Pricey ". 
Only a boy, just from school, but a hero and a veteran, 
gentle and unassuming, but brave as the bravest. How 
his boyish laughter would ring through camp ! Even in 
battle his face would wear a smile. He sleeps by the 
Schuylkill, on whose banks Meade and Hancock and a 
host of his comrades rest, and among the thousands who 
fell in the great struggle, none is more worthy of honor 
than the noble boy who died so bravely, and whose 
memory will ever be cherished. 

A few days before the death of Captain Price, as he 
and I were passing along the works, we noticed a mass 
of roses in an old garden. I accidentally expressed a 
desire to have one. The autumn had lingered long that 
year, and it was remarkable that the rose tree was in 
bloom. The bush was growing on a rise of ground, 
lately the garden of the Hare House, but where Fort 
Steadman had been built. The spot where the roses were 



Petersburg. 329 

blooming was exposed to the fire of the sharpshooters, 
and to pull a rose would seem like courting instant death. 
When, in passing, I had admired the flowers, Harry had 
said nothing, but in half an hour afterwards he came 
into my tent with an armful of roses. He had exposed 
himself to the fire until he had pulled every one from the 
bush. I could not help but admire his utter want of fear 
and reckless daring, although condemning the useless 
risk he had taken. As he was standing in the tent-door, 
with his arms full of flowers, and laughing as if the whole 
thing were a great joke, one of the boys of his company 
came up to bid him good-bye, as he was just starting for 
home on a twenty days' furlough. As I knew that the 
young man lived quite near the Captain's home, I quickly 
tied up a large bunch of the roses and told him to deliver 
them to Captain Price's mother. 

A few months after the close of the war, I visited the 
family, and I found Mrs. Price to be a sweet old lady. 
As she sat in the parlor, talking of her dead boy, I 
noticed hanging on the wall above her head a garland of 
roses under glass. When I inquired where they came 
from, Harry's sister said that " he had sent them home to 
mother a few days before being killed". I then remem- 
bered the circumstances, and tried to tell the family how 
they came to be there, but found it impossible. Every 
time I essayed to speak, my feelings overcame me. If 
Mrs. Price is still living she may learn, for the first time, 
from these pages, the story of her son's roses. 

The captured work was known as Davidson's Salient, 
and stood about fifty yards to the left (the Union left) of 
the Crater. A dark, rainy night followed the fight, and 
when morning broke, the men of the One Hundred and 
Forty-eighth eagerly scanned the fort that they had so 



^0 The Story of the ii6th RegUneyit. 

gallantly captured the evening before, and which was now 
again in the hands of the enemy, and saw some bodies lying 
around the work. One with upturned face to the falling 
rain was recognized as that of Captain Price. The men 
composing the storming party of the One Hundred and 
Forty-eighth were heartily congratulated by their 
comrades, and the following order was issued from Brigade 
Headquarters : — 

(General Orders No. 31.") 
Headquarters Fourth Brigade, First Division, Second Corps. 

October 28th, 1864. 

The Colonel commanding the brigade takes pleasure in congratu- 
lating the detail of the One Hundred and Fort>'-eighth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers for the gallantry- displayed in the assault and capture of the 
enemy s fort, on the evening of October 27th, 1864. Captain Jerr\- Brown, 
Lieutenants Sprankle, Gibb and Benner deserve special mention for their 
braver\- and skill in leading the charge. 

He deeply regrets the loss of Captain Henry D. Price, One Hundred 
and Sixteenth Pennsylvania \'olunteers. Acting Assistant Adjutant- 
General, Fourth Brigade, who fell, nobly sustaining the proud name he 
had won by his valor in the field, and sympathizes with the brave men 
who were wounded. 

By order of Colonel Mulholland, 

J. Wendel Mufflv, Lieutenant and A. A. A. G. 

The Confederate account of the affair is given by 
General B. R. Johnson, and is most interesting. He states 
that the Confederates took fifteen prisoners, including one 
Lieutenant. He also accounts for Captain Price, whom he 
mentions. As thirty-three of the One Hundred and Forty- 
eighth were missing, it would seem that seventeen of them 
must have been killed or left between the lines too severely 
wounded to get away : — 

Headquarters Johnson's Division. 

Petersburg, \'a., October 28th, 1864. 
Lieutenant : — About ten o'clock on yesterday morning I moved 
Wallace's Brigade to the right and relieved Saunder's and Harris's 



Pctershirg. 331 

Brigades in the trenches. Wise's Brigade was moved from reserve into 
the position on the front line vacated by Wallace's Brigade. My right 
now rests at Battery No. 30. 

About dark last evening a force from the One Hundred and Forty- 
eighth Pennsylvania Regiment, Fourth Brigade, First Division, Second 
Corps, perhaps one hundred strong, ad\anced without support upon the 
battery on our front line to the right of the Baxter Road, known as 
Davidson's Battery. It was the usual hour for posting and relieving 
pickets, and the division officer of the day, who happened to be passing 
at that point, mistook the forces for pickets returning to the line, and gave 
orders to sentinels not to fire. By others this force was regarded as 
deserters coming to our lines. This impression was communicated by 
the orders on the infantry line to the gun in rear of the Crater, which bore 
on the ground over which the force advanced. A light fire was, however, 
opened by our infantry to the right and left of Davidson's Battery. With 
axes the little force opened a passage through our chevaux-de-frise and 
entered Davidson's Battery and mingled with our men. Their hostile 
character having been ascertained, troops of Wise's Brigade charged them 
and drove them out, capturing one Lieutenant and fourteen men, who 
report that a number of their men were wounded and killed in the 
advance, among the latter a Captain of the One Hundred and Sixteenth 
Pennsylvania Regiment. 

About ten p. m. the enemy advanced upon and drove out the men 
from a portion of the picket line on the right of Rive's house, occupied 
by troops of Wallace's Brigade. General Wallace promptly threw out a 
force and reoccupied the line. During these events the mortar and 
cannon firing were heavy, especially from Colquitt's Salient to my right. 
Later in the night there was considerable artillery firing on my right. 
During the latter part of the night, Brigadier-General Ransom, whose 
brigade is on my left and extends to the river, reported that the enemy's 
troops were seen to be moving to our left. It was thought they might be 
massing in his front. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

B. R. Johnson, 

Major-General. 

Lieutenant McWillie, 
A. A. A. G. 

On the 26th of November, General Winfield S. 
Hancock left the Second Corps and proceeded northward 
to organize a new corps, to be composed entirely of 
veterans. To try to express in words the sorrow of 



332 The Slory of the ii6th Regiment. 

officers and men at parting with the great soldier with 
whom they had been so long associated would be a useless 
effort. The new commander of the corps was General 
Andrew A. Humphreys, like Hancock a Pennsylvanian 
and a brilliant soldier. 

During this month, Major John Teed was released from 
prison. He had been captured at Gettysburg, nearly a 
year and a half before. He returned broken in health and 
unable to perform field duty, and resigned as soon as he 
reached the Regiment. 

Towards the latter part of November the Second Corps 
was relie\'ed from duty in the forts and works that were so 
continually exposed to the fire of the enemy, and was 
moved to the left where the lines were further apart and, 
owing to the woods, were often not even in sight of each 
other. The relief to the men of the Regiment was very 
great, and after the severe strain of being two months and 
a half under fire, night and day, they enjoyed the 
relaxation more than words can express. But even then 
it was not all rest and peace. No hour was free from care, 
and the sudden call to arms was frequent. The 
Regiment occupied the works on the Peebles' Farm, and 
from this point made several rapid marches to the different 
parts of the line. 

One Sunday afternoon, when the sun was shining, the 
chaplain holding services, and the voice of prayer and 
hymn of praise ascending among the autumn trees, 
the long roll was heard and in ten minutes the 
division was on the march. Arriving at a place on 
the extreme left of the Union lines, the Confederates were 
seen busily engaged throwing up and putting batteries 
into position. The Union troops were not slow to follow 
and picks and spades were handled deftly. Before the 




MAJOR-GENERAL ANDREW A. HUMPHREYS 

Commanded Second Corps, November 25th. 1864 to June 28th, 



Petersburg. 333 

works were half completed, firing began, and a score of 
men of the division who had been enjoying the sunshine, 
and joining in the afternoon prayer, were buried as the 
sun went down. 

December 9th, the division, commanded by General 
Miles, went on a reconnoissance to Hatcher's Run and 
had a sharp fight, carrying some works and capturing some 
prisoners. The Regiment in this affair did not lose a 
man, being with the brigade held in reserve. They 
bivouacked in the woods and returned to camp at the 
Peebles' Farm next day. 

Christmas, 1864, the third and last Christmas in the 
army, was enjoyed by all in camp — the same games and 
the same eft'orts to force amusement, boxes from home 
with plenty of good things, enough and to spare for a 
good dinner to everyone. Happiness and good cheer 
reigned for the time, but while all was pleasant in the 
camp in front of Petersburg, Christmas was an extremely 
sad day for those of the Regiment who were captives in 
southern prisons. It would seem as though the thoughts 
of home and the dark surroundings of the day had a 
fearfully depressing effect on the prisoners. Of forty-five 
men of the Regiment who died in Andersonville and 
other southern prisons, several died on this Christmas 
day. No doubt but the surroundings hastened the end, 
but we can fondly hope that, after all, it was a happy 
Christmas for them. They were home indeed, and their 
marches and battles ended. The Regiment was com- 
manded during the winter by Major David W. Megraw, 
who had been promoted from Captain of Company H, 
Colonel MulhoUand being in command of the brigade. 

On the morning of February oth, 1865, the Second 
Corps started on a reconnoissance to Hatcher's Run, four 



334 The Story of the ii6th Regimeyii. 

or five miles to the left of the Union Army. At about 
noon the enemy's skirmishers were discovered and driven 
across the stream. Towards four o'clock, the Regiment 
crossed the stream in line, the men wading through the 
ice-cold water. Several were hit while in the act of 
crossing and several men in the corps were drowned. 
After reaching the further bank the firing became heavy 
and the fighting close and severe. The Confederates 
made a stubborn resistance, but were gradually forced 
back into their intrenchments, leaving several hundred 
prisoners, mostly Xorth Carolinians, in the Union lines. 
The Regiment remained in front of the Confederate 
works until after dark, when the whole force was 
withdrawn and returned to camp. During the fight, and 
long into the night, a terrible storm of snow, sleet and 
rain prevailed, and the men suffered greatly from the 
wet and cold. 

In the early spring, orders were issued authorizing the 
names of battles to be inscribed on the colors of the 
Regiment : — 

(General Orders, No. lo.) 
Headquarters, Armv of the Potomac. 

March 7th, 1865. 

In accordance with the requirements of General Orders, No. 19, of 
1862, from the War Department, and in conformity' with the reports of 
boards convened to examine into the services rendered by the troops 
concerned, and by the authoritA,of the Lieutenant-General. commanding 
armies of the United States, it is ordered that there shall be inscribed 
upon the colors or gnidons of the following regiments and batteries, 
ser\ing in this army, the names of the battles in which they have borne 
a meritorious part and as hereinafter specified, viz.: — * * * 

One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania \'olunteers— Fredericks- 
burg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Prist oe Station. Mine Run, Wilderness, 
Po River, Spottsyivania, North Anna, Tolopotomy, Cold Harbor, 
Petersburg, Strawberrj- Plains, Deep Bottom, Reams Station, Todd's 
Tavern, Auburn, Pamunky and William's Farm. 

By command of Major-General Meade. 

George D. Ruggles, Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Gravelly Run and Five Forks. 335 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
GRAVELLY RUN AND FIVE FORKS 

MARCH, ISGo. 

LJAPPY spring time again ! The woods animated with 
the renewed Hfe of another year ; blossoms and 
budding leaves ; the mating birds busy with household 
cares ; the laughing streams, once more free from wintry 
chains, rushing towards the sea. All nature gave charm 
and health to the army, bidding renewed hope and the last 
strong, earnest efforts to ultimate success and final victory. 

Towards the latter end of March, all being ready, the 
great struggle began. The thirteen days' campaign that 
was to end the war was severe, and the marching and 
fighting was without rest or interruption. During the 
night of March 28th the Second Corps withdrew from the 
intrenchments in front of Petersburg and on the 29th 
moved to the left, crossing Hatcher's Run by the Vaughan 
Road. Shortly after noon fighting commenced to the left 
of Dabney's Mill, and was sharp and earnest. The rain 
fell in torrents, flooding the low, swampy country into 
which the troops of the Second Corps were advancing, but 
the storm had but little effect in delaying the end. 

During the 30th the fighting and skirmishing in front 
of the Regiment was continuous and the fire seemed to 
come from all sides. There was no chance to cook, eat or 
sleep,and even when darkness fell there was no opportunity 
to prepare coffee. The rain extinguished most of the fires 
and those that did burn were soon made targets for the 
enemy's fire, which spilled the coffee and knocked over the 
cooks. 



336 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

The Regiment lost some of the best men during the 
evening of the 29th and on the 30th. Early on the 
morning of that day the First Division, Second Corps, 
had moved still further to the left and joined the force of 
General Sheridan. 

MARCH 31.ST. 

The battle of March 31st and April 1st was of the 
most sanguinary nature and the One Hundred and 
Sixteenth Regiment did noble work, but at a fearful cost. 
Lieutenant Eugene Brady was killed, and Major David 
W. Megraw and Adjutant Thos. Ewing wounded. The 
losses among the enlisted men were heavy, and as the 
dead were left where they fell the extent of the loss was 
never known. 

During the fight of March 31st General Lee commanded 
the Confederates in person. The attack of the enemy on 
Ayer's Division of the Fifth Corps was of so courageous 
and impetuous a character that the line gave way. The 
commander of the Second Corps (General Humphreys) 
seeing Ayer's men going to the rear, quickly ordered in 
the First Division. General Miles led it forward wdth a 
wonderful dash and hurled back the Confederate brigades 
of Wise and Hunton, capturing a flag and many prisoners 
and restoring the Union lines. 

Lieutenant Eugene Brady, who was killed on this day, 
was a brave and most excellent officer and an estimable 
man. He seemed to have a premonition that he w^ould be 
killed, and on the expiration of a short furlough, some 
months before his death, he bade his friends good-bye and 
told them that he would not see them again. Captain 
Nowlen, w^ho w^as at home at the same time, remarked to 
him : " Yes, Brady, we will say farewell to our friends, 
for we will both be killed in the coming campaign". 




LIEU'JENANT EUGENE DKAliY 
Killed at Five Forks. March 31st, 1865 



Gravelly Run and Five Forks. 337 

Unhappily, his words came true. Sergeant Edward S. 
Kline, in a letter to a h-iend, tells the story of Lieutenant 
Brady's death. He says : " I remember distinctly, after 
wading across a creek, that the enemy had some rifle pits 
on a hill in a field and Lieutenant Brady said, ' Let us go 
for that pit'. Together with four or five other men I 
joined him and we succeeded in gaining possession of 
the pit, but the enemy soon had a fiank fire on us, 
I think I was the only survivor. Lieutenant Brady 
was killed first. He made some remark about a 
Confederate color-bearer shaking his flag at us from 
behind a tree some hundred yards distant when he was 
hit right in the forehead. He fell against me and died 
instantly. The rest of my comrades were all silent, and 
I think all dead, so, after relieving Lieutenant Brady of 
his shoulder straps and memorandum book, thinking he 
would be captured, I made a very narrow escape back to 
the Regiment, which was under cover of the hill. The 
enemy was afterward charged and driven back some 
distance, after which I was sent back with a detail and put 
Lieutenant Brady and his effects in charge of the 
regimental surgeon, Dr. Wm. B. Hartman ". The body 
of Lieutenant Brady was taken home to Philadelphia and 
buried in the Old Cathedral Cemetery in that city. 

During the entire day of April 1st the firing was 
almost incessant. General Miles, ever vigilant, made 
frequent dashes on the Confederate works and the 
Regiment was always in the front. On the evening of 
that day General Grant ordered the commander of the 
Second Corps to throw forward his left and, by seizing 
the White Oak Road, prevent the enemy from sending 
troops against Sheridan at Five Forks. Miles's Division 
was assigned to the work and it held the road until after 



338 The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

dark, when an order came to assault the enemy, A furious 
artiller\" fire preceded a rush on the Confederate works. 
Moving in the dense darkness over brush and tangle- 
wood, the Regiment struck the enemy's skirmishers, drove 
them back into their works and advanced into the 
slashing. The position could not be carried and the 
firing died away, but hardly had the fight been ended 
when Miles, with the First Division, was ordered to push 
the enemy wherever found. On the morning of April 
2d, moving out the Claiborn Road, he came in contact 
with four brigades, under General Cook. General Miles 
promptly attacked and, after the most severe fighting, 
carried the position at three o'clock, capturing guns, 
colors and prisoners. During one of the charges of this 
day Color-Sergeant Peter Kelly fell wounded. Sergeant 
Edward S. Kline rushed forward and quickly raised the 
flag and carried it to the end of the fight. Sergeant 
Charles Maurer, of Company F, was then appointed 
color-sergeant and carried the flag to the end. 

One of the men killed in this fight was more than 
usually beloved by his comrades — ^John S. Laguin, 
Company B. He was the life of the company, full of 
good humor and fun, and brave as he was good. His 
comrades buried him tenderly by the side of a little school- 
house and thought so much of him that after the war 
closed they sent a committee down to \^irginia to bring 
the body home. 

Whilst Miles was fighting so fiercely at Sunderland 
Station on this Sunday of April 2d the whole Union 
line had advanced and captured all the works around 
Petersburg and Richmond, with the exception of a few 
detached forts, and those cities were at the mercy of 
the Union Armv. The end was near at hand, and as 



Gravelly Run ayid Five Forks. 339 

Mr. Davis, the President of the Southern Confederacy, 
knelt in prayer in St. Paul's Church, a messenger from 
General Lee informed him that all was over and that the 
Confederate Army would at once evacuate the works still 
remaining in their possession and retreat towards the 
south. 

APRIL 3i). 

There are hours in the life of all men that are filled 
with a joy so great that nothing can add to or increase 
it. The morning of April 3d, 18(35, was an occasion of 
this nature, giving to each and every tired and weary 
soldier a meed of happiness and a thrill of joyful emotion 
the like of which he might never experience again. 
" Richmond and Petersburg taken and the Confederate 
Army in full retreat" was the news that flashed through 
the ranks. All fatigue, sufferings and trials were on the 
instant forgotten, and exhausted men who were scarcely 
able to drag their limbs along leapt with delight and felt 
fresh and strong enough to start in immediate and rapid 
pursuit of the flying foe. Without waiting for rations or 
further rest the march began ; all day long, tramp, tramp, 
tramp, in an effort to catch up to and capture or destroy 
the still large and formidable army which, during the 
night of April 2d, had abandoned the long line of works 
that encircled the Confederate Capitol and Petersburg 
and, passing around the left flank of the Union Army, 
was escaping towards the south. 

The men of the Regiment were hungry and tired, but 
hunger and fatigue were alike forgotten as mile after 
mile was passed. When evening fell, the Second Corps 
bivouacked on Wintercome Creek. The sleep was short 
but sound, and on the morning of the 4th the march was 
resumed, x^nother day of hope and expectation, hard 



340 The Story of the ii6th Regimefit. 

and rapid marching and extreme fatigue. The roads were 
heavy with rain, but the men were buoyed up with 
excitement of the chase. Evening again and a short 
rest at Deep Creek, when the corps halted at seven p. m. 
On the road again at one a. m. of the 5th, and another 
day of marching with hardly any rest, reaching Jetters- 
ville late in the afternoon. During the night it was 
learned that the Confederate Army had concentrated 
around Amelia Court-House, within three miles or less, 
and at six a. m. the Second, Fifth and Sixth Corps moved 
to the attack, but as the line approached the Confederates' 
position their troops were seen in full retreat around the 
left fiank of the Union forces. The flight of the enemy 
was first discovered by the Second Corps, and the 
artillery dashed into position and opened upon the moving 
columns. After some sharp fighting the whole Union 
force abandoned the movement on Amelia Court-House, 
and took up the pursuit of the retreating foe. In the wild 
race of this 6th of April all fatigue, hunger and hardship 
w^ere forgotten. It was anything but a demoralized army 
that was making for the south. Although beaten and 
driven from the works they had held so gallantly and 
well, the Confederates were still as brave and defiant as 
on the first battlefield of the war. But as the miles rolled 
away under the swift feet of the men, evidences of the 
final breakup became more apparent every hour. 
Hundreds of totally exhausted Confederates were found 
by the way and became prisoners. Ambulances, tents 
and baggage of all descriptions littered the road. The 
Union artillery marched in the van, and wherever it was 
possible to strike the rear or flank of the enemy's columns 
the batteries would rush for a position, line of battle 
would be formed on a run, and a fight would be on. The 



Farmville. 341 

Confederate General, John B. Gordon, commanded the 
force immediately in front of the Second Corps, and on 
this day he still further added to his reputation as a great 
soldier, if that were possible. 

The last stand of the day was made at Sailor's Creek, 
where a severe and stubborn fight resulted in another 
Union victory, and the trophies of the Second Corps were 
four guns, thirteen flags, two thousand prisoners and an 
immense supply train. The men of the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth helped themselves liberally to the contents 
of the wagons. New Confederate uniforms took the place 
of worn out Union clothes. Never were the blue and 
gray so mixed up as on this occasion. Tired and hungry, 
but very happy, the men sank to sleep. The morrow 
would see the last battle of the long and bloody war. 

FARMVILLE. 

APRIL 7th. 

Marched at five a. m., and when High Bridge, on the 
Appomattox, was reached, the enemy was discovered 
making an attempt to destroy the bridges, all having 
escaped to the other side of the river. By a vigorous 
attack the enemy was compelled to retreat, and the 
bridges were saved. The Second Corps crossed and 
again took up the pursuit, and at one o'clock came up 
with the enemy, who were strongly intrenched. General 
Humphreys promptly attacked and kept up an almost 
continual series of assaults until dark, the indomitable 
Miles, with the First Division, making the last attack of 
the day. Farmville was a bloody fight for the First 
Division, 424 officers and men falling on that day. In 
the Second Division, General Thomas A. Smyth, the 
noble officer who commanded the Irish Brigade in the 



342 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

first days of the Wilderness Campaign, was killed. He 
was a typical soldier, handsome, fearless and beloved, 
and was the last general officer to fall during the war. 

APRIL 8th. 

Daybreak revealed the Confederate works in front of 
the Second Corps evacuated, and the enemy gone. At 
half-past five in the morning I he troops were again on the 
road in hot pursuit. All day long a continuous rapid 
march. Hundreds of the best men fell by the way 
exhausted. Human nature had reached the extreme limit 
of endurance. The Regiment suffered in this way as 
well as other commands, but not to the same extent. 
The men of the Regiment did nobly, and but few 
were missing when, at midnight, the column halted, and 
they were allow^ed to fall on the ground to instantly sink 
to sleep. 

Both Generals Grant and Meade accompanied the 
column of the Second Corps during the day's march ; 
while Sheridan, with the cavalry and the Fifth and 
Twenty-fourth Corps, was pushing on to head off the 
enemy at Appomattox. 

APPOMATTOX. 

APRIL 9th. 

Rations were issued at daylight, and the troops of the 
Second Corps did not get on the road until eight o'clock, 
but when they did fall in and start after the enemy, it was 
with as much vim and ardor as characterized the first day. 
I Towards noon the advance struck the skirmishers of 
the Confederates, and General Humphreys promptly 
formed line and moved forward to attack when the 
welcome news arrived that negotiations looking to a 
surrender of the enemy were in progress, and the firing 



Appomattox. 343 

was Stopped. Then came a few anxious hours of waiting, 
gazing across at the narrow strip that divided the two lines 
and wondering whether the move would be to attack and 
slay, or cross and shake hands. At four o'clock in the 
afternoon the glad news swept through the lines : " Lee 
and the Confederate Army have surrendered ", and 
glorious and final victory, and a country saved, were the 
great rewards of four years of the most awful and 
sanguinary war that mankind had ever witnessed. 

Of the scenes following the surrender, it is superfluous 
to speak. All men have learned how nobly, and with what 
tender regard the commander of the Union Army treated 
the gallant foe. How the members of the two armies 
mingled together, and how the Union soldier shared with 
the man in gray his ration and his blanket. Foemen 
yesterday, brothers to-day, with not a whit less of love for 
the Union or a particle less determination to preserve it — 
the soldiers who had fought so bravely and long for the 
salvation of the Republic could not but admire the superb 
heroism of the men who had just grounded their arms and 
rolled up their flag, which was never to be unfurled again. 
The men of the North can never admit the justice of the 
Southern cause in the great war, but every man who 
participated in the fight, or witnessed the Confederate 
troops in battle, is willing to acknowledge their magnificent 
bravery. They were Americans, and fought as only 
Americans can, and none but Americans could have 
conquered them. No wonder that Grant said to them : 
" Keep your swords and your horses and return to your 
homes, and you will not be disturbed by the United States 
so long as you observe your parole and the laws ", and the 
soldier, through his blinding tears of joy, saw now, in his 
late enemy, only a brother, a friend and a countryman, and 



344 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

shook hands and parted, one towards his Southern home, 
the other towards the North. Appomattox was a reunion — 
peace after the war, calm after the storm. When each 
combatant shall reach home once more and look across 
the crimson fields of blood and carnage that lie between 
the North and South, where hundreds of thousands of the 
blue and gray sleep in death together, may each one ever 
pray that God bless the Union ; and the blood of the North 
and South that has been so freely shed will be only another 
sacred tie to bind the nation in harmony, good will and 
peace, wdth one destiny and one flag. 

Between the lines the smoke hung low, 

And shells flew screaming to and fro, 
While blue or gray in sharp distress 
Rode fast, their shattered lines to press 

Again upon the lingering foe. 

'Tis past — and now the roses blow 
Where war was waging years ago, 
And naught exists save friendliness 
Between the lines. 

It will ever be a proud thought to the men of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
a proud boast of their descendants, that the Regiment 
was present and in the very front when the surrender of 
General Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia took 
place ; and it so happened that the news of the surrender 
was first communicated to the command by General 
Meade in person. 

It is interesting to read the letters and memoranda 
written by officers and men during the last campaign. In 
the diary of Captain Yocum we read : " Received orders 
to march 28th of March, 1865. Broke camp March 29th 
and moved to the left. Five p. m. 



Appomattox. 345 

Stacked arms for the night. Situation, swamp ; weather, 
rainy. March 30th, moved by the flank to the left and to 
the front, as skirmishers met the enemy's skirmishers 
and charged, driving them to their works. Five p. m. 
supported a battery under a heavy artillery fire, threw up 
works and remained in this position until March 31st, 
when we moved to the left to support the Third Division, 
Fifth Corps. The latter were repulsed when our brigade 
forded Hatcher's Run and charged. The fighting was 
very severe as the enemy was in good positions. In 
consequence of brigade on our right not supporting in 
time we were compelled to fall back. Re-formed and 
advanced a second time, dri\'ing the enemy at all 
points. Lieutenants Brady, of Company D, and Condy, 
Company E, were killed. Major Megraw and Adjutant 
Thomas Ewing were wounded, and the loss among the 
enlisted men was severe. Threw up works and held the 
position, April 1st, supported battery, after which 
marched and countermarched in keeping up connections 
with Fifth Corps. Cavalry on the left and corps to the 
right. April 2d, severe fighting. Brigade charged, 
capturing two pieces of artillery, five hundred prisoners 
and the South Side Railroad. The color-bearer. Sergeant 
Peter Kelly, was wounded and several others killed and 
wounded. April 3d, supported battery and skirmished. 
April 4th, advancing, supporting battery and skirmishing. 
April 5th, skirmishing. April 6th, captured baggage 
teams. April 7th, severe fighting ; brigade lost heavily ; 
brigade bugler killed. April 8th, heavy skirmishing. 
April 9th, halted, cooked coffee and received the glorious 
news of the surrender". 

In a letter to a friend Sergeant-Major S. D, Hunter 
gives a vivid description of the last day : — 



346 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

April 9th, 1865, found us again on the go at early morn, our Regiment 
supporting the skirmish line with balance of brigade closely in our rear. 
It was about nine o'clock when we halted on an elevated position. I was 
ordered to see that the men had their canteens filled with water. I made 
a detail from each company. When I was asked by some what it meant 
I told them it looked as if we would have a little " hell " soon and they 
had better be prepared. Soon we heard the artillery- coming up and 
getting into position, with two pieces in the road and another to our left. 
The firing had ceased on the skirmish line. We could see the Johnnies 
in large numbers behind their breastworks. But what did all this mean ? 
We remembered the heavy fighting of the night before in Lee's rear until 
long after dark. What great anxiety spread through the ranks ! Was it 
to be General Lee's one last great struggle ? \\'e all felt tired and 
hungry, so many lay down to sleep, some to crack jokes, others to read 
their bibles, when by and by a flag of truce comes from the Johnnies' 
lines and with all possible speed goes back to Meade's headquarters. 
Soon this was followed by a four-mule stage coach in which, it was said, 
was Commissioner Orr, of Lee's Army, going back to our rear. It was 
impossible to imagine what was going on. Officers and men would ask 
each other, but all were in total ignorance. Some seemed to think they 
were tr\ing to compromise without any more fighting, not thinking of an 
absolute surrender on the part of Lee. It was the opinion of many that 
before Lee would do so he would make one grand rally and die at the 
head of his army which he had led forth in so many battles. In the midst 
of all these conjectures we heard cheering coming towards us and soon 
we saw that modest hero of Gettysburg, General George G. Meade, and 
staft", coming up on a gallop, passing through our lines and over into the 
enemy's stronghold. Now for surmising ! It has full sway. Surrender 
or be annihilated, v.hich will Lee do ? 

We were now flushed with victory, having kept the Johnnies on the 
run from early morning till late at night. We ha^ had nothing to eat but a 
little fresh meat, sassafras and sour grass, and what we lost in coffee, pork 
and hard tack was more than made up by the continual excitement and 
battles which had lasted for eleven days. We were unanimous in hoping 
that Lee's star was on the wane and that the war would soon be over. 
What great suspense now hung over us ! We talked of nothing but the 
return of our great leader, Meade. Soon an officer from Meade's staff 
came into our lines and galloped back to headquarters. Soon after the 
order was given to fall in. We marched to within one hundred yards of 
the rebels' breastworks, our Regiment on the right. We halted when the 
command "front" was given. "Two paces to the rear. March!" 
When the Regiment was properly aligned another regiment was placed 
on the opposite side of the road in like manner, and so it continued until 



AppomaUox. 



347 



the entire corps or back to the rear had been reached. Standing at 
"attention", we "order arms". Could it be that Lee was going to 
surrender? Were they going to march him at the head of our vanquished 
foe through our hues that we might see the remnant of that once brave 
and fearless army which we had fought on so many disputed battlefields ? 
But, no, all this ceremony was for the purpose of announcing to that wing 
of the army under General Meade the news of Lee's surrender. 

It was about four o'clock in the afternoon when we heard the clatter 
of horses coming from within the Johnnies' lines. The order " attention, 
carry arms ! " was given and we awaited their approach. As General 
Meade, accompanied by his staff, stopped in front of our One Hundred 
and Si.xteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, no salute was given 
except the dipping of the colors. Taking his cap in his hand he bowed 
and announced to us : "General Lee has surrendered to General Grant !" 
Turning to the regiment on the opposite side of the road, he repeated 
the message, and so on. W'ith his own lips he proclaimed to the army 
which he' had led forth to victory the news of Lee's surrender. It now 
seemed as if, by the hand of God, life had been suspended for several 
minutes. Not a word was spoken, not a movement was made. Officers 
and men stood like regiments of statue-soldiers in the perfect silence. 
Then, like an electric shock, broke forth one grand shout, and cheer after 
cheer rent the air. The Lynchburg Plank Road became one swaying 
mass of joyful Yankees. The delirious shouts were soon taken up by the 
Johnnies, and never before did, and never again will, the hills and valleys 
around Appomatto.x, in old Virginia, resound with such soul-inspiring 
shouts as came from the conquerors and the conquered as they blended 
their voices on that afternoon of the 9th of April, 1865. 

Thus ended the career of die glorious and heroic 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, which had marked the trail of the Army of 
the Potomac with the blood of its hundreds of killed and 
wounded, from Fredericksburg to Appomattox. With 
depleted ranks it had now reached the pinnacle of its 
glory. It was the first regiment to receive the official 
announcement from General Meade of Lee's surrender. 

Charley Earth, of Company C, writes about this 
campaign : — 

" Well do I remember the morning of the 28th of 



848 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

March, 18G5, when we left our winter quarters for the final 
campaign of the war. Although the campaign was not 
so long as the one of the year before, yet what an amount 
of hunger and fatigue we passed through in those thirteen 
days. I shall never forget it. On the morning of the 
29th our Regiment was sent on the skirmish line. What 
a day this was, raining as we advanced through the woods, 
sometimes in water up to our knees. Then over brush 
and fallen trees, halting to re-form and then advancing 
again, and so we went on until night came, when we 
halted in a swamp with the water up over our shoe tops. 
Here an amusing incident occurred which I think is worth 
mentioning. The Fifty-second New York was right in 
our rear with the rest of the line of battle and for some 
cause they did not stop with them but came on and would 
had passed had they not been stopped, as it was then so 
dark that one object could not be distinguished from the 
other. This made considerable confusion. If you 
remember, the Fifty -second New York were nearly all 
Germans, and such a time as their officers had getting 
them all together again, shouting : ' Dis way, fifty-two 
mans !' And they would come up to some of us and say : 
' Be you a fifty-two mans ?' Finally they got back to 
their line again, We remained on the skirmish line until 
the next day, the 30th, when we were relieved and went 
back to our brigade. The next day, the 31st, we fought 
the battle of Gravelly Run ; and so we continued marching, 
fighting and skirmishing every day and night until the 
end came on the 9th. But what I started to write about 
was an incident that happened on the 8th. This will 
illustrate and confirm what I said in my letter to you that 
my thoughts were on how I should get enough to eat and 
enough sleep. We had been marching all day until about 



Appomattox. 349 

two o'clock, when we stopped at a place called New 
Store. I was tired and hungry, as I had nothing in my 
haversack but a small piece of pork. At this place I was 
fortunate enough to get a little flour. Soon the bugle 
called forward, and then it was tramp, tramp, again. Oh, 
how tired I was ! How I would look ahead to see if the 
head of the column would file to the right or left, which I 
knew would mean rest. Well, just as it was growing dark 
I saw the head of the column file to the left into the woods. 
Then came the vision of the nice cake I would make out 
of the flour and piece of pork, and what a nice sleep I 
would have. But how often our brightest hopes are 
blasted. Scarcely had we halted when we were ordered 
out as flankers with orders to make no fire. This meant 
to me no cake, no sleep. Finally, after the line was 
established, we concluded to make a fire and I began to 
bake my cake, and as the under side became hard I turned 
it over. A few minutes later we could hear firing in front 
of us. It was Sheridan who had blocked the way in 
front of the Johnnies. Just then the order came to fall 
in. Now the question was, what shall I do with my half- 
baked cake ? I dumped it into my haversack. Then we 
went on to the road again for a four-mile tramp. Well, 
as the cake cooled I ate it, although it was half dough. 
As I pulled it from my haversack it would stretch from 
there to my mouth, but it helped to fill me. That night 
the supply train came up, and the next morning, that 
ever welcome day of the 9th, I had a feast on cofifee, hard 
tack and pork, and I was contented and happy because 
my stomach was full. Could I have known then what 
this day was to still bring forth my enjoyment would have 
been much greater. It was then I felt proud that I had 
done some little towards the overthrow of the Rebellion." 



350 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

The surrender of the other armies of the Southern 
Confederacy followed rapidly upon that of General Lee, 
and it only remained for the Union troops in Virg-inia to 
turn their faces toward the north and home and await the 
muster out and disbanding of the armies. So on April 
13th the last march began. Leisurely, and without war's 
rude alarms, it was a joyful march, indeed. Reaching 
Farmville, the men were gladdened by the return of four 
officers who had been captives in southern prisons for 
months and who had just been released. All had much 
to tell of the hardships endured. Captain Cosslett is still 
on earth as this book is being written and his story of 
prison life in the South is interesting. 



REMINISCENCE 



OF 



Prison Life in the South 

By 

CHARLES COSSLETT 

Brevet Major United States Volunteers. 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the So^dh. 353 



^^URING the campaign of 1864, when the army reached 

the fortifications before Petersburg, our regiment 

had lost by death, wounds and sickness a great many men ; 

there were no field, and but a few line, ofificers left for duty. 

On the morning of June 22d, being still quite lame in 
my right knee and thigh from rheumatism contracted in 
the trenches at Cold Harbor and suffering from a long and 
severe attack of diarrhea. Dr. Hartman gave me a pass to 
go to the hospital. Whilst waiting for an ambulance 
Captain Nowlen, who was in command of the regiment, 
came to me and said we had orders to move and that we 
were likely to have another dust with the Johnnies. There 
was no officer in his company and as I was the only one in 
mine, which was on his left, he told me to take the two 
companies into the fight and when we came out I could go 
to the hospital. I said to him : " I may not come out ; I 
I may killed ". "Charlie", replied he, in his ofT-hand 
jocular wa}', " if you are killed you won't want to go to 
the hospital ". Noble, generous, brave Nowlen ! That was 
our parting joke ; shortly after you gave your life for your 
God and country. 

When I went back to the regiment one of my men, 
Michael Cavanaugh, came to me with one hundred and 
fifty dollars which he wished me to send to his people, he 
having an idea he was going to be killed. I answered 
that my risk was as great as his and advised him to give 
the money to Father Ouellet, the Chaplain of the Sixty- 
ninth New York Regiment, which he did. 

Early in the morning of the 22d of June, Wilcox's 
Division of Hill's Corps moved from their quarters on the 



354 The Story of the ii6th Reginieiit. 

lines of Petersburg and, crossing the works to the right of 
the Tannahill House, followed the line of the Weldon 
Railroad. Wilcox's instructions were to find the Union 
column and drive it back to the Jerusalem Plank Road. 
About nine a.m. his troops were beyond, and to the right of, 
the Johnston House. The leading brigades were halted 
and formed in line of battle, facing the plank road. 
General Mahone, who, from a small and unoccupied fort 
in advance of his line, had been watching the Federal 
troops marching into position, stacking arms and throwing 
up breastworks, quietly withdrew Wright's Virginia 
Brigade and Saunders Georgia Brigade of his division out 
of the main works about two p. m. and, filing through a 
deep ravine in the direction of the Johnston House, and 
into a field near a skirt of woods where he formed a line of 
battle, he at once advanced, struck the flank of the Union 
line, rolled it up and captured four guns, eight stands of 
colors and over seventeen hundred prisoners. Before 
General Mahone commenced the movement he sent 
Captain Girardey over to General Wilcox to say he would 
attack the Union troops as soon as he could reach the head 
and flank of their column and all that he, Wilcox, had to 
do was to bear down toward Petersburg to effect a 
co-operation with Wright's and Saunder's Brigades in the 
proposed attack. Captain Girardey, on his way, met 
General Hill at the Davis House, on the Weldon Railroad, 
and to him communicated the message. General Hill 
replied that Wilcox would be informed at once of General 
Mahone's request. However, Captain Girardey, fearing a 
delay, immediately galloped over to Wilcox and told him 
that Mahone was ready to strike the Union line as soon as 
he, Wilcox, was prepared to co-operate with him. The 
Confederate advance on the plank road was instantly 



Re^ninisccnce of Prison Life in the South. 355 

arrested and two brigades were ordered to move in tlie 
direction of Petersburg. At this time Wilcox was to tlie 
left and rear of the Union troops, but failed to join General 
Mahone until the fight was over. 

On that fatal day the Second Corps moved forward, 
pivoting its right on the left of the Fifth. The Sixth Corps, 
being on the left of the Second, was to move with it but, 
having a greater distance to traverse in the wheeling 
movement, it could not keep up with the Second Corps, 
and therefore General Meade ordered General Birney, 
who was that day in command of the Second Corps, to 
advance without waiting for the Sixth. When the Con- 
federates struck the Union line the Second, or Irish, 
Brigade was on the left of the Second Corps and our 
regiment was on the left of the brigade. After passing 
through some woods we halted at the top of a ravine. 
Four or five of the men took a number of canteens to fill 
at the rivulet, but in a few minutes came running back 
and said the Johnnies fired at them from the opposite 
side. The men who had been quiedy resting quickly 
formed line. By this time the bullets were coming thick 
and fast and killed and wounded quite a number, amongst 
the latter Captain Yocum. Captain Nowlen sent 
Lieutenant Cope and Sergeant-Major Burk to the left of 
the line to see if the enemy were flanking us. In a very 
short time they returned in hot haste and reported the 
Confederates marching in column of fours past our left. 
This was about three o'clock in the afternoon. Not long 
after, by General Barlow's orders, a brigade covered our 
flank, but it was soon on the run past the rear of our line. 
When the enemy found our left uncovered and the Sixth 
Corps far behind they struck our flank and pushed with 
great vigor into our rear. The front line, finding itself 



356 The Story of the 1 1 6th Regiment. 

exposed and likely to be captured, hastily fell back. Being 
lame I could not get along very fast and when I got out 
of the woods and walked over a field I came to a partly 
constructed breastwork. I crossed over this into another 
wood with dense brush so thick I could not see through 
it. Here I met about thirty men from different regiments. 
They were listening to the sound of voices which came 
from our rear but could not see anyone. Some thought 
they were our men who were talking, but others said they 
were Johnnies. However, no one seemed inchned to find 
out the real state of afTairs. At last a young sergeant in 
a New York regiment volunteered to accompany me for 
the purpose of solving the problem. After pushing 
through the brush we reached an open space where we 
were surprised to see, not six paces from us, a line of 
battle. \\'hen we found they were Confederates our first 
thought was to run. About a dozen rifles were pointed 
at us and the Johnnies told us to come in, saying : " It 
is no use tr\-ing to get away ; we have been going behind 
you fellows for two hours ". 

We were sent under guard to the rear. On our way 
we saw one of our guns which they had captured and 
quite a number of our dead. In a narrow road at the 
edge of the woods lay a Union officer who had been shot 
in the thigh. We made a stretcher with a blanket and 
some rails and carried him to the Johnston House where 
the doctors were attending to a number of wounded men. 
On the way I saw a general who, I was told, was Mahone 
and that it was his command which captured us. 

A regiment going to the front passed us. Their salute 
was: "How are you, blue bellies? How do you like 
your new quarters?" etc. Just before dark we were 
taken to a clearing in the woods. In it were assembled 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 357 

sixteen hundred men and sixty-five officers. There I met 
Lieutenant Cope, Sergeant-Major Burk and a number of 
men of our regiment. Before we left this place a staff 
officer rode in with some of our flags tied on his horse. 

After dark we were removed and camped on the side 
of a hill for the night. Lying on the cold ground, without 
any covering, I suffered severely from diarrhea. In the 
morning John M. Wiley, one of my men, gave me a table- 
spoonful of black pepper mixed in water, after which 
palatable dose I was greatly relieved. Another of my 
men, Albert Nelson, handed over to me his gum blanket. 
He said the Johnnies were going to take from them their 
haversacks, canteens, etc., but he thought they would 
leave me in possession of the blanket. 

In the forenoon the enlisted men were separated from 
the officers and we were then taken to the cars and sent 
to Richmond. On our arrival, under a strong guard, we 
were marched through the streets to Libby Prison, When 
we passed into the commandant's office our names, rank, 
regiment and address were entered in their books. We 
were next thoroughly searched for money, and if any was 
found, it was very kindly placed to our credit. The 
officials promised to return it when we left the prison, but 
when we did leave, by some oversight on their part we 
were obliged to go without it. They took from us every 
thing in our possession, haversacks, canteens and 
blankets. One officer had a few hardtack in his haversack. 
Its contents were dumped on the floor, then there was a 
scramble for the pieces. I was fortunate enough to get 
a handful of crumbs, the first thing I had had to eat for 
two days. 

After this incident we were taken upstairs to the second 
floor and put in a large room in which were already about 



358 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

fifty officers. I took up my quarters under the window 
on Twentieth Street, nearest to Carey and directly over 
the office. The enHsted men were confined in six rooms 
in the centre and east of the building. At nine o'clock 
ever}' morning and at four in the afternoon we had roll- 
call. Prison Clerk Erastus W. Ross, or "Little Ross", 
as he was designated because of his small stature, accom- 
panied by a guard under the command of Sergeant 
George Stansil, of the Eighteenth Georgia Regiment, 
would come up and count us off, fearing some would be 
missing. 

Ever}' day at eleven a. m. rations were brought up. 
Stalwart negroes carried in two tubs, made of a barrel 
cut in two, with rope handles, full of what the Confed- 
erates called pea soup. It was a composition of horse 
beans with a piece of some kind of meat boiled in water. 
Xo one knew whether the meat was cow, pig or horse 
flesh. Every man received three-quarters of a pint of 
soup, some beans, a piece of meat about the size of two 
fingers and three-fourths of a pound loaf of coarse corn 
bread without any salt in it, and these were all the rations 
we were given in twenty-four hours. Some of the men 
would eat their allowance all at once and then lie on the 
floor until eleven o'clock next day, not daring to walk 
about, fearing it would increase their hunger. 

I divided my portion and enjoyed three short meals 
daily. We formed squads of twenty, and any man who 
was fortunate enough to possess a tin cup would drink 
his soup and then lend the cup to another. It was 
amusing to hear some of the prisoners talking about what 
good things they would like to eat, and if they were only 
at Delmonico's or some first-class restaurant they would 
order a dinner fit for a " citv councilman ". 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the Soiilh. 359 

The third day we were at Libby Adjutant Latouche 
sent up one old army blanket for each man, which 
answered for both bed and bedding and was the only 
donation we received during our long confinement. On 
that day came an exchange for some doctors who lay in 
the corner next to me. After they left prison early the 
next morning I found an old tin cup which it seems they 
had promised to a cavalry officer. About an hour 
afterwards he came around hunting for the cup. Of 
course, he could not find it, but he swore rather loudly 
and said if he knew the man that took it he would wring 
his neck. However, I was not foolish enough to tell him. 
On the floor I found a piece of old canvas. I borrowed 
a thread and needle from one of the prisoners and made 
of it a very good haversack, and with that and the tin 
cup I set up housekeeping. The same evening an officer 
gave Lieutenant Cope some tea. The latter with his 
knife cut a few chips from the rafters and built a fire on 
the floor, and in my cup we made our first tea, which, 
though having neither sugar nor milk, tasted so good 
that we boiled the leaves three times over. The only 
furniture in the room was a long, pine-board table. In 
the southwest corner were two old bath tubs and a good 
supply of water. The windows were without glass, but 
instead had heavy iron bars. Shortly before I went to 
Libby Captain Forsyth, of the One Hundredth Ohio 
Volunteers, was shot dead by a sentinel while standing at 
one of the windows, the guards having instructions to 
shoot anyone putting his hands on sill or bar. 

Libby Prison was a large, three-story brick building, 
divided by heavy walls into three sections. It stood on a 
hill which descended to a street by the side of the canal. 
The building contained nine large rooms, each 105x45 



360 The Story of the ii6th Regiyjient. 

feet. The slant of the hill gave an additional story on the 
south, or Dock Street, side. The prison fronted on Carey 
Street and was bounded on the west by Twentieth and on 
the east by a vacant lot. The west room on the first floor 
was the commandant's office and it was also used as 
sleeping quarters for the prison officials. The centre 
room was the kitchen and the east one served as a 
hospital. On the second floor the west room was called 
" Milroy's Room " ; the middle one was named "Lower 
Chickamauga Room ", for there were a large number of 
Chickamauga prisoners in it ; the east room was known 
as " Lower Gettysburg Room ". The west room on the 
third floor was called " Streight's Room"; the centre 
room, " Upper Chickamauga Room ", and the east room, 
"Upper Gettysburg room". The basement on Dock 
Street was divided into west cellar, middle cellar, or 
carpenter s shop, and the east cellar, generally called 
" Rat Hell ". 

Libby Prison was built in 1S52 by John Enders, a 
Scotsman. He was a prominent tobacco manufacturer, 
and Libby was one of the several large warehouses he had 
constructed in Richmond. In 1854 he leased the building 
to Luther Libby, who used it in the ship chandler}^ and 
commission business. On the northwest corner hung a 
sign which read : " Libby and Son, Ship Chandlers and 
Grocers ". The son, George W. Libby, was admitted as a 
partner in 1860 and sensed in the Confederate Army 
during the war. 

The first Union prisoners arrived in Richmond July 
23d, 1861, followed in a few days by others captured at 
Bull Run. The first building used as a mihtary prison 
was a tobacco factors- on Main Street, between Twenty- 
fifth and Twenty-sixth Streets. General John H. Winder, 



Reminisceyicc of Prison Life in the South. 



361 



who was in command at Richmond, finding it impossible 
to accommodate all the prisoners in the Liggon Building, 
took possession of Libby & Son's warehouse. The first 
commandant of this prison was the notorious Henry Wirz, 
who was not long in charge before being sent to 
Andersonville, where his cruelty to the unfortunate captives 
caused him to be hanged after the war. He was succeeded 
by Major T. P. Turner, who, when the war was over, 
practised dentistry in Memphis, Tenn. 

In October, 18G1, Lieutenant Thomas P. Turner, 
generally called " Dick " Turner, was promoted to the 
rank of captain and ordered to report for duty at Libby, 
(He was no relative of Major Thomas P. Turner). After 
the war he had a saw-mill in Isle of Wight County, Va. 
Chief Clerk Ross was burned to death in the Spotswood 
House, Richmond, Va., in 1873. Adjutant John Latouche 
died in Richmond, October 4th, 1890, aged 70. 

Nearly sixty thousand prisoners were confined in Libby 
during the war. On the night of February 9th, 1864, 
one hundred and nine officers, including eleven colonels, 
seven majors, thirty-two captains and fifty-nine lieutenants, 
made their escape through the tunnel. Forty-eight of 
them were recaptured. Colonel Streight and several 
officers were concealed for a week by Miss Bettie Vanlew, 
a Union sympathizer. She was afterwards appointed 
postmistress of Richmond by President Grant. Captain 
Gates, of the Thirty-third Ohio, was the only one 
recaptured inside the city limits. For several days after 
the escape great numbers of citizens wandered around 
Libby. One of them happened to remove a plank in the 
yard back of the office of the James River Towing 
Company and the secret was revealed. A dog was 
dropped into the hole and he made his way to " Rat Hell". 



362 The Story of the ii6th Regivient. 

After the evacuation of Richmond the Union troops 
were placed on guard through the city. Samuel E. James, 
a private in Colonel Brady's Regiment, the Two Hundred 
and Sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, claimed to have taken 
the key of Libby Prison from a colored man who had 
attempted to make ofiE with it. James ran after the negro 
and took it from him. It was an iron key about six inches 
long with a flange about an inch wide. James lived for 
a time in Kittanning, Armstrong County, Pa. 

All the old prisoners were removed from Richmond 
early in May, 1864, and those who were captured during 
May and June were taken to Libby. About the first of 
July orders came to send all officers to Macon and the 
enlisted men to Andersonville. Early one morning we 
were taken from Libb}^ marched over to Manchester, on 
the south side of the river, put on board passenger cars 
and began our journey. At some of the stations where 
we stopped for wood and water several officers lost their 
headgear by a little Southern strateg}\ After the train 
started some Johnnies would create an excitement- on the 
platform. Our men would naturally look out to see what 
was the matter, and if a good hat was seen on any of 
them some enterprising Confederate would snatch it off 
and very politely throw back his old one with many 
compliments. 

Our first landing place was Lynchburg, where we were 
put in a field near the river. The Johnnies had captured 
one of our supply trains and for rations gave us our own 
genuine hardtack and good, fat Yankee pork, which was 
a great treat. Our guard at this place was composed of 
about seventy men who had belonged to an Irish regiment 
in Stonewall Jackson's Brigade. They told us their 
regiment had been so reduced in numbers that they were 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 363 

taken from the front and put on guard duty. When we 
left Lynchburg we were started on a four days' tramp to 
Danville. General Averill with his cavalry had torn up 
part of the railroad, so we had to foot it all the way. 
We marched in column of fours, officers on the right, and 
had two regiments of home guards to look after our 
welfare. At some places along the road the women would 
bring us out buckets of cool spring water and often a corn 
cake, which was very acceptable. 

On the second night of our journey we camped on the 
border of a small stream. Having obtained permission 
from the guards to take a bath, some of the men indulged 
in the unusual luxury of a swim. Meanwhile, I found a one 
dollar Federal note, which proved its great value early 
next morning when a young Johnny came into camp with 
a basket of onions. In exchange for my one dollar he 
offered me four dollars in Confederate money or three large 
onions. I chose the latter, knowing that if I ate them 
they would agree with me and not being quite sure that 
I could digest the dirty, ragged Confederate scrip. 

Sunday, July 3d, as w^e passed a church on the roadside 
the congregation came out and some of the women wept 
bitterly when they saw our miserable condition. A 
woman's heart will always bleed for suffering humanity. 

" Honored be woman ! She beams on the sight, 
Graceful and fair, hke a being of light ; 
Scatters around her wherever she strays 
Roses of bliss on our thorn-covered ways : 
Roses of Paradise, sent from above, 
To be gathered and twined in a garland of love ! " 

At Danville we were quartered in a large warehouse 
at the east side of the town, with Major Moffart in charge. 
We there drew a day's rations — half a loaf of corn bread, 



364 The Story of the i i6th Regiment. 

a quarter of a pound of bacon and a pint of soup. We 
were told not to go near the windows, for the guards had 
orders to shoot us if we did. Next morning we were 
loaded into cattle cars. Four sentinels were placed at 
the doors inside and six or eight on the top of each car 
to guard the fifty men which it contained. We stopped 
at Greensborough for a short time, then started for 
Charlotte, where we arrived the subsequent evening. Our 
next halt was at Columbia, where we got some corn bread 
and bacon, and were then taken to Augusta. The home 
guard under command of Provost-Marshal Bradford, a 
son of Governor Bradford, of Maryland, had charge of 
us at that place. Early next morning we were sent to 
Macon, which city we reached the following afternoon. 

We were received by Dick Turner, who had been sent 
on from Libby, and a regiment of Georgia militia, and 
marched into Camp Oglethorpe. (The camp was named 
for the Governor of Georgia). It was about a quarter of 
a mile east of the city. Some three acres were enclosed 
by a stockade fence sixteen feet high. On the outside of 
the fence, four feet from the top, was a platform on which 
the guards were stationed and from which they had a 
good view over the camp. Inside the stockade and about 
twenty feet from it was a picket fence four feet high called 
the "dead line". No one was allowed to go over or 
touch this line. 

The morning we entered the camp our first salute 
from the old prisoners was cries of " Fresh fish ", " Give 
him air", " Don't take his tooth-pick", "Close up ", etc. 
Near the gate stood Captain George Halpin, who was 
captured before me. He called out: "Is there anyone 
from the One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania ?" 
When I answered "Yes", he took my hand and put his 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 



365 



arms around me and said he was glad and yet sorry to 
see anyone from the old Regiment. He led me to his 
quarters and gave me a portion of his dinner, which 
consisted of a piece of corn bread and a cup of coflfee 
made of burnt meal scalded with water, and he regretted 
very much that he could not entertain me better, but I 
w^as exceedingly thankful to have my hunger thus far 
appeased. 

A few days after I entered the prison pen I accidentally 
put my hand on the dead line, when some officers called 
out : " Take your hand away, take your hand away !" 
which I quickly did, as the sentinel had his rifle already 
aimed at me. On the evening of the 11th of June, 
Lieutenant Otto Grierson, Forty-fifth New York Volun- 
teers, while near the spring was shot and mortally 
wounded by a guard, although at the time he was some 
distance from the line. There w^ere twelve hundred 
prisoners in the pen when we went there. In the centre 
of the camp was a large wooden warehouse which had 
been used as a hospital for Confederate soldiers, but as 
many of our officers as could get in made it their sleeping 
quarters. Early one morning I went into the building, 
and seated on the floor were a great number of them with 
their shirts oil", performing a very necessary act before 
making their morning toilet, as the building was swarming 
with vermin. In those days there was an open market in 
all southern prisons for the vender of insect powder. 

To the prisoners who were in the stockade pre\'ious 
to our arrival the authorities had given lumber with which 
they built open sheds for themselves and fixed up bunks, 
and it was in one of these that Captain Halpin and 
Lieutenant John McGovern, of the Seventy-third Penn- 
sylvania \^olunteers, had their quarters. When our squad 



366 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

of one hundred and twenty arrived there was no room 
in the sheds for us, so we had to bunk outside. I took 
up my quarters near the spring, which was situated about 
thirty feet from the dead Hne. Our contingent was divided 
into squads of twenty, each squad being furnished with 
a camp kettle and an iron skillet. We formed messes 
of five and arranged to have the cooking utensils turn 
about. Rations were drawn every five days, our daily 
allowance being one pint of corn meal, one ounce of rice, 
and a quarter of a pound of fat bacon. Sometimes in 
place of rice we received beans. Every ten days they 
gave us a tablespoonful of salt, every three weeks two 
ounces of soft soap with which to wash our ragged 
clothes, and each morning the authorities sent in a wagon 
load of fire-wood for cooking purposes. The second 
week I was there Captain Halpin fell insensible in the 
yard and was carried to the hospital. I did not see him 
again for two months. During the first six months of 
prison life we were called "fresh fish"; the next four 
months "suckers"; the next two months "dry cod"; 
after that "dried herring"; and after exchange, "pickled 
sardines ". 

When General Johnson was retreating towards Atlanta 
before the victorious army of Sherman, Governor Brown, 
of Georgia, ordered every man capable of bearing arms 
to the front, and transferred the State militia, under the 
command of Major-General G. W. Smith, to the Con- 
federate service to defend the bridges across the 
Chattahoochee River for the safety of the important city 
of Atlanta. From an elevation in the prison yard we 
could see regiments of boys, some of them not fifteen 
years of age, marching past. They looked full of fight 
and quite proud of being soldiers. 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 367 

A great many of the prisoners were afflicted with 
"chronic diarrhea" and about four hundred had "scurvy". 
Those with the latter disease would put earth on their 
sores to check its ravages. Another beneficial remedy 
was to eat raw potatoes steeped in vinegar. These 
luxuries the negroes would sometimes bring into the 
prison. Growing inside the stockade were two old white 
oak trees, the bark of which was stripped ofif and chewed 
by some of the men, while others boiled it and drank the 
water as a cure for diarrhea. One day the Confederate 
sutler brought in provisions in a large box. When it was 
emptied Lieutenant Wilson, Fifth United States Cavalry, 
got into it. The negroes, wishing to aid his escape, 
fastened the lid temporarily on the box which was placed 
on the wagon and driven out of the prison pen. After 
going some distance away the negroes removed the 
precious load from the wagon, took off the lid and the 
lieutenant made his way to a negro hut. While washing 
and making his toilet the patrol came up and asked him 
if he was a Union prisoner. Rather than tell a lie he 
acknowledged that he was and, as a result, was brought 
back the same day to the pen. I thought that under the 
circumstances, when he had a chance of making his 
escape, he deserved great praise for telling the truth, 
which proved that he did not forget the good advice of a 
noble mother. 

For amusement those who were strong enough would 
play base ball ; others would spend their time with 
checkers, chess and dominoes ; but a pack of cards, the 
soldier's prayer book, was always in demand. Crib, faro 
and poker were the favorite games. Very often. Captain 
Irsch, a German, of the Forty-fifth New York Regiment, 
and Captain Rompe, a Swiss, would entertain us with the 



368 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

sword exercise performed with wooden foils which they 
made for the purpose. The Swiss officer, whose real 
name was known to few, was generally called Rompe, a 
French word which he frequently used while fencing. 

July 27th Captain Gibbs, commandant of the prison, 
received orders to count out six hundred prisoners to be 
sent to Charleston, as the Confederates, knowing that 
Sherman was on his way to Atlanta, feared a raid of 
Union troops to release the prisoners. Some of our men 
were in hopes of exchange, but they soon found they 
were to be confined in Charleston to protect that city 
from the fire of our guns on Morris Island. We were 
told we would not be allowed to take the cooking utensils 
with us. The guard at the dead line would not permit 
Lieutenant McGovern to take even a skillet with him, so 
he handed it over to me. Next evening the second six 
hundred were called out to go to Savannah. I tied up 
the skillet in my old blanket, put it under my arm and, 
when my name was called, stepped over the line. We 
were guarded by the Fifth Georgia Regiment, marched 
to where the box cars were and remained there during 
the night. We knew by the hurried movement of troops 
and placing of artillery in position that there was some 
trouble brewing for the Confederacy. 

At break of day we left Macon and reached Savannah 
about five p. m. The guards told us that General Stoneman 
with his cavalry cut the road at one station half an hour 
after we passed it. Stoneman attacked Macon, was 
repulsed and taken prisoner with part of his command, 
July 31st, at Clinton, about six miles north of the city. 
At the time he was on a raid to release the Union prisoners 
in Macon and Andersonville. 

Our prison in Savannah was a lot adjoining the Marine 



Remiyiiscence of Prison Life in the South. 369 

Hospital and surrounded by a stockade fence. It was 
called "Camp Davidson", for its first commandant. The 
city authorities who had charge of us were very kind and 
did all they could for our comfort. They gave us tents 
and boards to make bunks, also cooking utensils and bricks 
to build ovens in which to bake our corn bread. We built 
the ovens oval on top and stuck the bricks together with 
mortar made of clay. The bread we made by stirring corn 
meal in water and baking in the skillets. Colonel Miller, 
One Hundred and Forty-seventh New York Volunteers, 
acted in the prison as commandant. Through him all our 
requests were made known to Captain Davidson. Our 
guards, the First Georgia, a number of whom had been 
prisoners of war, thought we deserved good treatment, as 
they had received it at the North. Our tents were pitched 
in regular military order and the streets were swept every 
day. For our rations we were given each morning half 
a pound of meat, a pint of rice, half a pint of meal, and 
every four days a tablespoonful of salt. The water we used 
came from a well near the hospital fence. It was clear 
and cold but so offensive to both taste and smell that 
some of the prisoners told the authorities they would like 
to have it cleaned out, for they were sure there was a dead 
dog or nigger in it. Next day a detail came in and gave 
it a thorough cleaning, but only a few leaves and twigs 
were found in it, and not till then did we know it was a 
very strong sulphur spring. A few days after, a long 
wooden trough was made and a supply of city water 
turned on. Fires were kept burning all night inside the 
pen, so that the sentinels could see all our movements. 

In the tent in rear of mine a cavalry officer dug a well 
about six feet deep, from the bottom of which he started 
a tunnel about two feet, six inches in diameter. It was 



370 The Story of the ii6th Regwieiit. 

carried under the stockade with the intention of running 
it beyond what was thought to be a second line of sentinels. 
The work was completed on the morning of August 22d, 
and on the afternoon of the same day a cow, walking over 
the tunnel, broke through. The guards saw her floundering 
in the hole and with great difficulty released her. A 
detail was sent at once into the pen to locate the tent and 
fill up the hole. The officer was taken to the Confederate 
headquarters and sentenced to severe punishment, but 
came back next day in good condition, 

August 26th, the ladies of Savannah gave a picnic to 
the Confederate soldiers stationed in the city and we could 
hear their voices and the music distinctly. On the same 
day. Captain W. McGinnis, Seventy-fourth Illinois 
Volunteers, died. Our officers asked permission from the 
new Confederate commandant of the camp. Colonel 
Wayne, to give the Captain a decent burial, but he 
positively refused. In the evening, we received a note 
from the ladies in the city stating that, with profound 
sorrow they had heard of Colonel Wayne's answer to our 
request and that they would purchase a burial lot where, 
under their care and direction, the Captain's remains would 
be properly interred. 

Early one morning a chicken flew into the pen and, 
for a while, there was a lively time, as about fifty men 
were after it. Finally, Lieutenant Allen caught it, and 
with some rice we made our first and last pot of chicken 
broth. 

Being very weak from a long attack of diarrhea, I 
went to the doctor for some medicine. He gave me three 
pills and told me to keep quiet, adding that our people 
had the coast blockaded, the physicians in the South could 
obtain no drugs and that was all he could do for me. 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 371 

With few exceptions, the Confederate doctors were humane 
and kind and, with the means at their disposal, did all 
they could for our comfort and relief. 

Au^'-ust oOth, an exchange came for all chaplains and 
doctors. They were sent in the evening to Charleston to 
be taken north on the flag-of-truce boat. 

On the afternoon of September 11th, the order came 
for the rest of the prisoners to "pack up". My outfit 
consisted of a ragged coat and pants, a worn-out hat and 
an old blanket. Having neither shoes nor shirt, but in 
possession of my tin cup and skillet, it did not take long 
to get ready to move. We sat up all night making snap- 
jacks and corn bread to last us on our journey. At six 
o'clock on the morning of September 12th, under guard 
of the Second Georgia Regiment, we were marched out 
of camp and turned over to a regiment of state militia. 
We remained for several hours in the streets before we 
took passage in the cattle cars. We knew then we were 
to be taken to Charleston and placed under the fire of 
our guns. When we stopped at a station on our way for 
wood and water, one of our men asked leave from a guard 
to step out of the car for a few minutes ; another guard 
saw him and, thinking he was trying to escape, shot at 
him ; fortunately he got back without a Southern 
keepsake. 

We reached Charleston in about ten hours and the 
citizens, white and black, turned out in force to look at 
the " Northern Blue Bellies". Under a strong escort we 
were marched through the streets to the jail, which was 
situated in the southeastern part of the city — it could be 
seen from Morris Island, w^here our batteries were. The 
jail was a large octagonal building, four stories, with a 
tower forty-five feet high. The yard was surrounded by 



372 The Story of the ii6th RegimeJit. 

2l Strong wall, and on the outside was the platform for the 
sentinels to walk on. The water we had to use was 
brackish and came from a covered well, in the centre of 
the yard. Not far from it, on the south side, stood the 
gallows, a pleasant reminder of what might be our last 
hitching-post. Outside and near the prison wall were 
two large buildings, the Roper Hospital and the Work- 
house. Both being full of prisoners, we could not be 
admitted and were put into the jail yard*— the latter, having 
been occupied by convicts and prisoners for some time, 
was in a very filthy condition, — the ground having a 
moving crop of vermin. Near the south wall stood a 
few old tents which were of no use for shelter, the pris- 
oners who had been there before us having cut out and 
carried away large pieces of the canvas to make shirts 
and other wearing apparel of which they were sadly in 
need. 

Lieutenant J. Ogden, First Wisconsin Cavalry, 
composed the following verses while confined in the Roper 
Hospital : — 

Oh, thou doomed city of the evil seed, 
Long nursed by baneful passion's heated breath ! 

Now bursts the germ, knd lo, the evil deed 
Invites the sword of war, the stroke of death ! 

Suns smile on thee, and yet thou smilest not 

Thy fame, thy fashion, are alike forgot. 
Consumption festers in thy inmost heart ; 
The shirt of Xessus fouls thy secret part. 

Lo, in thy streets — thy boast in other days- 
Grim silence sits, and rancorous weeds arise ! 

No joyous mirth, nor hymns of grateful praise. 
Greet human ears nor court the upper skies ; 

But deadly pallor, and a fearful looking for 

The hand of vengeance and the sword of war. 
Thy prayer is answered, and around, above, 
The wrath of God and man doth hourlv move. 



Reminiscence of Prison Life hi the South. '^"S 

Thy foes are in thy heart, and He unseen ; 
They drink thy lite-blood and thy substance up ; 

And though in pride thou usest to sit a queen 
Justice at last commands the bitter cup. 

The blood of slaves upon thy skirts is found ; 

Their tears have soaked this sacrilegious ground. 
The chains that manacled their ebon arms 
Now clank about thine own in dread alarms. 

Thy sanctuaries are forsaken now ; 
Dark mould and moss cling to thy fretted towers ; 

Deep rents and seams, where straggling lichens grow 
And no sweet voice of prayer at vestal hours ; 

But voice of screaming shot and bursting shell, 

Thy deep damnation and thy doom foretell. 
The fire has left a swamp of broken walls. 
Where night-hags revel in thy ruined halls. 

Oh, vain thy boast, proud city desolate ! 
Thy curses rest upon thy guilty head ! 

In folly's madness, thou didst desecrate 
Thy sacred vows to holy Union wed. 

And now behold the fruit of this, thy sin : 

Thy courts without o'errun, defiled within ; 
Gross darkness broods upon thy holy place ; 
Forsaken all, thy pride in deep disgrace. 

Wail, city of the proud palmetto-tree ! 
Thy figs and vines shall bloom for thee no more ! 

Thou scorn' dst the hand of God, that made thee free, 
In driving freemen from their native shore. 

Thy rivers still seek peacefully the sea. 

Yet bear no wealth on them, no joy for thee. 
Thy isles look out and bask beneath the sun. 
But silence reigns — their Sabbath is begun ! 

Blood ! Blood is on thy skirts, oh, city doomed ! 
The cry of vengeance hath begirt thee 'round ; 

Here, where the citron and the orange bloomed, 
God's curse rests on the half-forsaken ground ! 

Thy treason, passion-nursed, is overgrown — 

Thy cup of wrath is full, is overflown. 
Repent, for God can yet a remnant save. 
But traitors and their deeds shall find the grave ! 

Charleston. S. C, September 25th. 1864. 



374 The Sfofj of the ii6th Regiment. 

September 20th, about noon, a terrible thunder-storm 
came on and it rained incessantly all day and night 
There were two inches of water over the yard and we 
could not get the fires to burn. Wet, cold and without 
shelter, we made application to get into the jail, but did 
not succeed, as at that time it was full of prisoners of 
various grades. On the first floor were the civil convicts ; 
the second story was occupied by Confederate officers 
and solders under punishment for military offenses ; the 
third stor}', by negro prisoners ; and the fourth, by 
deserters from both the Confederate and Union Armies. 
In the yard were a number of negro prisoners who had 
been captured at the assault on Fort \\'agner. As they 
received for rations nothing but corn meal, it was said 
they suffered so much from hunger that they would catch 
the rats, skin, roast and eat them. 

September 22d was very warm and our boys on Morris 
Island made it hotter for the enemy, for during that day 
and night, about one hundred shot and shells were thrown 
into the city. We would watch "Foster's Messengers", 
as we called them, screeching over our heads and hear 
them crash into the houses ; then followed the rumbling 
of the engines and the shouts of the firemen on their way 
to extinguish the flames. 

About noon, on September 24, we were startled by the 
sound of a musket shot. On running to the jail door, we 
found that a sentinel had killed a negro boy, a prisoner, 
who had run into the main corridor. The guard ordered 
him to return, but the boy, not retreating quickly enough, 
was shot and died instantly. 

In the evenings, the negro prisoners would entertain 
us by singing songs. The one which they seemed to like 
best was composed by Sergeant Johnson (colored) of 



Reminiscence of Prisoji Life in the South. 375 • 

Company F, Fifty-fifth Massachusetts Infantry. The 
song was as follows : — 

When I enlisted in the army, 

Then I thought 'twas grand, 
Marching through the streets of Boston 

Behind a regimental band. 
When at Wagner I was captured, 

Then my courage failed ; 
Now I'm lousy, hungry, naked. 

Here in Charleston jail. 

Chorus. — Weeping, sad and lonely — 
Oh ! How bad I feel ; 
Down in Charleston, South Carolina, 
Praying for a good "square meal ". 

If Jeff. Davis will release me, 

Oh, how glad I'll be ; 
When I get on iMorris Island 

Then I shall be free ; 
Then I'll tell those conscript soldiers 

How they use us here ; 
Giving us an old "corn-dodger " — 

They call it prisoner's fare.. 

We are longing, watching, praying. 

But will not repine 
Till Jeff. Davis does release us, 

And sends us " in our lines ". 
Then with words of kind affection. 

How they'll greet us there.! 
Wondering how we could live so long 

Upon the " dodgers fare ". 

Chorus. — Then we will laugh long and loudly — 
Oh, how glad we'll feel, 
When we arrive on Morris Island 
And eat a good "square meal ". 

SepteAiber 30th a great many shells were thrown into 
the city. A piece of one struck the west end of the Roper 
Hospital, and another piece dropped into the jail yard 
near where I was standing. I picked it up and brought 



376 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

it home with me when paroled, as a fond remembrance of 
prison life. The guards told us that a shell killed the 
Provost-Marshal whilst standing at a table in his office 
issuing orders to his Lieutenant, who was also killed. A 
few nights after, an Irishman and his wife, whilst sleeping, 
met their death in the same manner. 

As the Union ofificers were taken to Charleston to save 
the city from the fire of our guns on Morris Island. 
General Foster, in retaliation, placed an equal number of 
Confederate of^cers on transports in front of his works to 
prevent the enemy from firing on him. Foster's gunners 
knew our whereabouts and took good care not to plant a 
shell amongst us. 

On October 2d, the Confederate Captain commanding 
the prison, and his adjutant, died of yellow fever. Many 
of the guards, some of our officers and a large number of 
enlisted men, brought from Andersonville, also died of the 
disease. The Sisters of Charity were allowed to enter the 
jail yard and hospitals to visit our sick soldiers. I have 
seen them bend over and speak words of hope and comfort 
to our fever-stricken boys, and give with loving hearts and 
kind hands grapes, wine or any little delicacy they could 
obtain. All over the South they ministered to the wants 
of both Confederate and Union soldiers and, without any 
hope of reward, risked health and life in those loathsome, 
fever-stricken hospitals. 

Where the fateful war cr\- sounded, 

Echoing through valleys fair, 
From each verdured mount resounded, 

Rousing hearts to do and dare ; 
There her noble mission leads her 

Where relentless Death is near. 
But the wounded soldier needs her 

And her brave heart knows no fear. 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 377 

Like a radiant sunbeam straying 

Through the ward where sufferers lie, 
Her soft touch the pain allaying, 

Her sweet smile forbids the sigh. 
When the soldier feels death near him, 

Naught of dread appalls his soul 
With her gentle voice to cheer him 

Onward to the Heavenly goal. 

Then ! behold her, where privation 

Frets the spirit of the brave. 
Where the fever and starvation 

Lead from prison bars to grave ; 
Breathing words of pity tender, 

Soothing oft the throbbing brow. 
Still no selfish fears attend her 

For the captive needs her now. 

How she casts a glow about her, 

Gladd'ning all o'er-freighted hearts ! 
'Twould be wondrous dark without her. 

While her spotless soul imparts 
To her face such noble beauty. 

That the soldier grows more brave. 
Fearless treads the path of duty — 

Seeking but the Flag to save ! 

Truly, soldiers, may you love her 

For the deeds performed so well ; 
No one knows but Him above her 

In her task what hardships dwell. 
Weave your tenderest thanks around her 

For her help in bitter need, 
True and tried, you've ever found her. 

Through the strife a friend indeed ! 

— Georgin.\ St. Clair Gartland. 

October 3d and 4th, our batteries gave the city a good 
shelling. Some of the missiles exploded very near the 
jail, but without injury to us. On the evening of the 
4th we heard from Charleston Race Course, where a 
number of our enlisted men were confined, a great many 



378 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

of whom were dying from the ravages of scurvy and 
yellow fever. 

Early- on the morning of the 5th the Confederate 
authorities told us to pack up, saying we were to be 
removed for fear the yellow fever would carry more of us 
off. Captain Mobly, of the Thirty-second Georgia 
Regiment, informed us that we were to go to Columbia. 
At nine a. m. we were taken out Df the yard, marched 
through the streets, escorted by the Thirty-second Georgia 
Regiment, packed into cattle cars and started on another 
trip and, the rolling stock being nearly worn out, we only 
made about fifteen miles an hour. Some of the prisoners 
cut holes in the bottom of the cars and at night, when we 
came to a stop, would drop out, crawl from under the cars 
into the brush and make their escape. An officer, in going 
through one of these holes, was shot in the leg, which had 
to be amputated. Another plan to escape was to slip the 
cap from the gun when the guard was not looking, put a 
splint in the cone, jump out of the door and make for 
the woods. During the trip about a dozen prisoners 
made their escape in this way. 

We arrived at Columbia in the midst of a rain storm 
and camped all night in a field on the north side of Bridge 
Street. We suffered greatly, the ground being flooded 
with water, while our only covering was the old blankets 
we had brought from Libby. We were • closely guarded 
by two regiments of infantry and had four pieces of 
artillery trained on us. Next morning the Confederate 
authorities offered us our parole, but not to go beyond a 
specified range. Under these conditions, we would not 
accept it, for it would release two regiments of guards 
who would be sent to the front. That afternoon a German 
baker brought a wagon-load of bread into the camp. 



Remhiisccnce of Prison Life in the South. 379 

Men who had money bought a few loaves and thus 
engaged the attention of the baker, while other less 
fortunate prisoners took possession of the wagon, and 
before the guards came up every loaf was gone. Later, 
on the same day, Lieutenant H. L. Clark, Second Massa- 
chusetts Artillery, approached the fence to receive some 
bread from a citizen, when a sentinel stabbed him in the 
back with a bayonet. Though seriously wounded, the 
Lieutenant recovered. 

On the opposite side of Bridge Street, near the railroad 
station, was a large warehouse filled with hams and bacon. 
Lieutenant Cooper and I tried to hook some through the 
barred windows with a piece of fence-rail but without 
success, as one of the guards caught us at our honest 
employment and, at the point of his bayonet, drove us 
back into camp. 

In the evening, after receiving a ration of corn meal 
and sorghum molasses, we were marched over the bridge 
to the south side of the Congaree River. Our new camp 
was in an open field two miles from the city. The water 
supply was a small creek at the lower side of the field ; 
our couch was the cold, damp earth ; our covering, the 
blue sky above. A dead line, made of stakes, was 
established about thirty feet inside of where the sentinels 
walked. We were guarded by two regiments of infantry 
and a battery of artillery, and called our new quarters 
" Camp Sorghum ". 

October Sth we received from the sanitary commission 
boxes of clothing and drew lots for the various articles. 
Some of the prisoners got undershirts ; some, socks ; 
others, drawers, etc. I was very lucky, for I drew a 
woman's cotton morning gown, which, by wonderful tact 
and mechanical ability, I made into a spring overcoat. 



380 The Story of the ii6th Regi7nent. 

A box of clothing was sent to me from home, but I never 
got it. Both gold and notes were sent by mail, but not a 
dollar did I receive. One day the Confederate adjutant 
handed me a letter that had contained money and said it 
was open when they received it from the fiag-of-truce 
boat. However, no money was in it when delivered to 
me. 

There were about fifteen hundred prisoners in camp at 
this time, and, as the presidential election was soon to 
take place, it was proposed to have one in the pen on 
October 16th. The votes were taken by the senior officer 
of each State and sent to a general officer. \\^ wrote 
our ballots and deposited them in a meal bag. We also 
had a telegraph office and bulletin board and published 
sham returns every hour. In the evening, when the 
returns were all in and the count was finished, the result 
was one hundred and forty-three votes for McClellan and 
ten hundred and twenty-four for Lincoln. 

Every five days we drew rations — half a pint of rice, 
one pint of sorghum molasses and five pints of meal, 
and ever}' two weeks half a pint of vinegar and a table- 
spoonful of salt. Some men would eat their share in 
three days and go begging for the other two. We were 
never given any vegetables and, for nearly five months, 
not a particle of meat. 

A sutlers shop was started by three or four of our 
officers, between whom and the Confederates an arrange- 
ment had been made by which bread, meat and vegetables 
were brought into the pen. Some prisoners received 
money from home, and others who had watches, rings, 
knives or buttons would sell them to the Johnnies and, 
with Confederate scrip, buy what they wanted at the 
following prices : — 



Reminisce7ice of Prison Life in the South. 381 

Potatoes, per bushel I40.00 

Flour, per quart 4.00 

Milk, per cjuart 3.00 

Onions, three for i.oo 

Wheat Bread, small loaf 2.00 

Butter, per pound . 10.00 

Lard, " 8.00 

Coffee, " 10.00 

Tea, " 12.00 

Eggs, per dozen 6.00 

These prices were in Southern money. At that time 
one dollar, F'ederal money, was worth twenty-two dollars 
of Confederate. 

October 18th two Confederate officers came into camp 
inquiring for Lieutenant-Colonel Dale, of the One Hundred 
and Sixteenth Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers, as our 
government made a request to find him if possible, not 
knowing at the time that he w'as killed at Spottsylvania. 

Every ten days we were mustered into squads of 
twenty, given two axes and taken out to chop wood for 
our fires. Before going each one was expected to take 
the following parole (when the ceremony was being 
performed I always managed to be absent and so was free 
to escape whenever I got the chance) : — 

CONFEDERATE STATES MILITARY PRISON. 

Columbia, S. C, October — , 1864. 

I, , prisoner of war, confined near the city of Columbia, S. C, 

Confederate States of America, do pledge my parole, as a military man 
and a man of honor, that I will not attempt to escape from the prison 
authorities nor pass beyond the prison limits more than three-quarters of 
a mile, and that at the expiration of the time named in the parole I will 
return promptly to the adjutant's office and have the same revoked. 

It is understood by me that this parole is involuntary on my part 
and that it is gi\en with a view to securing privileges which cannot be 
otherwise obtained. 

^Signed) . 



382 The Story of the ii6th Reghnent. 

In the mess with me were Lieutenants Robert Allen 
and Richard Cooper, Seventh New Jersey Volunteers ; 
Charles Stallman, Eighty-seventh Pennsylvania, and 
Henry F. Anshutz, Twelfth West Virginia Volunteers. 
The first time our party went out we cut some poles, and, 
with an old piece of canvas and a blanket, we fixed up a 
tent in the camp. At night we spread one blanket on the 
ground, lay down spoon fashion and pulled the other 
three old ones over us. Sometimes it would be so cold 
we would have to sit by the fire or walk about all night 
to keep warm and then sleep in the sun during the day. 
To shelter themselves from the cold winds hundreds of 
the men dug graves to sleep in. Often heavy rains, which 
lasted for two or three days, would come on and fill the 
graves with water. When the rain was over the grave 
diggers would recommence their dismal occupation and 
make a new resting place. 

October 18th, after nightfall, three officers made their 
escape down by the creek. The guards fired a number 
of shots at them, but, fortunately, none took effect. 

On the 1 9th General Winder paid a visit to the prison 
and promised to send us straw with which to make beds, 
but we never got it. Shortly after we heard that he 
dropped dead in Richmond. 

About nine o'clock on the evening of the 20th 
Lieutenant Young, of the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry, 
while seated at a little fire talking with some officers, was 
shot through the body by a sentinel and only lived a few 
moments. The guard said his gun went off by accident, 
but the prisoners had their doubts about that. 

October 2.3d our squad went out for firewood. 
Lieutenant Allen hid behind a large tree and made his 
escape. The guards, being careless or stupid, did not miss 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 383 

him. Just before we were to return to camp I saw a good 
chance, and, taking advantage of it, pushed through some 
brush and got into the woods without being seen. Until 
dark I searched for Alien but could not find him, so I took 
up my quarters under a large tree and fell fast asleep. 
Next day I walked as well as I was able, but, having no 
shoes and my feet being bruised, torn and very sore from 
the underbrush and briars, I did not make much headway. 
That night I slept the best I could beside a little stream. 
Early next morning, being very hungr}-, I crossed a road 
and went to what I thought was a negro cabin ; a big dog 
came barking at me and in a few moments two men on 
patrol duty came up. By noon thev had me safely lodged 
in my old quarters. Three days after, Allen was recaptured 
and once more joined our mess. 

Almost every night prisoners would escape, but nearly 
all were recaptured. Captain Halpin was out for five 
days at one time, and on the night of October 30th ran 
over the line again. On this occasion he was out three 
weeks, and when brought back had on a new suit of 
Confederate clothes. He told me that when recaptured 
he was taken to a farmhouse. The family said they would 
like to let him go but w^ere afraid the neighbors would 
inform on them. He was kindly treated and at night 
slept in the best bed in the house. In the evenings, when 
the young people went to little parties given by their 
friends, he was taken along and had a good time, which 
only made the sufferings of prison life harder to endure 
on his return to camp. November 1st a mail from the 
North arrived and long-looked-for letters were distributed. 

November 14th a large wild boar ran into camp. 
Cooper, Allen and I were going to the brook for water 
when he ran past us. Cooper dropped the kettle and 



384 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

grabbed the hog by the hind leg. By that time Allen had 
his clasp-knife open and in a few seconds had cut the 
whole ham off the hog. In five minutes not a trace of 
that lively porker could be seen. When fifty hungry men 
were fighting for a share — one having hold of his ear, 
another his tail and another a leg — it did not take long 
to get away with Mr. Hog. When our ham was boiled' 
it was so rank you could have smelt it a square away. 
One of our mess had to stand guard over it night and 
day till it was all eaten, fearing some of our friends would 
be tempted to dine on it. 

On the 29th of November, Captain John Taylor, of 
the Second Pennsylvania Reserves, made his escape by 
running past the sentinels who fired several shots at him, 
but before they could reload the Captain was in the 
woods. The Confederates thought he looked so lonely 
and forlorn traveling about in a strange country that they 
very kindly gave him a military escort, and in three weeks 
had him again amongst his friends in prison. This was 
the third or fourth time he had made his escape and been 
recaptured. 

One morning two bloodhounds came into camp, and, 
not being looked upon as friends of the prisoners, they 
were taken to a gravel pit and an artillery officer killed 
them with an axe and then buried them. Next day they 
were dug up by the Johnnies, who, to be revenged on us 
for slaying their dogs, said they would put the bodies in 
the brook above where it entered the camp, but I do not 
think the threat was carried out. It was reported that 
Lieutenant Parker, who made his escape, was so badly 
bitten by bloodhounds that he died the day after his 
recapture. 

December 1st, 1864, about nine o'clock in the morning, 



Reminiscence of Prison Life ifi the South. 385 

whilst walking near the dead line, I heard a shot, and, 
looking around, saw Lieutenant Turbayne, of a New York 
infantry regiment, just falling to the ground. The ball 
entered his back, passing through his lungs, and he lived 
but a few moments. He was walking on a path near the 
line when a sentinel, by the name of Williams, of Newbury 
Court-House, S. C, ordered him to go back. He turned 
and had only taken a few steps when fired upon. After 
the guard was relieved by the officer of the day we made 
a complaint to Major Griswold, the commandant of the 
prison, but he would not give us any satisfaction. That 
evening the murderer was back again on duty and next 
morning was paraded through camp escorted by a strong 
body guard, fearing if he came alone our officers would 
take revenge and kill him, as they threatened to do if 
they got an opportunity. Only a few nights after, 
Lieutenant T. K. Eckings, Third New Jersey Volunteers, 
was shot dead as he ran past the sentinels at the guard 
line whilst trying to make his escape. 

On the 9th of December an exchange came for about 
fifty prisoners and one for an officer by the name of 
Cooper, who wa.s not in the pen, he having made his 
escape. Lieutenant Richard Cooper, of our mess, said he 
would personate the absent officer and get exchartged. 
\\'hen the name was called and he had passed over the 
line to the place where the other officers were assembled, 
one of them told the Confederate officials he was not the 
right man. Cooper was immediately sent back to camp, 
and when he gave the name of the officer who informed 
on him the prisoners swore if they ever got North they 
would kill that " son of a gun ". 

On December 12th we were removed to Camp Asylum. 
The stockade enclosed part of the insane asylum grounds, 



386 



The Story of the ii6ih Regiment. 



and in it was a frame house which was used as a hospital 
for our sick officers. We were given lumber to build 
sheds and bunks, which, when finished, only held about 
one-half the prisoners. Each of the ten sheds was to 
accommodate fifty men, so we drew lots for a berth and I 
was fortunate enough to secure a place in one of the sheds. 
More lumber was to be sent but it did not come, so about 
six hundred men had to fix up sleeping quarters the best 
they could with their old blankets and some boards which 
they found in the stockade. Between scanty clothing, 
short rations and the intensely cold weather we had a hard 
time trying to keep warm. 

One day the Confederate sutler brought in a load of 
meal for our rations. When the negroes dumped it in 
the bin I watched my chance and stole an empty bag. 
By cutting a hole in the bottom for my head and one on 
each side for my arms, that evening on the promenade I 
sported a very stylish new shirt. 

Captain Fischer, an artist, obtained permission to go 
outside and make a sketch of the camp for the Confederate 
authorities. He also made a note of the formation of the 
ground outside the fence for us that we might know 
the best point for tunneling. Lieutenant McNiece, of the 
Seventy-third Pennsylvania Volunteers, had one dug from 
his shanty nearly to the fence when, one morning, the 
Johnnies came in and filled it up. How they found it out 
he never could tell, for no one in the camp knew he was 
making it. Tunnels were then the order of the day. We 
commenced one in the shed I was in. Every man was 
sworn to secrecy and at night a detail of five was made 
to work in the tunnel. One man would dig, another pull 
the earth out in an old box and the others would pack it 
under the bunks and scatter it about the prison grounds 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 387 

to conceal all traces of the work. Unfortunately, we were 
moved from the camp a few nights before its completion. 

Early in January a French captain was sent to 
command the prison. He was a good-natured fellow and 
promised to send in plenty of straw with which to make 
beds. Captain Henry Ritter, Fifty-second New York 
Volunteers, and some others were good at faro. The 
Frenchman thought he would soon "break the bank", 
but in two days our boys had him cleaned out of funds. 
A few days after he went on a big spree and was dismissed, 
so we had to do without the straw. 

Most of the time a number of our officers were at 
headquarters. It was said they were clerking for the 
Confederate officials, and they allowed they were justified 
in saving their lives by so doing, for they received more 
and better food than was given them in the camp. I 
thought they should have remained in the prison, taking 
their chances with the rest of us, and not aided the 
Confederates in any way. It was while we were at 
Columbia that Adjutant S. H. M. Byres, Fifth Iowa 
Volunteers, wrote "Sherman's March to the Sea", and 
Lieutenant Rockwell composed the music. 

For several days the negroes were telling us that 
Sherman was on the march from Charleston. On the 
afternoon of February 14th we were told to make ready 
to move and that evening at five o'clock we were marched 
out and put into box cars. We got under way and in the 
early part of the night it became very cold. A severe 
storm of rain and sleet came on, and when about thirty 
miles on the way the last car, in which I was, caught fire 
from warm boxes. The hind truck and bottom were nearly 
destroyed before the engineer stopped the train. Some of 
the guards on the tops of the cars were frozen stiff and 



388 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

had to be lifted down. We built fires with fence rails to 
keep ourselves warm whilst waiting for the Confederates 
to prepare another car which, when ready, was placed next 
the engine. We had not gone far on our journey when 
this car began to stretch. The engine in front and the 
weight of the train behind had nearly pulled the old box 
car in two, when the guards on the top, seeing the danger 
we were in, called to the engineer, who hastily brought the 
train to a standstill. The old wrecked car was removed 
from the track and, as there was no other to replace it, 
they were obliged to crowd us in with the other prisoners. 

In the evening of the loth we reached Charlotte, 
remained there over night, and next day were removed to 
Raleigh, where we were placed in a field near the railroad. 
Here w^e were given our parole and had hopes that we 
would be allowed to enter the town and enjoy a little bit 
of civilized life. But we were mistaken, for, in a few 
hours, we were put on a train tnade up of flat and box 
cars and started on our way to a new camp. When about 
a mile from town, a broken switch threw the engine and 
five or six cars off the track. They ran over the ties for 
about a hundred yards when the engine plunged down a 
high embankment. Fortunately, the coupling broke or 
the cars would have gone over and the loss of life would 
have been very great. Some of the prisoners said it was 
done with the intention to kill us, but others thought that, 
as the Confederate captain in command was on the 
engine, he would not risk his own life and the lives of 
the engineer and fireman for the satisfaction of killing us. 

The evening we left Columbia, there not being enough 
room in the cars for all the prisoners, several hundred 
were left in the camp and next day forwarded to Charlotte 
on another made-up train of box cars. During the trip, 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 389 

Captains Meany, Thirteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry ; 
Durborough of New York ; Evans of Ohio ; and Gilbert, 
One Hundred and Thirty-second New York Volunteers, 
cut a hole in the bottom of the car they were in with a 
saw which, by the help of an old file, they had made out 
of a table knife. After dark, the train ran into a herd of 
cattle that was being driven out of the reach of Sherman's 
Army. When the train came to a stop. Captain Evans 
dropped out to reconnoitre. He returned and reported 
to the boys that all was favorable for escape, but, as he 
lowered himself through the hole the second time, the 
guards saw him and several shots were fired, one ball 
passing into his stomach. He also received a bayonet 
wound. Captains Meany and Gilbert pulled him into the 
car and did what they could for their wounded friend, but 
he died in a few minutes. 

From Raleigh, many prisoners made their escape, 
amongst the number Captain Halpin, who safely reached 
Sherman's lines. The guards at this place, knowing we 
were on our way to be exchanged, seemed to have no wish 
to prevent our escape. Quite a number of them being 
Union sympathizers allowed us every chance to getaway. 
After being eight days at Raleigh we were removed to 
Goldsborough. Here there were thousands of prisoners 
encamped who had been brought from Andersonville to 
be exchanged. I spent a day amongst them and will 
never forget the awful scenes I witnessed ; men worn to 
skeletons from disease and want of proper nourishment, 
as black as negroes from sitting over the pine-wood fires 
and not being washed for months. Some wandered about 
as if demented ; a great many were in their last agony ; 
and a number of the dead were lying on the roadside, 
having been carried out of camp when their sufferings 



390 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

were over. Our officers gave their old blankets and what 
clothing they could possibly spare for the comfort of their 
wretched fellow-soldiers. 

February 28th, we were paroled and had to give our 
word of honor to the Confederates not to reveal in the 
North what we saw on the way to Wilmington. They 
took good care, however, that we should not see the 
fortifications for, when it became quite dark, we were 
crowded into, and on top of, cars and started on our last, 
but most welcome, journey. 

We stopped about eight miles from Wilmington, 
where we met Major Mulford, the Northern, and Captain 
Hatch, the Southern, Commissioner of Exchange. A 
Union guard was stationed on one side of the line and a 
Confederate one on the other. \\'hen we passed into our 
lines the Federal guard presented arms. Then went up 
a hearty cheer and old meal bags, tin cups and skillets 
went flying in all directions. Some colored troops who 
were quartered in the vicinity, gave us a rousing welcome. 
We then partook of a " good, square meal " of cofifee, 
meat and bread, which sumptuous repast made some of 
us exceedingly ill, not being used to such high living. 
The ver}' sick were taken on a steamboat to the city. As 
there were no other means of conveyance, the rest had to 
walk all the way along the railroad track. In the evening 
we had supper, and for the night were quartered in a 
Methodist Church. In the morning, I was physically 
much refreshed after the good night's sleep I had had in 
an uncushioned pew and, mentally and spiritually, I was 
much revived from having spent so many hours in such a 
sanctified place. That day we had a good breakfast and 
dinner and, in the evening, were put on board a steamboat 
and taken to Annapolis. When we arrived there we 



Reminiscence of Prison Life in the South. 391 

went to some clothing stores and, by giving our name, 
rank and regiment, got all the clothes we wanted on 
credit. We were then taken to the bath house, discarded 
our old rags with much pleasure, had a thorough wash, 
donned our new suits and every man thought he was 
himself again. We slept that night in a government 
building and, next day, the doctor sent me to the Naval 
Academy Hospital, where I remained for two months. 

In the hospital we were given good, nourishing food, 
so that gradually our systems were brought back to their 
normal state. We were not allowed to take any kind of 
spirituous liquors but at dinner, if we wished it, we were 
permitted to have one glass of beer. 

There was a captain of cavalry in the same ward with 
me. Thirteen of his men who had been in Andersonville, 
but were then in Camp Parole, got a thirty days' furlough 
to go home and see their families ; they came to bid their 
captain good-bye. All were cleaned up, had on new 
clothes and looked very well. When their time was up 
only two came back. Eleven had died from being overfed 
and having too good a time with their friends. The 
doctors at Annapolis said there were few, if any, who 
spent six months in prison who were not afflicted with 
some disease and the system could not stand the sudden 
change of diet. Of the nine men in my company who 
were captured, only three lived to return, the others having 
died in less than three months after being taken. 

When we were given notice of our exchange, I 
requested and received my discharge from the hospital 
and joined my regiment after an absence of nearly a year. 

One of my men, Sergeant Thomas Lacompte, who 
had been a prisoner in Andersonville, gave me a copy of 



392 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

the following verses composed by a Union captive after 
he was paroled : — 

UNION PRISONERS FROM DIXIE'S SUNNY LAND. 

Dear friends and fellow-soldiers brave, come listen to our song, 
About the Rebel prisons, and our sojourn there so long ; 
Yet our wretched state and hardships great no one can understand, 
But those who have endured this fate in Dixie's sunny land. 

When captured by the chivalry-, they strip't us to the skin, 
But failed to give us back again the value of a pin — 
Except- some lousy rags of gray, discarded by their band — 
And thus commenced our prison life in Dixie's sunny land. 

With a host of guards surrounding us, each with a loaded gun, 
We were stationed in an open plain, exposed to rain and sun ; 
No tent or tree to shelter us, we lay upon the sand — 
Thus, side by side, great numbers died in Dixie's sunny land. 

This was the daily "bill of fare" in that Secesh saloon — 

No sugar, tea or coffee there at morning, night or noon ; 

But a pint of meal, ground cob and all, was served to every man, 

And for want of fire we ate it raw in Dixie's sunny land. 

We were by these poor rations soon reduced to skin and bone, 
A lingering stanation — worse than death — you can but own, 
There hundreds lay, both night and day, by far too weak to stand, 
Till death relieved their sufferings in Dixie's sunny land. 

^\'e poor survivors oft were tried by many a threat and bribe, 
To desert our glorious Union cause and join the Rebel tribe, 
Though fain we were to leave the place, we let them understand, 
We had rather die than thus disgrace our flag ! in Dixie's land. 

Thus drear>- days and nights roll'd by— yes, weeks and months untold, 
Until that happy time arrived when we were all paroled. 
We landed at Annapolis, a wretched looking band, 
But glad to be alive and free from Dixie's sunny land. 

How like a dream those days now seem in retrospective view. 
As we regain our wasted strength all dressed in " Union Blue ". 
The debt we owe our bitter foe shall not have long to stand ; 
We shall pay it with a vengeance soon in Dixie's sunny land. 



Return March to Washington. 393 

The dreadful monotony of prison life was hard to 
endure ; day after day, week after week and month after 
month, the same scenes over again. When a few men 
would meet, the general conversation would be about 
home and family. The prospects were that the war 
would last so long they would not live to see the end, 
and that they would never be exchanged, and what then 
would become of their wives and children. I have seen 
some men so worried and despondent with. these thoughts 
they seemed to be demented and their hair, dark and 
glossy when captured, would be in a few months turned 
to gray or white. 

It is impossible for anyone, who has not been a prisoner, 
to realize the privation and suffering those unfortunate 
men had to endure. With few exceptions, their clothing 
was worn to rags ; a great number were without shoes or 
shirt, and they had nothing but their old blankets to cover 
them in the cold, frosty nights ; for months at a time lying 
on the bare, damp ground with no shelter ; the rations, 
scant and miserable ; and night and day constantly 
tortured with vermin from which no one could keep free. 
Is it any wonder that loathsome diseases should prevail, 
or that M'elcome death should end the earthly sufferings 
of so many thousands who went to that blessed land 
above that they might receive their Martyr's Crown ? 

RETURN MARCH TO WASHINGTON. 

As the army moved towards Appomattox through that 
portion of Virginia where hitherto but few of the Union 
troops had been seen, the slaves on the plantations 
watched the passing columns with great interest, some 
showing their white teeth in a broad smile, whilst others 
looked grave. They all seemed to feel that their fate 



394 The Story of the ii6th Regivient. 

rested with the boys in bkie, but the war was not yet 
ended, and they knew not whether they were to remain 
in bondage or breathe the air of freedom. 

The majority of the men had already gone North or 
had left for Alexandria, but the women and children all 
remained and swarmed to the roadside to see the army 
pass, all willing and anxious to give information of the 
flying Confederates. But when, after the surrender, the 
army passed over the same road, on the way back, the 
situation was dififerent. Every soiil of them had become 
aware of the Union triumph, and knew that, as a con- 
sequence, the chains had fallen from their limbs. Old and 
young wanted to abandon the homestead at once and 
follow the victorious army. The roads were soon filled 
with the poor things, each with a little bundle containing 
their all hung on a stick (just as the woodcuts of runaway 
slaves used to look in the newspapers in ante-bellum 
times), each one laughing and happy, all trampling 
towards the North, not ha\-ing an idea where they were 
going, but each thinking that Father Abraham would 
care for them somehow. For them the days of the lash 
and task-master were over, but the future was a blank. 
Now and then one would be encountered who had some 
definite object in leaving the plantation. 

One old darkey who paused in front of some officers 
began talking to them of the necessity of saving their 
souls and preparing for the great hereafter. A strange 
character he was, who could neither read nor write, but 
knew almost ever}^ word of the Bible by heart. He had 
been the local preacher of the plantation, and when one 
of the officers asked him if he believed in " Virtue, 
Liberty and Independence", he promptly rephed : "I 
don' know, massa, I don' know. I neber hear ob dat 



Return March to Washington. 395 

'ligion, but I bleve dat a man got to be bawn again if lie 
specks to be saved ". Abraham, for that was the old 
man's name (and as he said himself, " he neber had no 
names 'ceptin jus Abraham") remained with the regiment 
until it was mustered out. He was going to Alexandria 
to find his wife and child, who had been sold to some one 
near that city twenty-four years before. He had never 
heard of them during all that time, but his heart was true 
to the wife of his youth, and his newly found freedom 
was made sweeter by the hopes of finding once more his 
early partner and his child. Abraham held a prayer- 
meeting and preached a sermon every evening before 
" Taps ", and the negroes would gather around and enjoy 
it. The soldiers were at first disposed to laugh at the 
crude theology and uncouth oratory of the old slave, but 
they soon ceased to ridicule, and then listened with 
interest. 

Poor old Abraham ! I wonder if he ever found his lost 
bride and his little baby. He must be very old now, if 
he is still alive, and no doubt he is still searching for his 
lost love, if he has not already found her. If he has been 
"bawn agin" he has certainly met her, for, as he said 
(after learning the meaning of the words), " he bleved in 
de vartue, but dint know so much about de Liberty an' 
Independence". Let us hope that he enjoys all three in 
the Land of the Blessed. 

Perhaps one of the most interesting and remarkable 
things witnessed in connection with the homeward march 
was the late Confederate soldiers busily working on their 
farms. The very hour after the surrender they hastened 
to their former homes, and within twenty-four hours many 
of them were eagerly at work getting the neglected farms 
in order. As the Union Army had halted at Burkville for 



396 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

two weeks, the Virginian had time to reach his home and 
get to work before the returning victors passed his way, 
and in every case the ex-Confederate was found hard at 
work fixing up his fences or laboring in the field with the 
horse that General Grant had so wisely allowed him to 
keep when surrendering. Sensible and practical as well 
as brave, when they laid down the musket, they went 
back without delay to the ploughshare, and all along the 
road the ex-Confederate soldier w^as seen leaving his 
plough or harrow for a time and standing by the roadside 
to greet with a smile and pleasant word his foes of but a 
few days before. 

The Regiment encamped at Burkville Junction during 
the remainder of the month of April, and on the evening 
of the 15th the sad news of the assassination of President 
Abraham Lincoln was received. When the despatch was 
read the Regiment was just forming for dress-parade. 
The adjutant quietly removed his coat, and, ripping out 
the black lining, used it to drape the colors. The dress- 
parade that followed was silent and sad, the men looking 
towards the heavily draped flag and wondering what it 
meant. When the adjutant read the orders, and then, 
with tears streaming down his cheeks, and choking voice, 
read the announcement of the murder, the effect was 
indescribable. When arms were stacked the men 
gathered in little groups in the company streets and spoke 
in low tones of the martyred President, whom they loved 
so tenderly. 

It happened that Lieutenant William H. Tyrrell, of 
Company C, was on duty in Washington, and was 
" officer of the day" in the city when the assassination 
of the President took place. The lieutenant's account of 
the eventful evening is interesting. In his diary we read : — 



Return March to Washington. 



397 



" Friday, April 14th, 1805. Was detailed as " officer of 
the day " at Washington. A gentleman came very 
hurriedly to headquarters, between ten and eleven p. m., 
with the intelligence that the President had just been 
assassinated at Ford's Theatre, and informed General 
Augur in an excited manner, as nearly as he could, of the 
occurrence. The play was " The American Cousin ", 
and was going along smoothly when the whole audience 
was startled by a pistol shot in the President's box. A 
man sprang from it onto the stage, brandishing a large 
knife, and, shouting ''Sic semper tyya7mis'\ rushed 
across the stage and disappeared. The audience was 
terror-stricken. Some shouted that it was Booth. Others 
said no ; that it was only a subterfuge to shield the real 
assassin. General Augur ordered me to take a guard, 
go to the National Hotel and arrest Booth, anyhow. 
Went there, and was told he was not in. Went up to his 
room ; found everything there as though he expected to 
return soon. I returned to headquarters and reported. 
By this time it developed that an attempt had been made 
on Vice-President Johnson, and that Secretary Seward 
was also almost killed. I was ordered to return to the 
hotel and bring any papers or anything else which I 
thought likely to throw any light on the case. Brought 
some papers which led to the arrest of Atzerof and 
Herold ; also, two pairs of handcuffs which I found in his 
trunk. Reported at headquarters. Found great excite- 
ment there. Secretary of War Stanton, Adjutant-General 
Townsend and others were there. They did not then 
know the extent of the plot, and seemed to think that 
the provost-marshal's headquarters was a place of refuge. 
It then developed that the original plot was to capture 
Lincoln and Seward, get them across the line, hold them 



398 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

as hostages, and then make their own terms. The hand- 
cuffs were intended to be used on the occasion. There 
was an old mansion on Seventeenth street, about two 
squares below the White House, where the conspirators 
had a secret room fitted up for the reception of their 
distinguished captives. They could thus have been 
concealed a few minutes after their abduction, and no one 
would have thought of looking for them so near at hand. 
After the excitement was over they were to be taken over 
to Moseby's lines, and then to Richmond, but as that plan 
was evidently abandoned, the assassination followed. 

" The excitement in Washington was intense. The 
people were ready for any extreme. On the Sunday 
afternoon following, April 16th, a Confederate colonel was 
brought to the provost-marshal's office. An immense 
crowd of people gathered and wanted to hang him. 
While Colonel Ingraham, the provost-marshal, was 
talking and trying to quiet them, the prisoner colonel was 
hurried out the back way and driven in an ambulance to 
the old Capitol Prison. Monday morning, April 17th, at 
three o'clock, an orderly came to my house with orders to 
report at headquarters. On my arrival found that they 
had Payne, the man who had cut Secretary of State 
Seward's throat. He was a large, muscular man, and 
had his hands handcuffed behind him. He was captured 
by the detectives who were in Mrs. Surratt's house, on H 
street, near Sixth. He came to the door, and, as he had 
lost his hat, had taken the lower part of his trousers and 
made a cap of it. He had a spade in his hand and 
claimed to be a workman. Lieutenant Sharp and myself 
took him in an ambulance, with two guards walking 
outside to keep off intruders. Orders were to let no one 
know who it was. If it were known, a regiment of soldiers 




'*^**m„„mx««v»*J!V' 



!D PHOTOGRAPH OF WII.KES IIOOTH. LKf, IKONS AND H\NDCI'HFS INTRNPED FOR PKESIDENT LINCOLN. THESE 
ARTICLES WERE TAKEN OUT OF THE TRINK OF THE ASSAS>IN BY LIEITENANT TYRRELL 



Return March to Washington. 399 

could not hcue taken him down to the Navy Yard. When 
we arrived there the gates were closed, and the major in 
command turned out the whole guard, about twenty-five 
men, and put him in the centre until we arrived out on 
one of the ironclad monitors, where he was securely 
confined. It was thought necessary to do so, as no 
ordinary prison would have been safe from the populace, 
so intense was the public feeling. 

"The following Wednesday, April 19th, Colonel 
Ingraham ordered me to take a guard and proceed to the 
Baltimore and Ohio Depot. He met us there, and as 
soon as the train arrived put a guard on each door, and 
would allow no one out until the general who commanded 
the Department of Maryland came out with three 
prisoners, who were escorted to the large 'bus of Willard's 
Hotel. We all got in, and drove rapidly to the Navy 
Yard. No one on the train had suspected who the 
prisoners were, or they never would have reached 
Washington alive. They were Atzerof, Herold and Arnold. 
The former was the one who was to ha\'e assassinated 
Vice-President Johnson at the Kirkwood House, but he 
weakened at the last moment. Booth, after entering the 
passage leading to the President's box, secured the door 
on the inside, and, advancing, shot the President from 
behind. The pistol was a small Derringer, single barrel, 
about 42 calibre. Mr. Rathbone, the President's private 
secretary, tried to detain Booth but, brandishing a large 
knife, he leaped from the box. In doing so, one of the 
spurs which he had on caught in the flag in front of the 
box and threw him on the stage. In the fall he broke 
his ankle, but got up and drove the terror-stricken actors 
before him. He rushed out the back way into an alley, 
where he had a horse saddled, mounted it and escaped. 



400 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

"Thursday, April 20th, Dr. Mudd was brought to 
headquarters. It was at his place, down in Maryland, that 
Booth in his terrific ride stopped and had his broken 
ankle dressed, and received the carbine which had been 
previously left there by Mrs. Surratt. He then continued 
his journey until surrounded in a barn and shot by Boston 
Corbett while the barn was all ablaze. 

" Mudd was also put aboard the ironclad." 



During the homeward march a halt of a couple of days 
was made at Manchester, within a few miles of Richmond, 
and while there a platform was pointed out upon which it 
was said the slaves were stood to be auctioned. The men 
of the Regiment took it down and cut it into small pieces, 
and fired the pile with a show of ceremony. It seemed 
like a burnt offering on the altar of Liberty. The platform 
was of no further use. No man, no matter what his 
color, would ever again be bought or sold in all the land. 

While encamped at Manchester orders came to prepare 
for review in Richmond, and a busy day was spent 
cleaning up. Guns and equipments were made to shine, 
and when the troops passed through the late Capital of 
the Southern Confederacy they never looked so well. 
The white citizens were not backward in giving to the 
victorious army a welcome and a cheer, whilst the colored 
people seemed fairly crazed with joy. To them it was 
"Kingdom come", the day of jubilee longed for and 
prayed for. The column passed in review by the 
equestrian statue of Washington, in the Public Square, 
and the Father of his country seemed to smile in gladness 
on this happy day. The march continued through 
Hanover Court-House and then to Fredericksburg, and 



Return March to Washinq^ton. 401 

on to Alexandria, where a halt was made long ehoug"h to 
make out the muster-out rolls. 

In the last grand review, in Washington, May 23d, 
1805, the Regiment marched on the right of the Fourth 
Brigade, First Division, Second Corps. The Regiment 
on that occasion was commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel 
David W. Megraw, Colonel and Brevet Major-General 
St. Clair A. Mulholland being in command of the brigade, 
A few days afterwards the Philadelphia companies of the 
Regiment started for that city, and were finally mustered 
out on June 3d. The remaining companies w^ere mustered 
out at Pittsburg, July 14, 1865, and the Regiment passed 
out of existence. The members returned to their homes 
to be welcomed by their friends and fellow-citizens, to lay 
aside forever the uniform that they had honored, and to 
become once again a part of the people — a good citizen 
because a good soldier. 

The Regimental flags, four in number, shattered, 
bullet-torn and blood-stained, were deposited in the State 
Capitol at Harrisburg, where for generations to come the 
descendants of the members of the Regiment can wdth 
reverence look upon the sacred standards, the only 
remaining emblems of a gallant command that upheld 
them in storm of battle, carried them to victory, and 
returned them to the State with honor. 

Of the of^cers of the Regiment eight were killed in 
battle, two died of gunshot wounds, one died of disease, 
and one of disease contracted in southern prisons. 
Thirty-one were wounded, and seven were for months 
prisoners in the south. Of the original officers who left 
Philadelphia with the Regiment, September 2, 1862, only 
one. Colonel Mulholland, returned with the command at 
the close of the war. 



402 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



THE LAST MUSTER. 

On the 11th day of September, 1889, the last reunion 
of the Regiment took place when the survivors met at 
Gettysburg to dedicate a monument to the command. 
Post 51, Grand Army of the Republic, paraded as an 
escort, the batter}- of the post firing the salute, the first 
gun being fired by John W. Emsley, the son of an officer 
who never missed a fight or a battle, and, with sounding 
artiller}^ and speeches by Major Chill Hazard, General 
Thomas J. Stewart, Lieutenant Edmund Randall, General 
Mulholland and others, the splendid memorial was 
fittingly dedicated. 

General Mulholland, on the occasion delivered the 
following address : — 

In all the four years of its existence the men of the Army of the 
Potomac never hailed an order with more delight than that one which 
withdrew us from before Fredericksburg and sent us north. When on 
that lovely summer evening in June, 1863, we looked for the last time on 
Marye's Heights and the monument of Washington's mother, which had 
been shattered and broken by the shells of both armies and stood out 
there on the plain back of the citj' as though protesting against this fratri- 
cidal strife, a mute and sorrowful Niobe weeping for the misfortunes of 
her children, every heart beat with a quickening throb, and all the men 
rejoiced to leave the scenes of the last six months. We withdrew from 
the line of the river after the shades of night had fallen over the 
landscape, and it seemed to be an appropriate hour, for had not the great 
army while here been in shadow, without a ray of sunshine to gladden 
our souls, and we had been here so long that we were beginning to be 
forgotten as the Army of the Potomac, and letters came to us marked 
"Army of the Rappahannock ". 

As we marched away in the darkness our joy was notunmingled with 
sorrow, for was there a veteran in the ranks who did not leave behind 
the graves of noble and well-beloved comrades who had fought beside 
him from the beginning of the great struggle ? We did not march away 
with all the army, for when our camp-fires — which on this night burned 
with unusual brightness — went out and left the valley of the Rappahan- 
nock in darkness, the living army was gone to be sure, but twenty 




.— liePbnn'a Monument, in the Lo6p. 



MONUNfEXT OF THK REGIMENT AT GETTYSFiURG 



The Last Muster. 403 

thousand of our members lay over on ttie other side of the river — the 
heroes of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsvilie. An army of occupation 
indeed, the corps of honor, forming a great and permanent camp — the 
bivouac of the dead. 

Thoughts of sadness soon gave way to those of a more buoyant 
nature ; we feh, when the head of the column turned toward the Capital, 
that the road we trod would lead to victory. The march to Gettysburg 
was one of the longest and most severe we had yet experienced. In 
thinking of war we are apt to look only at the battles ; to hear the dread 
sound of strife ; see the deadly, gaping woimds, and are ready to crown 
the survivors or give honor to those who fell ; but the hardships of the 
marcli, the heats of summer, the colds of winter, the entire absence of 
every comfort and luxury^ in active service is overlooked or forgotten by 
those who do not participate. Napoleon, when retreating from Moscow, 
lost many of his men by the e.xcessive cold ; directly opposite was our 
experience on the way to Gettysburg. On one day, I think the second 
out from Falmouth, our corps lost more than a dozen men from sunstroke. 
They fell dead by the wayside. On another day we crossed the battle- 
field of Bull Run, where the year before Pope had met with 
disastrous defeat. No effort had been made to bury the dead properly ; 
a little earth, which the rain had long ago washed away, had been thrown 
over them where they fell, and their bodies, or rather their skeletons, 
now lay exposed to view. In some parts of the field they were in 
groups ; in other places singly and in all possible positions. One cavalry- 
man lay outstretched with skeleton hand still grasping his rusted sword ; 
another, half covered with earth, the flesh still clinging to his lifeless 
bones, with hand extended as if to greet us. We rested for a short time 
on the field, and one of the regiments of our brigade (the Twenty-eighth 
Massachusetts), halted on the very spot on which they had fought the 
year previously, and recognized the various articles lying around as 
belonging to their own dead. 

The route of the Second Corps to Gettysburg was over two hundred 
miles in length. Some days we marched fifteen, on others eighteen, 
miles, and one day (June 29) this corps completed the longest march 
made by infantry during the war, leaving Frederick City, Maryland, in 
the morning, and halting at eleven o'clock p. m., two miles beyond 
Uniontown, a distance of thirty-four miles. When I look back over the 
more than score of years to this march of the Second Corps, and think of 
the perfect discipline in the ranks, the cheerfulness with which the enlisted 
men, with their heavy load, musket and ammunition, knapsack and 
cartridge box, shelter tent and blanket, canteen and rations — trudged 
along under the broiling sun of the hottest month of the year ; how 
bravely they struggled to keep up with their regiments lest they should 



404 The Story of the ii6th Regmient. 

miss the fight, and how, while on the march no act was committed which 
could bring dishonor upon them as men, as citizens or as soldiers, my 
heart fills with admiration, and I offer a flowing measure of praise to my 
comrades who are yet alive and to those who are no more. There is not 
an inhabitant on all that line of march who can tell of a single act of van- 
dalism by any of the men, such as we are wont to hear of other armies. 
In the rich and cultivated country through which we passed life and 
property were respected as much as though we were in the halcyon days 
of peace. Old and young came to the roadside to see the army pass, 
and knew they were safe from insult or molestation. The fields of 
ripening grain waved untrampled when the corps had gone by, the men 
even going out of their way to avoid the gardens, lest they should step 
upon the flowers. The perfection of discipline in the army at this time 
was extraordinary. The armies that fought the war of 1861 differed verj' 
widely from the armies of other nations. We had no hordes of Cossacks, 
no regiments of Bashi-Bazouks, to burn and destroy, to insult the aged 
or crush the defenceless. 

When Hancock, at Williamsburg, said to his brigade, " Gentlemen, 
charge ", he did not call his troops out of their name. Our army was 
literally an army of gentlemen. 

And so we passed on to Thoroughfare Gap, to Edwards' Ferry, to 
Frederick, Maryland, to Uniontown and Taneytown, where, on the 
morning of July i, the Second Corps was massed and where General 
IMeade's headquarters had been established. While the corps were filing 
into the fields to the right and left of the road and settling down for a 
rest and to wait for orders. General Hancock rode over to General Meade 
and entered into conversation with him. As they were talking a 
mounted officer dashed up bringing the intelligence that fighting had 
begun at Gettysburg — thirteen miles distant. The news was meagre — 
only that there was fighting, that was all ; yet it caused a general 
surprise, unaware as we were of the near proximity of the enemy, and 
was enough to send a thrill throughout the veteran ranks. The road that 
leads to Gettysburg is scanned with anxious eyes and soon, away in the 
distance, rises a cloud of dust, which comes nearer and nearer, and 
another messenger from the front is with us. He tells us that Reynolds 
is killed and that the First and Eleventh Corps are fighting and the battle 
is against us. It is now one o'clock, too late for the Second Corps to 
reach the field that day to take part in stemming the tide ; but not so with 
its commander. Meade orders Hancock to proceed to the front and take 
command of all the troops there assembled. This was ten minutes past 
one o'clock, and within twenty minutes Hancock, with his staff, was on 
the road to Gettysburg. He goes like Dessai.x at Marengo, to snatch 
victor\- from the jaws of defeat. (A strange coincidence related to me by 



The Last Muster. 405 

General Hancock himself : nearly a century before, the grandfather of 
General Hancock, then a soldier of Washington's army, started from this 
same little village of Taneytown to escort some of the prisoners of 
Burgoyne to X'alley Forge.) The Second Corps promptly followed 
General Hancock, and it required no urging to keep the men up. The 
regiments moved solidly and rapidly and not a straggler was to be seen. 
Men never covered thirteen miles so quickly, but as they hurried along 
a halt was ordered, the ranks opened, and an ambulance passed contain- 
ing the dead body of the heroic General John F. Reynolds. Then the 
corps pushed on to within a short distance of the battle ground, where it 
camped that night and arrived on the field early the next morning. 

As General Hancock proceeded to the front, he rode part of the way 
in an ambulance so that he might examine the maps of the country, his 
aide. Major Mitchell, galloping ahead to announce his coming to General 
Howard, whom he found on Cemetery Hill, and to whom he told his 
errand. At half-past three o'clock. General Hancock rode up to General 
Howard, informing him that he had come to take command. Howard 
answered, "Hancock, go ahead". At this moment our defeat seemed 
to be complete. Our troops were flowing through the streets of the town 
in great disorder, closely pursued by the Confederates, the retreat fast 
becoming a rout, and in a \ery few minutes the enemy would have been 
in possession of Cemetery Hill, the key to the position, and the battle of 
Gettysburg would have gone into history as a Confederate victor}-. But 
what a change came over the scene in the next half hour. The presence 
of Hancock, like that of Sheridan, was magnetic. Order came out of 
chaos. The flying troops halt and again face the enemy. The battalions 
that were retreating down the Baltimore pike are called back, and with a 
cheer go into position on the crest of Cemetery- Hill, where General 
Howard, with excellent judgment, had placed Steinwehr's Division in 
anticipation of just such an emergency. 

When order had taken the place of confusion, and our lines once 
more intact, he sent his senior aide. Major Mitchell, back to tell General 
Meade, that in his judgment, Gettysburg was the place to fight our battle. 
Major Mitchell found General Meade in the evening, near Taneytown, 
and communicated these views. General Meade listened attentively, and 
on these representations he fortunately concluded to deliver the battle at 
Gettysburg, and turning to General Seth Williams, his adjutant-general, 
he said : " Order up all the troops, we will fight there I" 

The morning of July 2, and the second day of the battle, dawned 
clear and bright, and found Hancock posting the Second Corps on 
Cemetery Ridge. As yet, no one in that corps, with the exception of the 
general and his staft", had heard a shot fired. As we approached 
Gettysburg the day before, the sounds of the fight, owing to the direction 



406 The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 

of the wind or the formation of the country, were wholly inaudible. 
Those who came upon the field after nightfall had no idea of the 
whereabouts of the enemy, but as the daylight increased and objects 
became visible, we saw their lines nearly a mile distant on Seminary 
Ridge, and away to our left rose Little Round Top, and still farther on, 
Round Top. As the day wore on and not a shot or a hostile sound 
broke the stillness of the morning, it became evident that the enemy were 
not yet ready to renew the fight. Our corps had got into position (not 
on the eastern slope of Cemetery Ridge as now marked, but directly 
on the crest some fifty yards forward), and in the woods just back of our 
line the birds caroled and sang. Our horses quietly browsed in the rich 
grass, and the men lay in groups, peacefully enjoying a rest after the 
rapid march of the day before. The troops that arrived on the field or 
changed their position did so leisurely and unmolested. Sickles came 
up and went into position on our left, and Geary took his division over 
to Gulp's Hill. About ten o'clock a. m., picked firing was heard out 
towards the left beyond the Emmitsburg pike, continuing at intervals until 
long after noon, at times becoming quite sharp. But three o'clock came 
and still no signs of the general engagement. The boys had partly 
recovered from their fatigue and were actually beginning to enjoy life ; 
some of them indulged in a quiet game of euchre, while others toasted 
their hardtack or fried a little bacon at the small fires in the rear of the 
lines. Shortly after three o'clock, a movement was apparent on our left. 
From where we (Galdwell's Division) lay, the whole country in our front 
and far to our left, away to the peach orchard and to Litlle Round Top, 
was plainly visible, the view theri not being so obstructed by trees and 
shrubbery as at this day. Our division stood in brigade columns, and 
when it became evident that something was going to take place the boys 
dropped their cards, regardless of what was trump, and all gathered on 
the most favorable position to witness the opening of the ball. Soon the 
long lines of the Third Gorps are seen advancing, and how splendidly 
they march. It looks like dress parade, a review. On, on they go, out 
toward the peach orchard, but not a shot fired. A little while longer and 
some one calls out "there ", and points to where a puff of smoke is seen 
arising against the dark green of the woods beyond the Emmitsburg pike. 
Another and another until the whole face of the forest is enveloped, 
and the dread sound of artillery comes loud and quick ; shells are seen 
bursting in all directions along the lines. The bright colors of the 
regiments are conspicuous marks, and the shells burst around them in 
great numbers. The musketry begins, the infantry becomes engaged and 
the battle extends along the whole front of Sickles' s Gorps. (The writer, 
in company with General Hancock, who, a few minutes before, had 
ridden up to the right of the Second Brigade and dismounted. General 



The Last Muster. 407 

Caldwell, Colonel Kelly, of the Eighty-eighth New York, Colonel Burns 
of the Twenty-eighth Massachusetts, and several other field officers, who 
had sought that eligible locality to view the contest, were grouped 
together. Hancock was resting on one knee, leaning upon his sword ; 
he smiled and remarked: "Wait a moment, you will soon see them 
tumbling back ".) Now the sounds come from Little Round Top, and 
the smoke rises among the trees, and all the high and wooded ground to 
the left of the peach orchard seems to be the scene of strife. An hour 
passed and our troops give way and are falling back ; the odds are against 
them and they are forced to retire. 

A staff officer rides up with an order to the commander of the Second 
Corps to send a division to report to General Sykes on tlie left. Hancock 
quietly remarks : " Caldwell, get your division ready". "Fall in", and 
the men run to their places ; " take arms ", and the four brigades of Zook, 
Cross, Brooke and Kelly— although small in numbers — are ready for the 
fray. There is yet a few minutes to spare before starting and the time is 
occupied in one of the most impressive religious ceremonies I have ever 
witnessed. The Irish Brigade, which has been commanded formerly by 
General Thomas Francis Meagher, and whose green flag has been unfurled 
on every battle in which the Army of the Potomac was engaged, from 
the first Bull Run to Appomattox, and now commanded by Colonel 
Patrick Kelly, and to which our regiment was attached, formed a part of 
this division. The brigade stood in column of regiments closed en masse. 
As a large majority of its members were Catholics, the chaplain of the 
brigade, Rev. William Corby, proposed to give a general absolution to 
all the men before going into the fight. While this is customary in the 
armies of the Catholic countries of Europe, it was, perhaps, the first time 
it was ever witnessed on this continent, unless, indeed, the grim old 
warrior. Ponce de Leon, as he tramped through the everglades of Florida 
in search of the Fountain of Youth, or De Soto, on his march to the 
Mississippi, indulged in this act of devotion. Father Corby stood upon 
a large rock in front of the brigade. Addressing the men, he e.xplained 
what he was about to do, saying that each one could receive the benefit 
of the absolution by making a sincere act of contrition and firmly 
resolving to embrace the first opportunity of confessing their sins, urging 
them to do their duty well, and reminding them of the high and sacred 
nature of their trust as soldiers and the noble object for which they fought, 
ending by saying that the Catholic church refuses Christian burial to the 
soldier who turns his back upon the foe or deserts his flag. The brigade 
was standing at " order arms ", and as he closed his address, every man 
fell on his knees with head bowed down. Then, stretching his right hand 
toward the brigade, F"ather Corby pronounced the words of the general 
absolution, " Do»iiiius nosier Jesus Christus vos absolvat, et ego. 



408 The Story of the iiOth Regiment. 

auctoritate ipsius, vos absolvo ab vinculo excommunicationis et interdicti 
tn quantum possum et vos indigetis ; deinde, ego vos absolvo a peccatis 
vestris in nomine Patris, et Filii, et Spiritus Sancti. Amen!" The 
scene was more than impressive, it was awe-inspiring. Nearby stood 
Hancock, surrounded by a brilhant array of officers, who had gathered 
to witness this ver>' unusual occurrence, and while there was profound 
silence in the ranks of the Second Corps, yet over to the left, out by the 
peach orchard and Little Round Top, where Weed, Vincent and Hazlett 
were dying, the roar of the battle rose and swelled and re-echoed through 
the woods, making music more sublime than ever sounded through 
cathedral aisles. The act seemed to be in harmony with all the 
surroundings. I do not think there was a man in the brigade who did 
not offer up a heartfelt prayer. For some it was their last ; they knelt 
there in their grave clothes — in less than half an hour many of them were 
numbered with the dead of July 2d. \\'ho can doubt that their prayers 
were good ? What was wanting in the eloquence of the good priest to 
move them to repentance was supplied in the incidents of the fight. 
That heart would be incorrigible, indeed, that the scream of a Whitworth 
bolt, added to Father Corby's touching appeal, would not move to 
contrition. 

The maps published by the Government made the time of Caldwell's 
Division moving to the left at four o'clock. I think this was a mistake. 
I believe it was nearly five o'clock before we started. The division 
moved off by the left flank and marched rapidly. We had hardly got 
under way when the enemy's batteries opened and shell began falling all 
around us. The ground on which this division faced the enemy on the 
afternoon of the 2d had already been fouglit over, and the fields and 
woods were strewn with killed and wounded. 

Our division moved from its position on Cemetery Ridge without 
change of formation, each brigade being in column of regiments, the 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania being the rear or left of the 
column forming the Second, or Irish, Brigade, each regiment, of course, 
moving by the left fiank. We soon descended to the low ground, skirted 
a small run and, on reaching the plowed land near Trostle's House, 
received a fire of solid shot from the enemy's guns then in position near 
the peach orchard, for by this time all that ground had been cleared of 
our troops and gims ; still moving to the left the division reached the spot 
now known as "The Valley of Death" in front of Little Round Top. 
As we passed the road to the north of the wheat-field, General Hancock 
sat upon his horse, looking at the troops. As Colonel Cross, of the 
Fifth New Hampshire Regiment, passed by, he said to him: "Cross, 
this is the last fight you'll fight without a star". Without stopping, 
Cross replied : " Too late, too late, general, this is my last battle ". Ten 



X 




rhf Last Muster. 4(J9 

minutes afterwards the country lost one of the best soldiers in the army. 
Cross was dead, shot at the head of his brigade leading them to the 
charge. 

When we reached Little Round Top the division was deployed 
double-quick. Cross's Brigade deployed to the left of the wheat-field 
and moved forward, as did each brigade, without waiting for the other 
brigades. Up to this moment, strange to say, not a shot was fired at our 
regiment (or more properly battalion, for we had been consolidated into 
four companies). Suddenly someone in the ranks cried out " there they 
are !" Sure enough, not forty feet from us up towards the crest, beiiind 
the trees and big rocks covering that ground, was the enemy ; no orders 
were given, but in an instant every musket on the line was at its deadly 
work. The enemy having to rise to fire over the rocks, their shots for 
the most part passed over our heads, but as they exposed themselves to 
our men at such close quarters, armed with smooth-bore musket firing 
*' buck and ball " (one large ball and three buck shot), the effect of our 
fire was deadly in the extreme, for, under such circumstances, a blind man 
could not have missed his mark. The officers, too, joined in the fray, 
each one emptying his revolver with effect. For ten minutes this work 
went on, our men seeming to load and fire twice as fast as the 'enemy. 
Now the voice of Kelly is heard ordering the charge ; with a cheer, a few 
quick strides, and we are on the crest among the enemy. 

Here took place a rather extraordinary scene. Our men and their 
opponents were mingled together. In charging we had literally run 
right in among them. Firing instantly ceased, and we found there were 
as many of the enemy as there were of ourselves. Officers and men of 
both sides looked for a time at each other utterly bewildered ; the fighting 
had stopped, yet the Confederate soldiers stood there facing us, still 
retaining their arms and showing no disposition to surrender. At this 
moment I called out, "Confederate troops, lay down your arms and go 
to the rear !" This ended a scene that was becoming embarrassing. The 
order was promptly obeyed and a large number of what I think were men 
of Kershaw's Brigade became our prisoners ; they held the left flank of 
their line. In front of our brigade we found that the enemy had suffered 
much more than we had. When engaged, our line was below theirs, as 
they stood on the crest of the hill. They fired down while our men fired 
upward and our fire was more effective. On their line we found many 
dead, but few wounded— they were nearly all hit in the head or upper 
part of the body. Behind one rock we counted five dead bodies. This 
was some of the most severe fighting our division had ever done. During 
the fight our regiment held the extreme right of the division, and from 
where we stood we could see the peach orchard, and none of our troops 
were between that point and us — a distance of an eighth of a mile. 



410 The Story of the ii6th Reghuent. 

Some fifteen minutes after the fighting had ceased we dressed line 
and our men awaited the next event. About the same time I noticed 
what I beheved to be a column of the enemy passing through the peach 
orchard and to the rear of our division. I reported the matter to the 
brigade commander (Colonel Kelly), but I could not convince him that 
the column was a Confederate force, the smoke and distance preventing 
our seeing accurately. We were soon convinced, however, that the 
column in question was of the enemy (Semm's and VVoftord's Brigades); 
we were surrounded and in danger of capture. 

I quickly told the men of my own command the danger and for each 
one to look to his own safety, pointing out the direction they were to 
take towards Little Round Top. I rolled up the colors and with some 
thirt}- men ran down through the woods and into the wheat-field ; 
here we were in a trap, a line of the enemy was advancing on the wheat- 
field from the south and Woftord's Brigade, the column I had seen 
marching around the peach orchard and into our rear, was closing in from 
the north. We caught it from both sides, the slaughter here being 
appalling, but we kept on, the men loading and firing as they ran, and by 
the time we had reached the middle of the field the two lines of the enemy 
were so close that for a few moments they ceased firing on us, as they 
fired into each other. Then I heard voices calling out, " come here, run 
this way"; a few seconds more and I was over a low stone wall and 
among Sweitzer's Brigade. About ten of my command were with me, 
others were saved, many by running into Ayres's Division as it advanced. 
I went back to the Tanej-town road. I there found Colonel Brooke, 
Fifty-third Pennsylvania, commanding brigade, re-forming the division. 
He directed me to plant my colors nearby and assist him, which I did. 

Passing through this alley of death in the wheat-field, where the 
bullets came in showers, we got away with a large part of the division, 
but the loss was terrible. In the half hour we were under fire fourteen 
hundred men were lost. Of the four brigade commanders, two were 
killed — General S. K. Zook and Colonel E. E. Cross. Zook fell almost 
at the first fire and Cross a few minutes afterwards. 

Some of the men who fell in the wheat-field during the retreat of this 
division and were forced to lie there between the two fires, fared badly. 
One man of our regiment fell, shot through the leg, and while he lay 
there was hit five or six times. When it became evident that we had to 
fall back, our wounded, with visions of Belle Isle and Libby before them, 
begged piteously to be taken along — many of them keeping with us 
wholly unaided. 

At Waterloo, Wellington petitioned God for "Night or Blucher". 
At Gettysburg, on this evening, we had no Blucher to pray for. Our 
whole force was up ; but, while omitting the last part of the great 



The Last Muster. 411 

Englishman's prayer, we had every reason to adopt the first portion. As 
the fight was closing upon the left of our army Ewell was striking a 
terrific blow on the right. As we re-formed our division on the Taney- 
town road, and we had some difficulty in getting things in shape after 
the rough handling we had received, we heard, away to the right and 
rear, the yells of Ewell's men as they rushed over our works at Gulp's 
Hill. This was the most anxious hour of all. We had been driven on 
the left, and on the right the enemy had effected a lodgment in our 
works, in one of our strongest positions, and were, in fact, in our rear, 
without any adecjuate force to oppose them. Another hour of daylight 
and, unless some miracle had intervened, we would most likely have left 
Gettysburg without waiting to bid the inhabitants good-evening. But, 
fortunately for us, there was no Joshua around Lee's headquarters, so the 
sun went down on almanac time, utterly regardless of the little troubles 
we were trying to settle. Darkness fell upon the scene and prevented the 
Confederates from taking further advantage of their success, giving us 
chance to repair our disasters. 

Few slept during that night. Our division went back and was put in 
position on Cemetery Ridge by General Hancock, who, all the night long, 
labored to strengthen this line. The men gathered rocks and fence-rails 
and used them to erect a light breastwork. Had the necessary tools 
been distributed to the troops, we could have intrenched this line and 
made it formidable, but we could not find a pick or a shovel, and the 
works that we did attempt were very light, scarcely sufficient to stop a 
musket ball. During the whole night mounted officers galloped to and 
fro and troops were hurried to important points. At the first faint gray 
of the morning of July 3d the fight was resumed on Gulp's Hill, where 
darkness had interrupted it the night before, and from then until about 
eleven o'clock the fire was heavy and incessant. We knew that Slocum 
was trying to drive the enemy out of our works, which they had slept in 
and occupied without invitation the night before. Gulp's Hill was about 
a mile from where we lay and we could hear the cheers of Geary's men, 
which came to us on the morning air, mingled with bullets which had 
missed the mark for which they were intended and, almost spent, went 
singing over our heads. As the day advanced sounds of the artillery 
mingled with the musketry, and we knew that a hard fight was in progress. 
The men of our line almost held their breath with anxiety. About eleven 
o'clock the firing suddenly ceased. A tremendous cheer went up and, 
a minute later, every man in the army knew we were again in possession 
of Gulp's Hill. Then came two hours of peace— a perfect calm. 

It was a warm summer day and from Round Top to Gulp's Hill 
hardly a sound was heard, not a shot fired. The men rested after the 
fighting of the previous evening, no troops were moving to or fro. The 



412 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

only activity seen was the stretcher-bearers taking the wounded to the 
field hospitals, but during those two hours we could see considerable 
activity along Seminary Ridge. Battery after battery appeared along the 
edge of the woods. Guns were unlimbered, placed in position, and the 
horses taken to the rear. Our men sat around in groups and anxiously 
watched these movements in our front and wondered what it all meant. 
Shortly after one o'clock, however, we knew all about it. The head- 
quarters' wagons had just come up and General Gibbon had invited 
Hancock and stafY to partake of some lunch. The bread that was handed 
around, if it was eaten, was consumed without butter, for as the orderly 
was passing the latter article to the gentlemen a shell from Seminary 
Ridge cut him in two. Instantly the air was filled with bursting shells ; 
the batteries that we had been watching for the last two hours going into 
position in our front did not open singly or spasmodically. The whole 
one hundred and forty-seven guns, which now began to play upon us, 
seemed to be discharged simultaneously, as though by electricity. And 
then for nearly two hours the storm of death went on. I have read many 
accounts of this artillery duel, but the most graphic description by the 
most able writers falls far short of the reality. No tongue or pen can find 
language strong enough to convey any idea of its awfulness. Streams of 
screaming projectiles poured through the hot air, falling and bursting 
everywhere. Men and horses were torn limb from limb ; caissons 
exploded one after another in rapid succession, blowing the gunners to 
pieces. No spot within our lines was free from this frightful iron rain. 
The infantry hugged close the earth and sought every shelter that our 
light earthworks afforded. It was literally a storm of shot and shell that 
the oldest soldiers there— those who had taken part in almost every battle 
of the war— had not yet witnessed ; that awful rushing sound of the flying 
missiles, which causes the firmest hearts to quail, was everywhere. 

At this tumultuous moment we witnessed a deed of heroism such as 
we are apt to attribute only to knights of the olden time. Hancock, 
mounted and accompanied by his stafY— Major Mitchell, Captain Harry 
Bingham, Captain Isaac Parker and Captain E. P. Brownson— with the 
corps' flag flying in the hands of a brave Irishman, Private James Wells, 
of the Sixth New York Cavalry, started at the right of his line, where it 
joined the Taneytown road, and slowly rode along the terrible crest to 
the extreme left of his position, while shot and shell roared and crashed 
around him, and every moment tore great gaps in the ranks at his side. 
It was a gallant deed, and withal not a reckless exposure of life, for the 
presence and calm demeanor of the commander, as he passed through 
the lines of his men, set them an example which, an hour later, bore 
good fruit and nerved their stout hearts to win the greatest and most 
decisive battle ever fought on this continent. For two hours our batteries 



The Last Muster. 413 

replied vigorously and then ceased altogether ; but the Confederate shells 
came as numerously as ever ; then, for ten minutes, not a soul was seen 
stirring on our line — we might have been an army of dead men for all the 
evidence of life visible. Suddenly the enemy stopped their fire, which 
had been going on for two hours without intermission, and then the long 
lines of their infantry— eighteen thousand strong — emerged from the 
woods and began tiieir advance. 

At this moment silence reigned along our whole line. Witli arms at 
a "right shoulder shift" the division of Longstreet's Corps moved 
forward with a precision that was wonderfully beautiful. It is now our 
turn and the lines that a few moments before seemed so still now teemed 
with animation. Eighty of our guns open their brazen mouths, solid shot 
and shell are sent on their errand of destruction in quick succession. We 
see them fall in countless numbers among the advancing troops. The 
accuracy of our fire could not be e.xcelled, the missiles strike right in 
the ranks, tearing and rending them in every direction. The One 
Hundred and Si.xteenth Regiment was supporting Sterling's Second 
Connecticut Battery, the men lying in front of and between the pieces ; 
it was marvelous, the rapidity and accuracy with which these guns were 
served. The ground over which the enemy have passed is strewn with 
dead and wounded. But on they come. The gaps in the ranks are closed 
as soon as made. They have three-quarters of a mile to pass, exposed to 
our fire, and half the distance is nearly passed. Our gunners now load 
with canister and the effect is appalling, but still they march on. Their 
gallantry is past all praise — it is sublime. Now they are within a hundred 
yards. Our infantry rise and pour round after round into these heroic 
troops. 

At Waterloo the Old Guard recoiled before a less severe fight. But 
there was no recoil in these men of the South — they marched right on as 
though they courted death. They concentrate in great numbers and 
strike on the most advanced part of our line. Here the crash of the 
musketry and the cheers of the men blend. The Philadelphia Brigade 
occupy this point. They are fighting on their own ground and for their 
own State, and in the bloody hand-to-hand engagement which ensues the 
Confederates, though fighting with desperate valor, find it impossible to 
dislodge them — they are rooted to the ground. Seeing how utterly 
hopeless further eftort would be, and knowing the impossibility of 
reaching their lines, they attempt to retreat, and the battle is won. To 
the left of the Philadelphia Brigade we did not get to such close quarters. 
Our eager gaze was upon Pickett and his murderous reception by the 
Philadelphia Brigade, but now right in our own front Wilcox's and 
Perry's Brigades are seen coming straight for our line, every musket is 
tightly grasped and our men become impatient to begin their work, but 



-414 The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 

the orders are to hold the fire, and it took all the officers could do to 
keep the men from firing. But the enemy are coming nearer, and as the 
welcome order is sounded down the line, "ready", the air becomes 
filled as though by a great flock of white pigeons — it was the fluttering of 
hundreds and hundreds of white rags, the tokens of surrender — and 
Wilcox's and Perry's men throw down their arms and surrender. As the 
mass of the enemy come into our lines, some few spirits, bolder than the 
rest, run back to their own lines, our men being prevented from firing on 
them for fear of killing the prisoners. 

Five thousand prisoners were sent to the rear, and we gathered up 
thirt\"-three regimental standards in front of the Second Corps. The 
remaining hours of daylight during this day were occupied in caring for 
the wounded, looking over the field and talking over the incidents of the 
fight Many noble officers and men were lost on both sides, and in the 
camp hospital they died in hundreds during the afternoon and night. The 
Confederate General Annistead died in this waj'. As he was being 
carried to the rear he was met by Captain Harn- Bingham, of Hancock's 
staff, who, getting off his horse, asked him if he could do an\'thing for 
him. Armistead replied to take his watch and spurs to General Hancock 
that they might be sentto his relatives. His wishes were complied with. 
General Hancock sending them to his friends at the first opp>ortunil\'. 
Annistead was a brave soldier with a chivalric presence, and came 
forward in front of his brigade wa\-ing his sword. He was shot through 
the body and fell inside of ourlines. Some of the wounded Confederates 
showed considerable animosity- toward our men. One of them, who lay 
mortally wounded in front of the Sixtx-ninth Pennsylvania, sullenly 
refused to be taken to the hospital, saying that he w anted to die right 
there on the field where he fell. The scene after Longstreet's charge was 
indescribable. In front of the Second Corps the dead lay in great heaps. 
Dismoimted guns, ruins of exploded caissons, dead and mutilated men 
and horses were piled up together in even," direction. 

Out on the field, where Longstreet's Corps had passed, thousands of 
wounded were lying. We had no means of reaching these poor fellows, 
and many of them lay there between lines until the morning of the 5th. 
The Com'ederates could be seen moving around on Seminan,- Ridge. 
Welcome supplies came up and were issued. All hands felt cheerful, but 
a degree of uncertainty- as to whether the battle was over or whether the 
enemy were getting ready for some new movement, prevented us from 
celebrating the national anniversarj- in a proper manner. Once in a 
while the sharpshooters would tr>- their skill on some of our j>eople to 
let us know they were still there. The stench from the dead became 
intolerable, and we tried to escape it by digging up the ground and 
bur>-ing our faces in the fresh earth. 



The Last Muster. 41=> 

On the morning of the 5th we found the enemy had j^one, and then 
what a scene. I think the fact was first discovered by the troops on 
Gulp's Hill, and what a cheer went up ; a cheer that swelled into a roar 
and was taken up by the boys on Cemetery Hill rolled along the crest to 
Round Top and then back again. Cheers for the Philadelphia Brigade 
that stood a living wall against which the hosts beat in vain. Cheers for 
Meade, the soldier "without fear or reproach", who here began with a 
great victory his illustrious career as commander of the Army of the 
Potomac. Cheers for Hancock, for Howard, for Slocum, for Sedgwick 
and for Sykes ; for Gregg, of the Cavalrj-, and Hunt, of the Artillery, 
and for all the great army. 

On the morning of the Sth of July I went out in front of our line to 
wash at a small run when I came across our picket line ; they were New 
York troops, I think the One Hundred and Eleventh Regiment ; about 
forty of them lay dead in a regular line, just as they had been posted ; 
caught between the two fires, not a man seems to have escaped. 

In the battle of Gettysburg we were but a small battalion of one 
hundred and sixty-five ofiticers and men, and lost thirty-seven killed and 
wounded ; most of these were lost on falling back through the wheat- 
lield on the evening of the second day's fight, but in that fight the dead 
and wounded Confederate troops found lying behind the rocks when we 
charged and captured the wooded crest, proved to us that we inflicted a 
much greater loss upon them than they upon us. 

ADDRESS OF LIEUTENANT EDMUND RANDALL. 

Comrades : Twenty-seven years ago this month we "broke camp" 
for the first time. As we filed out of those beautiful woods to the Lan- 
caster Pike, just beyond Hestpnville on the outskirts of Philadelphia, 
with light hearts and elastic steps, we started on that eventful three 
years' march, our destiny and destination then unknown. Kind Provi- 
dence hid from our sight the bloody tracks we were to make over many 
fields in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Our death roll was 
started ere we left the precincts of our deserted camp, and, oh, how 
quickly it was filled ; that holocaust at Fredericksburg on December 13, 
1862, added to it the names of forty-four gallant comrades, the first to 
receive their furloughs on the battle-field, which truly took them home. 

Some of us fell out of the ranks early on this march. Some, driven by 
distress, sought the shelter of the hospital, from which they emerged 
broken down, a few of them still stalking among us like living wrecks ; 
some weak and exhausted returned to their homes, others among you 
with stout hearts tramped the unmeasured miles of that great march 
which led you through Charlestown, through the dismal and bloody fields 



416 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 

of Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, where your hearts sickened by 
defeat and misfortune almost to despair, to the glorious field on which 
we now stand. Oh, what memories cluster around this hallowed spot ! 
Here in July, 1S63, you planted your standard, and, like MacGregor of 
old, your "foot was on your native heath ", and you could not be con- 
quered ; from here still onw ard you marched ; never again defeated, 
though sometimes repulsed, receiving heavy blows and many bloody 
wounds, until April, 1865, brought you out of the dismal woods, and you 
at length beheld the glorious sunrise at Appomattox shed her golden 
rays upon your tattered standard crowned with victory. Oh, what a 
victory, the like of which the world had never witnessed, a victory shared 
even by our enemies, for with them have you shared its fruits, a country 
saved and united. How different would it have been had we failed at 
Gettysburg. Georgia, New York, South Carolina, Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, would have been, if not hostile, at least foreign. States and 
strangers to each other. This would have been a continent of inharmo- 
nious States, and not an American citizen upon it. We took no prisoners, 
inflicted no punishments, but, having triumphed, invited our foes to sit 
with us and enjoy the banquet our valor had prepared. Where in history 
can such magnanimity be paralleled ? 

Comrades, we would not now change this condition of affairs if it 
were possible, yet, standing here upon this historic spot, to dedicate this 
monument to the memory of our comrades who paid the forfeit of their 
lives that our country might not perish, let us not forget that there is 
unhappily in some parts of this land a feeling ripe that would belittle 
your victory here by undue praise of your foes, whom, in the charity of 
our hearts, we have forgiven. Yet look you around here at these stones 
and tree stumps, behind which, on July 2, 1863, lurked armed enemies 
who shot the life of many of our comrades away, comrades to whom this 
day we dedicate this granite monument. Forgive them we do, and 
time's merciful hand may even blot their crime from memorj-. Yet praise 
them never, while this monument tells of martyred men and the glorious 
cause for which they died. 

Comrades, there were many others who started with us on that 
march from Jones's woods who neither left the ranks nor yet returned 
with you to Philadelphia in June, 1865, when you furled your colors 
and returned them, unsullied, to the State which gave them in your 
keeping three years before. Where are these comrades ? The good, 
the brave, the best of all ; they fought the good fight through, stripped 
off their armor and stepped behind the veil that hides us from our God. 
Yea, on every field, from Fredericksburg to Appomattox, our comrades 
of the One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment can be found sleeping 
beneath the sod. 



The Last Muster. 417 

Here we are to-day, comrades, twenty-seven years older than when 
we started on our three years' march, the designs of Providence now 
unfolded, and we alone of that strong column are left surviving — it may 
be questioned whether our lot has been the hap])iest. Our comrades went 
down in honor. How grand was the fate of those who gave up their lives 
for their country. Generations yet unborn shall sing their praises. So 
long as this country shall exist, so long shall the memory of our dead 
comrades be honored and glorified. Without the blood of our fore- 
fathers in 1776 this free country would never have sprung from the 
womb of time. Without the blood of our comrades its life would have 
been trampled out by the Rebellion of i86r. How happy should we feel 
that we have been spared to assemble here to-day to dedicate this 
monument to the memory of the fallen brave ; it is the last and only act 
we can do for them. 

Comrades our work is done ; yet a little while longer we must linger 
here in camp, watching and waiting day by day, as one or the other of 
us wearies of this life's long march, unslings his knapsack and falls out to 
rest with our comrades sleeping here. It will be but for a day in time's 
calendar when the adjutant of the Lord shall sound the last call which 
will assemble us all again to hear the Lord of Hosts call the roll of the 
just. Oh, comrades, may we be all upon the right hand and hear the 
voice of our great Captain, Christ, proclaim "all present and accounted 
for". 

And now the writer brings the record of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania Volunteers to a 
close. His heart goes out to every member of the 
Regiment living, and the dead who sleep on thirty battle- 
fields ; to every lonely grave on the Blue Ridge and on 
the Rappahannock's banks where angels guard the 
mouldering form of the hero who still remains at his 
post and whose sacred ashes mark the line of the picket 
where he stood on guard, and fell, the true and faithful 
sentinel of forty years ago. 

His heart is filled with sweet recollections of all the 
dear comrades, memories sad and tender of those who 
are no more, and happy in the warm affection of those 
who are still enjoying the blessings of the land they 
helped to save. 



418 The Story of the Ii6th Regiynent. 

In the fond hope of meeting one and all again, 
"farewell", or rather "good night", for, believing that 
He who even "marks the fall of a sparrow" will grant 
great reward to everyone who did well in helping to 
preserve the Union of States, thus saving the American 
continent to freedom and liberty, the writer lives, ex- 
pecting to meet again with all the noble souls who 
marched and fought in defence of the flag of the One 
Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment ; and so, as the evening 
of life draws near, the shadows fall, and the hour 
approaches for the final "taps". In the hope of the 
glory of that last "reveille" which shall find us united in an 
eternal bivouac, my comrades, one and all, " good night ". 



ROSTER 
One Hundred and Sixteenth Regiment 

Pennsylvania Volunteers 



420 The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



TT is to be greatly regretted that this roster of the 
Regiment is very incomplete ; more than four hundred 
names will be found unaccounted for. Many of these 
were killed, others died of disease or wounds or in 
southern prisons. Every effort has been made by the 
writer to complete the record of each man, but the only 
source from which the information could be obtained is 
closed, as the following letter will show, and there is no 
other means available. The roster, as it appears here, 
was made principally from memory of those present at 
the muster-out of the command and was hurriedly made, 
more for the purpose of mustering those present at that 
time than accounting for those absent : — 

Washington City, June 19th, 1893. 
To THE Adjutant-General 

OF THE State of Pennsylvania, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Sir : Referring to your letter of the 14th inst., received to-daj-, in 
which you enclose rolls of the One Hundred and Sixteenth Pennsylvania 
Volunteers, and request that such information relative to the final record 
of the members of said Regiment as is lacking from those (some three 
hundred in number) whose names appear on said rolls, be supplied from 
the ofiticial records on file in this Department, for use in publishing a 
history- of that command, I am directed by the Secretary of War to invite 
your attention to the enclosed copy of orders dated February 17th, 1892, 
which sets forth the rule of the Department relative to requests of this 
nature. Under this rule it becomes necessar>' to deny all requests for 
information for personal or historical purposes, and it is regretted that 
the information you desire cannot, therefore, be furnished. 

The rolls submitted by you are herewith returned. 

\'er>- respectfully, 

F. C. AiNSWORTH, 

Colonel United States Army, 
Chief Record and Pension Office, 



Three Years Service. 



421 



Field and Staff Officers. 



Dennis Heenan. 



St. Clair A. Mulholland.. 



Richard C. Dale 

David W. Megraw 



George H. Bardwell. 



John R. Miles.... 
Garrett Nowlen.. 



Louis J. Sa 



David S. Bunnell.., 
Richard H. Wade 



Lieut. Col 
do 



.Major... 



Adjutant 
do 



Thomas S. Ewing do... 

...Q. M. 



AUiam B. Hartman 

John W. Rawlings 



Surgeon 
do 

Asst Surg, 



DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



Sept. 
Sept. 



April 14, 1864 
April 14, 1864 



Sept. 1, 1862 



July 3, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 



March i, 1863 



Oct. 15, 1S64 



June 2o, 1862 
Aug. 8, 1862 



Sept. 1, 1862 
March 9, 1862 



July IS, 



Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 
— honorably discharged by reason of con- 
solidation of regiment to a battalion of four 
companies, Jan. 27, 1863. 

Lieut.-Col., Sept., 1862 — Major of battalion, 
Feb. 27, 1863 — Col. of reorganized regiment. 
May 3, 1864 — Brevet Brig -Gen., for services 
in Wilderness campaign — Brevet Maj. Gen. 
for capturing Conlederate fort in front of 
Petersburg, Oct. 27, 1864 — Congress medal 
of honor for distinguished services on the 
picket line at Chancellorsville, May 4, 1863 
— wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862; at Wilderness. May 5, 1864 ; at Po 
River, Va., May 10, 1864, and at Tolopoto- 
my, Va., May 31, 1864 — honorably disch. by 
reason of termination of war, June 3, 1865. 

From Lieut -Col. 123d Regiment, Pa., Vols. 
— killed at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. 

From Capt. Co. H, to Major, Jan. 28, 1865, 
to Lieut. Col., June 6, 1865— wounded at 
Five Forks, Va., March 31, 1865 — honorably 
discharged by reason of termination of war, 
July 14, 1865. 

Brevet Lieut. Col. and Brevet Col. for services 
at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec 13, 1862 — 
wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862 — 
honorably discharged by reason of consolida- 
tion of regiment into battalion, Jan. 27, 1863. 

Wounded at b redericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862 — 
resigned Feb. 16, 1863. 

Promoted from 2d Lieut., Co. G, Feb. 27,1863, 
to Capt., Co. D, Nov. 21, 1863, Brevet Maj 
— wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862— killed at Reams Sta.,Va., Aug 25, '64. 

Promoted from ist Lieut., Co. D, Nov. 21, 
1863, to Capt.. Co. D, Sept. 22, 1864 — 
wounded at Cold Harbor, Va , June 3, 1864. 
Brev Maj. forgallant service during the war. 
— Congress medal of honor for distinguished 
service on the picket line at Bristoe Station, 
Va., Nov. 14, 1863— transferred to Regular 
Army at close of the war. 

Wounded at Five Forks, Va., May 31, 1865 — 
mustered out with regiment at close of war. 

Resigned January 26, 1S63. 

Promoted from Quartermaster Sgt , Jan. 27, 
1863 — mustered out with the regiment at 
close of war 

Honorably discharged March 19. 1863. 

Promoted from Asst. Surgeon, July 4, 18S3 — 
honorably discharged at close of war. 

Promoted to Surg., of SSth Penna. Infantry, 
Feb. 3, 1S63. 



422 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



DATE OF 

MISTER ISTO 

SER^^CE. 



Phiup A. Boy^e 

D. S. Cunningham „» 

Rev. Edward McKee_... 
Rev. Bernard McCoUum 

W'ilUam J. Bi:rk 

George M. Book 

George Roeder 

Samuel D. Hunter 

George McMahon — 



Asst.Suig. 

do 

Chaplain 



Sept. 1,1862 
Oct. I, 1864 
Sept. 24, 1862 
Nov. 18, 1864 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Sept. 5,1862 

do ' Aug. 30, 1862 

do._... Aug. 5, 1862 

Q. M. ^t. Aug. 14, 1862 



Sgt. Maj. 
do.„.. 



Francis E. Crawford do. 

John LuttoD _ do 

Daniel Reen „ .. Com. ^t. 

Patrick Costello do 

Charles Shelly — do ... 

Frederick Wagner Hos. Std 

T. W. Vanneman Prin. Mu 



July 19, IS02 
t-eb. 13, 1864 
July 16, 1862 
June 22, 1862 
Feb. 29, 1864 
June 16, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 



Resigned February 2c, 1&C3. 

Resigned October '18, 1864-' 

Resigned December 24, 1S62.. 

Honorably discharged at close of war. 

Promoted' to ist Lieut , Company C. 

Promoted to ist Lieut., Company B. 

Promoted to 2d Lieut., Company A. 

Promoted to 2d Lieut., Company F. 

Promoted to 2d Lieut , Co. B., April S, 1864 — 
prisoner of war from May 10, 1864, until Feb., 
1865 — honorably discharged at close of war. 

Promoted to ist Lieut., Co. B, March 7, 1863. 



Honorably discharged at close of war. 



Company A. 



Patrick Carrigan Captain 

Seneca G. Willaner_ ' do 



William M. Hobart_ ' do.. 

George Halpin do.. 



Christian Foltz _ 2d Lient. 

George Roeder _ | do 

Thomas Derailer- do 

William Emsley do 

Ambrose O. Wilson Sergeant 

Josiah C. Randolph do 

Samuel Llewellyn 1 do 

Charles Gallagher do 

Matthew Murray. .._ do 

James McCready- do 

Thomas Dougherty ' do 

William Nichols 1 Corporal 

Nathan .^dams „.. do 

Mathias Landricaa. do 

Daniel Price do 



Oct. 25, 
Aug. 26, 


1862 
1862 


June II. 


1862 


Aug. 30, 


1862 


Sept. 5. 


1862 


Aug. 30, 


1862 


Aug. 4. 


1862 


Aug. 13, 


1862 


Aug. 14, 


1862 
1862 

1&62 


K3: 


1862 
1862 


Aug. II, 


1862 


Aug. 28, 
. uneso, 

July 25, 
Aug. 2, 


1862 

1862 
1S62 
1862 

1862 



Discharged by special order, Jan. 27, i&f^. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

— promoted from ist Lt. Co. C, March i,'63 

— transferred as ist Lieut, to 24th reg. Vet. 

Res. Corps, Feb. 5, '64 — to 6th reg., April 

25, '64 — promoted to Capt nth reg., Dec. 3, 

'64 — Brev^ Maj., March 13, '65 — discharged 

October 30, :&67. 
Promoted from ist Lieut., March i, 1864 — 

discharged Jan. 2, 1865. 
Wounded at" Getty sburg. Pa , July 2, 1863 — 

prisoner from July 2, '63, to April 11, '65 — 

promoted from 1st Sgt. to ist Lieut., April 

14, '65 — to Capt. May 15, '65 — mustered out 

with company, June 3, 1865. 
Promoted from Sergeant, Oct. 25, '62 — killed 

at Fredericksburg, Va , Dec. 13, 1862. 
Promoted from Sgt. Major, March 1, 1863 — 

Oct. 2E, 1863, dismissed. 
Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864 — 

prom, from Sgt — com. ist Lieut , Jan. 23, 

'65 — mus. out with company, June 3, '65- 
Promoted from 1st Sgt.,June i, '65 — mustered 

out with company. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865 
Mustered out with company. June 3, 1865. 
Promoted from Corp., May i, '65 — mustered 

out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 

discharged October 13, 1863. 
Detailed on staff of Gen. Meagher — mustered 

out with company. 
Drowned in Acquia Creek, Va., May i, '64. 

\ Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 



Three Years' Service. 



423 



Thomas Scarlett., 



Jacob A. Coble 

William C. And. ess.. 



James F. Duffey. 



Philip Clause 

Robert Henry 

Ahem. Daniel 

Allingham, Robert.. 



Corporal 



..do.. 
..do... 



do 

Musician 

do 

Private 
do 



Arms, John W ' do 

Altimus, John S ■ do 

Butters, Thomas : do .... 

Book, George M do 

Bidding, .\ugustine ' do 

Beale, James do.. 

Brocklehurst, Robert., 



do.. 

Conway, John [ do.. 

Cole, John do.. 

Carroll, Alexander I do.. 

Cummings, John do.. 

Corloy, John i do.. 

Clark, Hugh do . 

Delhi, Jacob H do.. 

Dunn, John j do.. 

Devonshire, Jeremiah j do.. 



Douglass, Robert.. 



Dobbins, John W do 

Dyson, Freeman do 

Engle, Peter | do 

Edwards, Thomas I do 

Eisenhower, Kred ' do 

Foltz, Samuel • do .... 

Gravell, George ' do .... 

Giltman, John do 

Goldy, John .. ..do 



Geiger. John „.... 

Harman, \Vm. H 

Handline, George 

Hibbs, Joseph H 



Howe, \Vm. H 

Hart, John 

Hendricks, Jonas M. 



Hauck, Daniel 



DATE OP 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



June 18, 1862 

Sept. 5, 1862 
July 31, 1862 

July 31, 1862 

July 7, 1862 
June 28, 1862 
Aug. 11,1862 
June 28, 1862 

Aug. 4, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 

Aug. 8, 1862 
Sept. 5, 1862 
Aug. 12,1862 
Kcb. 29, 1864 

July 8, 1862 

Aug. 28, 1862 
July 14, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 

May 12, 1864 
Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug. 28, 1862 

Aug. 4, 1862 



Aug. 28, 1862 



Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Feb. 
July 
Sept. 
Aug. 
July 
June 



do Aug. 13, 1862 

do June 15, 1862 

do Aug. 12, 1862 

do Aug. 12, 1862 



Aug. 8, 1862 
Feb. 28, 1864 
Aug. 18, 1862 

Aug. 23 1862 



Promoted to Corp., May i, '65— mustered out 

with company, June 3, 1.: 5. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

— not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — not 

on muster-out roll. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Deserted July 7, '63 — returned May t, '65 — 

transferred to Co. K, June 2, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Died December, 1863, of wounds received at 

Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Promoted to Sergeant Maj. — date unknown. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to V. R. C— disch. by G. O.— 

date unknown. 
Discharged for wounds received at Gettys- 
burg, Pa., July 2, 1863. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Captured at Bristoe Station, Va., Oct. 13, '63 

— died in prison. Belle Island. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 

mustered out wiih company, June 3, 1865. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863— 

transf. to sist Co., 2d batt.V. R. C, Nov. 15, 

'63 — disch. Aug. 5, '65 — e.\p. of term. 
Wounded at Chancellorsville.Va., May 3, and 

at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — disch. by 

General Order, June 26, 1865. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Died at Petersburg, Va., Oct., 1864. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 
Mustered out for disability, Dec, 1863. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Discharged by General Order, Nov. 14,1865. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 

died Nov. 2, 1864 — buried in Poplar Grove, 

National Cemetery, Petersburg, Va., div. D, 

sec. C, grave, 80. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3. 1865. 
Transferred to 53d company, 2 batt. V. R. C. 

— disch. by General Order, Nov. 22, 1865. 
Executed — date unknown. 
Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 

not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 



424 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



Hutchinson, Wm., 



Hartnett, James... 

Jones, Charles 

Johnson, Charles. 
Kite, Wm. S 



Keim, Ephraim.. 
Kearns, John.... 
Lawson, Jacob.. 

Lick, Jacob 

Lynch, Joseph .. 
Moser, William. 
Mosley, John...., 



Mills, Charles 

Murray, James 

Michael, Charles 

Mickle, JohnB 

Marshall, Samuel 

Moxley, Wm 

McNamara, Matthev 

McDonald, John 

McCarter, Wm 



McNulty, Bernard , 
McSorley, Patrick. 
O.xenford, Henry... 



O'Hara, Henry 

Pennypacker, S.... 

Porter, Charles 

Rodormell, Chas... 



Ryan, Isaac L 

Ryan, John 

Sacriste, Sebastian. 



Sickles, Charles . 
Smith, James 



Smith, Benjamin. 



Strechaboc, Jacob 

Smith, Josiah 

Stephenson, Robert J 



Twelves, Stephen 

Toner, John 

Taylor, Francis 

Turner, George , 

VeriU, John 

Wadsworth, Job 

Whitaker. Warren , 

Webb, Wm. H 

Wade. Richard H 

Woodward, John , 



DATE OF 

lUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



June 24, 1862 



Mar. 25, 1864 
Aug. 14, 1862 
April 6, 1864 
Aug. 19, 1864 

Feb. 24, 1S64 
Feb. 24, 1864 
Aug. 20, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 
Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 
June 13, 1862 

Aug. 22, 1862 
Mar. I, 1864 
Aug. 30, 1862 
July 30, 1862 
Aug. ig, 1862 

July 31, 1862 

Mar. I, 1864 
Aug. 23, 1862 

Aug. 30, 1862 
July 9, 1862 
Aug. 8, 1862 

July 7, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 29, 1862 
Aug. 12. 1862 

Feb. 12, 1864 
Mar. 8, 1864 
July 30, 1862 



Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 4, 1862 



Aug. 30, 18 
June 16, iS 
Aug. 9, iS 

Aug. 16, iS 
Feb. 17, lE 
June 13, lE 
Aug. 22, lE 
Aug. 20, lE 
July 26, lE 
Feb. 8, lE 
Aug. 22, lE 
Aug. 8, lE 
Aug. 16, iS 



REMARKS. 



Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 
transferred to Co. D, nth reg. V. R. C. — 
discharged by General Order, June 28, 1865. 

Not on muster-out toll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to V. R. C. — discharged by Gen- 
eral Order, June 27, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Discharged by General Order, June 9, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa , July 2. 1863— 
absent, in hospital, at muster out. 

Discharged by General Order, June 26, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Discharged by General Order, June 26, 1865. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 3, '62 
— mustered out with company. 

Not on muster-out roll 

Not on muster-out roll 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862 — not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 
mustered out with company, July 3, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa., 
July 2, 1863 — ab. at Camp Parole, Anna- 
polis, Md., at muster out. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862, and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 
mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862, and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 
not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 
not on muster-out roll. 

Discharged by General Order, May 27, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Gettysburg. Pa., July 2, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. K, June 2, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Promoted to Q. M. Sergt.— date unknown. 

Missing in action, Oct. 12, '63 — died in prison 
at Belle Island. 



Three Years' Service. 

Company B. 



425 



Thomas A. Murray.. 
Francis T. Quinlan.. 



Francis E. Crawford. 



John McNamara.... 
Timothy J. Hurley, 



George M. Book 

Robert T. Maguire. 



Thomas McKnight. 



Henry D. Price. 



Thomas A. Dorwart. 
Wm. O'Callagan 



Thomas J. Murtha.... 
Benjamin F. Groves . 



John H. McCullough.. 
James E. Craig 



Captain 
do .... 



DATE OF 

MUSTBR INTO 

SERVICE. 



.do 

Lieut. 



,st Sgt 
Sergeant 



Daniel Connelly.... 

Daniel Reen 

Augustus Lindsay , 
Charles Bishop 



James Davies , 

Lawrence J. Coates.. 
Jacob W. Adams 



Corporal 

do , 

do 



James A. Carlin ' do.... 



John H. Rowen.... 
James M. Moore.. 



John Farley ' do.. 



Henry Adams 

Charles Porter 

Anderson, S. P 

Austin, Charles 

Anderson, William., 



Musician 

do 

Private 

do 

do 



Sept. 

Sept. 



July 19, 1862 



Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 

Sept. s, 1862 

Aug. 23, 1862 

July 12, 1862 



July 5, 1862 

Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug. 15, 1862 



July 24, 1862 
Aug 4, 1862 



Aug. 15, 1862 
July 22, 1862 



Aug. 12. 1862 
July 16, 1862 
Aug. li, 1862 



July 21, 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 

Aug. 18, 1862 

Aug. 6, 1862 
Aug 16, 1862 

Aug. 14, 1862 

June 26, 1862 
Aug. 29, 1862 
July 5. 1862 
July 7, 1862 
July 10, 1862 



REMARKS 



Discharged by General Order, Jan. 27, 1863. 

Promoted from ist Lieutenant, Co. H, Mar. 
7, 1863 — discharged April 15, 1863. 

Promoted from Q ^L Sergeant to 1st Lieu- 
tenant, Mar. 7, 1863— Captain, Nov. 25, 1863 
— wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864 
— captured at Reams Station, Aug. 25, 1864 
— mustered out with company, June 3, 1865, 

Resigned March 7, 1863. 

Discharged Oct. 6, 1862. 

Promoted from Sergeant Major, Nov. i, 1862 
— discharged Jan 26, 1864. 

Promoted from 2d Lieutenant, Mar. 7, 1863 — 
discharged Mar. 10,1863 — died of wound re- 
ceived at Fredericksburg — date unknown. 

Promoted from Sergeant, February 3, 1864 — 
discharged July 30, for wounds with loss 
of hand, received at Petersburg, Va., June 
16, 1864 — re-commissioned Dec. i, 1864 — 
mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Promoted from ist Sergeant to 2d Lieutenant, 
Sept. 2, 1862— to ist Lieutenant, Co. C, Mar. 

1. 1863. 

Promoted to 2d Lieutenant, Mar. 19, 1863 — 

cashiered Jan 7, 1864. 
Promoted from Sergeant to 2d Lieutenant, 

Mar. I, 1864 — to 1st Lieutenant, Co. \, May 

2, 1864. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Commissioned 2d Lieutenant, Co. E, June 1, 
1865 — not mus. — mustered out with com- 
pany, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Commissioned 2d Lieutenant, Company 0, 
June I, 1865 — mustered out with company, 
Junes. 186.;. 

Discharged by General Order, May 18, 1865. 

Promoted to Com. Sergeant, Jan. 29, 1863 

Transferred to U. S. Navy, March, 1864 

Wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864 — mus- 
tered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, 1864 — 
mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Reams Station, ^'a.. Aug 25, 
1864 — mus. out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Promoted to Corporal, Jan. i, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Promoted to Corporal, Jan. 1, 1865 — mustered 
out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3. 1865. 

Disch'd on Surgeon's certificate. May, 1864. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863. 



426 



The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 



DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



REMARKS. 



Bishop, Charles 

Brown, William H.... 



Bentley, George W 

Bennett, James 

Birely. Isaac 

Eagshaw, Walter.. 
Blackburn, John.... 
Brooks, William H 

Black, Theodore 
Bjwiin, Michael 

Brennan. Dom. C 
Chambers, William... 

Cannon, Bernard , 

Cummings, James .... 

Clark, William 

Carter 

Collar, John , 

Collins, Henry -M...., 

Clifford. Charles , 

Clements, William..., 

Carroll, James 

Clause, Philip 

Collins, Charles 

Cocklin, William 

Casey, Patrick , 

Campbell, James 

Coggins. Bartholotc 
Clark, John 

Cummings, Benjamin ' do.. 



Chambers, Willian 
Chambers. James 
Davison, George... 
Daisley, Thomas... 




Delaney, Matthew... 
Dennison, Edmund.. 

Deener, Henry 

Dugan, Hugh 

Daley, Jameb 

Doublebower, F. T.. 

Delaney, Fenton 

Deveney, Michael .. 
Dempsey, John 



Decamp, William.... 

Elliott. George 

EUeman, Philip H 

Erwin, Edward 

Emrich, Harr>' 

Fisher, Andrew 

Fagan, Edward 



June 30, 18 



Aug. 7, 1862 



June 27, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1864 
Aug. 28, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 12, 1862 
Aug. 12, 1862 

Aug. 22, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 

Aug. 28, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 

Aug. 4, 1862 
Aug. 24, 1862 
Aug. 7, 1862 



1864 



July 9. 

Feb. 9, 
July 9,1862 
July 14, 1862 

Aug. 13, 1862 
June 28, 1862 
July 5,1862 
July 14, 1862 
July 29, 1862 
Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 

Aug. 30, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug. II. 1862 
Aug. 10, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 
June 14, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 



3 Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

1862, and at Five Forks, Mar. 31, 1865 — ab. 

in hospital at master out. 
3 Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

12, 1864 — discharged on Surgeon's certificate 

— date unknown 
3 Transferred toVet. Res. Corps— date unknown 
3 Transferred to Co. H, June 2, 1865 
3 Disch'd on Surgeon's certificate, Dec, 1863. 
3 Disch'd on Surgeon's certificate Feb. 7, 1863. 
3 Transferred to Co. C. Jan. 26, 1863. 
3 Died May 3, 1864 — buried in Cathedral 

Cemetery, Phila. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 



Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Feb. 23, 1864 [ 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Feb. 18, 1864 I 
July 7,1862 
July 22, 1B62 
Aug. 9, 1862 I 
Aug. 7, 1862 
Aug. 9, 1862 I 
Aug. 25, 1862 I 
Aug. 29, 1862 



1862 — transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863 

Prom, to ist Lieut. 69th Pa. Vols , June, '63. 

Wounded at Wilderness, Va , May 3, 1864 — 
mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3. 1865. 
, Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

-A.bsent, in hospital, at muster out. 
' Buried at Winchester, Va. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

.Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. H, June 2. 1865. 

DUch'g on Surgeon's certificate. May. 1863, 

Killed at Petersburg. Va., June 16, 1864. 

Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26. 1863. 

Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862 — discharged — date unknown. 

Died Sept. 3, 1864— buried at Cy. Hill Ceme- 
ter>-, L. I. 
; Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
I Not on muster-out roll 
' Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, 1864 — 
! discharged by General Order, June 29, 18O5. 
' Disch'd nn Surgeon's certificate. Mar., 1863 
I Not on muster-out roll. 
' Transferred to Co. C. Jan. 26, 1863. 

Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 27, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg. Va , Dec. 13, 
1862 — discharged April 19, 1864. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 
' Absent, in hospital, at muster out. 

Killed at Spottsylvania C.H.,Va., May i8,'64 
— wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec 13. '62. 



Three Years' Service. 



427 



Frise, Johr 



(jasper, Henry 

Gibbons. Richard 

Gilbert, Stephen 

Gibson, William 

Gray, James 

George, John 

Gray, Thomas 

Gaffney, Francis 

Hughes, Lewis W 

Hill, John 

Hunt, David M 

Hamsbury, Joseph S. 
Henderson, Joseph.... 
Hevener, Jonas D 



Haley, James 

Haas, Henry 

Higgins, James B... 

Haley, William 

Hurley, Dennis 

Isaacs, George 

Jones, Williams .... 

Joyce, Patrick , 

Jordan. James , 

Jones Francis 

Keenan. Francis E.. 

Kelly. John 

Klyse, Henry 

Kej'ser, Charles 

Lincke Henry 



Lutz, Jacob 

Little, William H. 



.do., 
.do.. 
.do.. 

.do 

.do 
.do 

do 

do. 
.do 

do. 

.do 

.do, 
.do, 
.do 



DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SKKVICB. 



July 29, 1862 

Aug. 14, 1862 
Feb. 4, 1864 
Jan. 28, 1862 
July 7, 1862 
July 14, 1862 
July 17, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug 18, 1862 
June 14, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Sept. 3, 1864 
Feb. 5, 1864 
Feb. 21, 1864 



Lenci, Augustus 

Laudensch lager, G.. 



Leguin, John S 

Landrican, Matth's. 

Lehman, John 

RIooney. Dwen J. .., 

Murray, John 

Monahan, James..., 
Manneeley, Wm 



.do 

.do 

.do 

do 

do 

do 

.do 

.do 

.do 



July 
July 

July' 
Sept. 
May 
July 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug 

Ji'iy 



Aug. IS, 1862 
July 7, 1862 



Aug. 12, 1862 
Mar. 22, 1864 



Mabuerry, Isaac ^L 

Mink, Andrew J 

Mallon, Daniel 

Morrow, Robert 

Melville, Wm. B 

Marks, James 

Mooney, Wm. W 

Martin, Manuel 

M'Mullin, John R... 



M'Mahon, George.. 



.do 

.do. 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

do 



23, 1002 

25, 1862 

26, 1862 
28. J862 

9, 1864 

22, 1862 
25, 1862 
25, 1862 
30, 1862 
19, 1862 

12, 1862 

13, 1862 

23, 1862 



1862 



Aug. 19, 
July 25, 1862 
July 22, 1862 
Aug. 20, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Aug. 20, 1862 
.Aug. 9. 1862 



Aug. 18, 1862 
Jan. 13, 1864 
July II, 1862 
July 21, 1862 
Aug. II, 1862 
Aug. II, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 



Aug. 29, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 



62 



26, 



1865. 
1863. 



1. 26, 1863. 



Wounded at Fredericksburg,Va., Dec. 13, 

— not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865 
Transferred to Co. H, J 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. C. J: 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll 
Transferred to Co. C, Js 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Transferred to Co. H, June 2, 1865. 
Disch'd on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. i, 1865. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

18,1864 — discharged on Surgeon's certificate, 

Feb. lo, 1865. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Discharged by Special Order, June 17, 1864 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863 — 

mustered out with company, June 3, 1865 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Captured at Spottsylvania, C. H., Va., May 

12, 1864 — absent, at Camp Parole, Annapolis. 

Md., at muster out. 
Transferred to U. S Navy, April 12, 1864. 
Transferred toVet. Reserve Corps, Apr 15, '65 

— discharged by General Order. July 22, '65. 
Killed at South Side R. R , Va , April 2. '65. 
Transferred to company A- date unknown. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Mustered out with company. June 3, 1865. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va.. June 2, and 

at Reams Station, Aug. 25, '64 — mustered 

out with company, June 3, 1865. 
Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Mar., '63. 
Transferred to company H, June 2, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Died at Philadelphia, Pa., July 19. '63. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64— 

absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Promoted to (^). M. Sgt., Jan. 27, '63. 



428 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



M'Hugh, James. 



M'Cuen, John 

M[Grath, John 

M'Coy, James 

M'Cann, Bernard... 
M'Gurk, William... 
M'Guigan, Francis.. 

M'Laughlin, Pat 

M'Nulty, Michael .. 

M'Millin, John 

Oliver, Abraham 

Porter, William 



Parker, John 

Pilkington John... 
Porter, Aubrey, Sr 

Polly, John 



Pilgen, Adam 

Pryor, Michael 

Price, Daniel 

Price, William 

Parker. William 

Ryan. John 

Rutherford, Thos '. 

Richmond, Samuel G. 



Russell, John.. 
Rogers, John.. 
Ryan, James.. 
Sally, Patrick. 



Search, Francis 

Sperling, Frederick., 

Shields, James 

Stokes, Charles 

Scott. Patrick 

Shields, John 

Steenbury, Charles.. 

Smith, Dixon 

Stewart, Robert......" 



Sharpe, Mu 



Standring, John . 

Stein. Louis 

Stein, John _ 

Smith, Wm. S. . 
Smith, Thomas. 

Spain, Patrick 

Scott, James 

Sanderlon, Benj... 
Spence, Michaei.... 
Thomas, Alonzo C. 

Tracy, Francis 

Vaughan, Joseph 

Vanderslice, And 

Vanloan, George \V... 



Priv 



do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 



...do.. 
.. do.. 
...do.. 



... do, 

do., 

,... do., 

do. 

do , 

do.. 



.do. 




DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



July 2j 1862 

June 21, 1862 
July 5,1862 
July 5, 1862 
July 28, 1862 
Aug. 6, 1862 
Aug. 12, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 23 1862 



Aug. 14, 1862 
Aug. 20, 1862 

July 19, 1862 
Aug. 12, 1862 
Sept. IS, 1862 

Apr. 14, 1864 

July 23, 1862 
July 29, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Aug 18, 1862 

June 24, 1862 
June 14, 1862 
May 9, 1864 
July 7, 1862 

July 24, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Aug. 15, 1862 
July 14, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Mar. 26, 1864 
Feb. I, 1865 
Mar. 29, 1864 
Apr. 15, 1864 

July 18, 1862 



July 21, 1862 
July I, 1862 
July 12, 1862 
July 28, 1862 
July 21, 1862 
July 31, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Aug. 30, 1862 
Apr. 14, 1864 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug. 6, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Feb. 4, 1864 



Died at Frederick, Md., July, 1863— burial 

record. 

Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Promoted to ist Lt. company G, April 4, '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Wounded at Wilderness, May 5, '64. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2. 1863 — 

mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Wounded at Five Forks, Va , March 31, 65 — 

discharged by General Order, May 3, '65. 
Wounded at Wilderness. Va., May 5, 1864 — 

transferred to company H, June 2, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll 
Absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Mar., '63. 
Missing in action at Spottsylvania Court 

House, Va., May 12. '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec 13, '62. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — 

mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Tr. to 115th reg. Ohio Vols., Feb. 13, '63. 
Transferred to company H, June 2, '65. 
Transferred to company H, June 2, '65. 
Discharged by General Order, June 7, '65. 
Wounded at Tolopotoray, Va., May 31, '64 — 

transferred to company H, June 2, '65. 
Transferred to company B, 22d reg. Vet. 

Reserve Corps— wounded at Fredericksburg 

— discharged by General Order, July 3, '65. 
Not on muster out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to company C, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to company C, Jan 26, '63. 
Transferred to company H, June 2, '65. 
Transferred to Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Wounded in action, Sept. 25, '64 — discharged 

by General Order, May 15, '65. 



Three Years Service. 



429 



Watling. Charles.. 

Wright, John 

Whildin. Matthew. 

Wells. Kdward 

Wilbur. Oscar 

Young, William 



Private 

.... do 

do 

do.... 

do.... 

do 





H 

3 


DATE OF 




MUSTER INTO 




SERVICE. 


\ 


Aug. 6, 1862 
Aug. 7, 1862 
Aug. 9, 1862 

Aug. 22, 1862 

Aug. 30. 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



Died at Beverly, N. J., April 14, '65. 
Transferred to Co. C. Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. C, Jan. 26, '63. 



Company C. 



John Teed 


Captain 


Aug. 26, 1862 


3 


Captured at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2, 1863— 
com. Major, April 8. 1864,— not mustered — 
hon. disch. on acct. of disabiliti-, Nov. 28, '64. 




do 


July 5.^862 


3 


Pr. from 2d Lieut Co. B.to ist Lieut. Co. C, 






March i, '63— to Capt., Co. C. April 8, '64— 










Brev. Maj.— kill'dat Petersburg, Oct 27, "64 


William J. Burk 


do 


Aug. 14, 1862 




Captured at Williams Farm.Va., June 22, '64 










—promoted from Sgt Maj. to ist Lt . Jan. 










28, '65— to Capt., Feb. 13, '65— mustered out 










with company, June 3, '65. 


Seneca G. Willauer 


I St Lieut 


Aug. 26, 1862 




Wounded at hredericksburg, Va, Dec. i3,'62 
— promoted to Capt. Co. A, March i, '63. 










Thomas Gray 


do 


Aug. 2, 1862 


3 


Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa , July 2, 1863— 
promoted from Sgt., Feb. 13, 1865— musteied 
out with company, June 3, 1865. 


John B. Parker 

Wm. H.Tyrrell 


2d Lieut. 


Aug. 26, 1862 


3 


Resigned March 21, 1863. 


do 


Aug. 12, 1862 


3 


Promoted from Sgt., Co. K, May i, 1863— 










transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 12, '63 










—wounded at Fredericksburg. 


Abr.-iham L. Detwiler 


do 


Aug. 11, 1862 


3 


Pr. to Cor.,— to Sgt.— to 2d. Lt., Nov. Q,'63— 
com. ist Lt , April 8, '64— wd. near Peters- 
burg, Va., June 16, '64— disch. Dec. 23. 64. 


Wm. Chambers 


ist Sgt. 


July 9, 1862 


3 


Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2. '64— 








com. 2d Lt , June i, '65— not mustered — 










absent, in hospital, at muster out. 


Wm. H. Bibighaus 


do 


Aug. IS. 1862 


3 


Promoted to 2d Lt. Co. D, March i. '63— died 
Aug. 6, ,863. 


Francis Malin 


do 


Aug. 13, 1862 


3 


Killed at Gettysburg, Pa.. July 2. 1863. 




bergeant 


Aug. II, 1862 


3 


Wd. at SpottsylvaniaC. H.,Va , May 12, '64 
— disch. by General Order, June 15, '65. 






do 


Aug. 14, 1862 


3 


Promoted from Corporal. Dec. i, 1863— mus- 
tered out with company, June 3, 1865. 






Henry McElroy 


do 


July 31, -862 














1864— promoted from Cor.. Feb. 13, 1865— 










mustered out with company. June 3, 1865. 


Anthony Matter 


do 


Aug II, 1862 


3 


Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13. '62 
mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 


Thos. M. Rowland 


do 


July 12, 1862 


3 


Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec 13, 1862. 


Wm. H.Stewart 


do 


July 12, 1862 


3 




Elhannan W. Price 


do 


Killed at Fredericksburg. Va., Dec. 13. 1862. 


Franklin B. Missimer 


do 


Aug. I, 1862 


3 


Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13. 1862. 


George K. Bryan 


Corporal 


Aug. 12, 1862 


3 


Discharged bv General Order, June 3, 1865. 


Wm. Anderson 


do 


July 10, 1862 


3 


Mustered out with company. June 3, 1865. 


Andrew McLaughlin 


do 


Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 


3 


Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 


William Price 


do 






Willoughby V. Bickle 


do 




3 


Prisoner from Aug. 25, '64, to May 17, '65— 
mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 


John Eckart 


do 




3 
3 


John Blackburn . . 


do 


Aug. 12, 1862 


Mustered out with company, June 3. 1865. 







430 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



Henry Marshall 



William H. Brooks 
James E. Stout 



William RejTJolds.... 
William E. Martin.... 
Samuel J. Willauer.-. 

Henrv C. Roberts 

Michael B. Schaffer. 
Tames Stewart 
John Lehman 
Philip Clause. 
T. W. Vannaman. 
Lewis Ritch 



Albright, Charles 

Eowlin, Michael 

Branson, Samuel 

Barth, Charles G 

Braddish, Stephen.... 

Bvarlv, James 

Biddle, George W 

Bartle, Lewis _. 

Blankanbilcr, George 

Collins, Charles 

Curran, Patrick 



Cosgrove, Edward P 

Currj', Richard _ 

Cauler, William 

Dehaven, WilUam .... 

Deener, Hem-y 

Donald, George 

Dugan, Hugh 

Davisson. Theo. H 
DaN-is, Richard W 

English, John 

Fulton, Robert A. 




Ginther, Joseph.. 



Gibson, William 

Gallagher, William . 



Giiden, John , 

Gosser, John 

Higgins, James B . 



Heinman, William. 

Hurley, Dennis 

Haney, Cornelius.. 
Harrison, Glenn .... 
Heffner, Anthony.. 
Hendricks, A. S. ... 



Sept. 25, 1863 

July 25, 1862 
Aug. 4, 1862 
Aug 12, 1862 
July 15, 1862 
Apr. 5, 1864 
July 14, 1862 
Aug. 28, 1862 
July 25, 1862 
Feb. 9, 1864 



.do 
.do 



.do... 

do... 

do... 

.do 

.do 
.do 



Hunter, Samuel D.. 
Houp, John 



Aug. 14, 1862 



July 
Aug. 



Aug. 2, 1862 
Jan. 20, 1865 
June 25, 1862 

Aug. 25, 1862 
Aug. 28, 1862 
July 30, 1862 
July 30, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 

Aug. 5, 1862 
Aug. 27, 1862 



3 I Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864 

I — translerred to Co. E, June 2, 1865. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 

3 I Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va , Dec. 13, 
I 1862, and at Gettysburg, Pa , July 2, 1863 — 
I missing at Gettysburg. 
3 j Not on muster-out roll. 

Died Dec, 1862, at Falmouth, Va. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. A — date unknown. 

Promoted to Principal Mus. — date unknown. 

Wounded in action, Oct. i, 1862 — discharged 
— date unknown. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, iii65. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Transferred to Co E, June 2, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. E, June 2, 1865. 

Transferred to Co. E, June 2, 1865. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Five Forks, Va., March 31, '65 
— transferred to Co. E, June 2, 1865. 

Drafted — wd. at Five Forks, Va., March 31, 
1865 — transferred to Co. E, June 2, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll 

Killed at hredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. 

Discharged by General Order, June 9, 1865. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Transferred to Co. E, June 2, 1865 

Missed m action at Fredericksburg. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Discharged by General Order. July 24, 1865. 

Died Dec. 25, '64— buried in U. S. Hospital 
Cemetery, Annapolis, Md., grave 139. 

Wounded at Gettysburg, Julv 2, 1863 — trans- 
ferred to Co. B, 18th Reg.', V. R. C— dis- 
charged by General Order, June 17, 1865. 

Mustered cut wiih company, June 3, 1865 

Died Dec. 29, of wounds received at Fred- 
ericksburg, \'a., Dec. 13, 1862 — buried in 
Militarj' Asylum Cem., 1). C. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out loll. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va,, Dec. 13, '62 
— absent, in hospital, at muster out. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862, 

Killed at Gettysburg. 

Died in camp after battle of Fredericksburg, 
Dec. 13, '62. 

Promoted to Sergeant-Major, Jan. 28, '65. 

Killed near Deep Bottom, Va., Aug. 14, '64. 



Three Years' Service. 



431 



DATB OF 

lUSTER INTO 

SBKVICE. 



Joyce, Patrick... 
Jones, James L. 
Jefferson, F. A.. 



Kollar, John 

Klyse, Henry 

Kramer, Charles., 



Kelly, Joseph 

Kane, Thomas J 

Kelly, William 

Lubeck, Henry 

Litch, Benjamin 

Landenberger, A 

Landis, Allen , 

Landis, Aaron J 

Mooney, William W.. 
Marquett, Mahlon 

Major, David E 

McNulty, Michael 

McCann, Bernard 

McCall, Andrew 



McGranahan, James. 



McBride, James 

McGinn, John H. 

McLamara, Patrick... 

Neander, Joseph 

O'Rourke, Francis — 



Patrick, John M 

Parker, John B., ad , 

Palmer, Wm R 

Phillips, Frederick... 



Ramick, Jacob... 
Reinhart, David.. 
Rhoads, John C 

Roxburgh, T. W. 



Rodgers, John.... 
Rhoback, David. 



Rimby, John 

Rowland, Peter H. 



ReiUy, Michael.. 
Robinson, John. 
Smith, John G... 
Smith, Thomas.. 



Smith, William S. 
Spain, Patrick 



Private 

....do 

....do 



Aug. 35, 1862 
Mar. i8, 1864 
Aug. 23, 1862 

Aug. 28, 1862 

Aug. 13, 1862 

Mar. 16, 1864 

Apr, 17, 1864 

Aug. 5, 1862 
Aug 13, 1862 
Aug. 27, 1862 
July 29, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug, 4, 1862 
Aug II, 1862 
Aug, 14, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 

Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
July 28, 1862 
Aug, 18, 1862 



Feb, 12, 1864 
July 29, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Feb. 25, 1864 

Aug. 23, 1862 
July 12, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Apr. 12, 1864 

Aug. 8, 1862 
Aug. 8, 1862 
Aug. II, 1862 

Aug. i6, 1862 



June 
Aug. 



Feb. 22, 
July 22, 



Aug. 15. 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug 15. 1862 
July 21, 1862 

July 28, 1862 
July 31, 1862 



Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Tr. toV. R. C— disch.byG. O.. June 7, 65. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — absent, in hospital, at muster-out. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Wounded at Sputtsylvania C. H., Va., May 

12, '64— transferred to Co. E, June 2, '65. 
Wounded and missing in action at Spott- 

sylvania C. H., \'a , May 12, '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Not on muster out roll. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Va. 
Died at Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 2, '64. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — not on muster-out roll. 
Diedsud'ly near Falmouth, Va., Nov. 17, '62. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Discharged by General Order, June 17, '65. 
Transferred to Co. B, 12th Reg., V. K. C. — 

wounded at Fredericksburg — discharged by 

General Order, June 28, '65. 
Wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64 — 

transferred to Co E. June 2, 65. 
Mustered out with company. 
Transferred to Co. E, June 2, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Trans, to Battery A, U. S. Art'y — wounded. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

12, '64 — transferred to Co. E, June 2, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll 
Transferred to Co. K. nth Reg Vet. Reserve 

Corps — disch'd by Gen'l Order, Aug. 18, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65 — 

captured at Gettysburg. 
Wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, 

and at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — absent, 

in hospital, at muster out. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — absent at muster out. 
Discharged by General Order, June 5, '65. 
Wounded at Clettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — 

not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3. '65. 
Prisoner from Oct. 14, '63, to Oct. 17, '64 — 

discharged by General Order, June 9, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 



43i 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



DATE OF * 

MUSTER IKTO J, 

SER-\aCE. a 



Smith. Augustus 

Spencer, Michael 
Sutherland, Henry 

Towers, George 

Tnlly, HenrjJ.... 



TrealfaU, George D 

ThompsoD, John 

Tlemey, Thomas-.. 

Ulrick, Daniel _., 

WUt, Henr>- 

Wright, John 

Wheeler, George 

Wjlt, George _. 

Weadley, Henry 



Wilson, Samuel , 

Wickham, James.... 
Whiting, Stephen D, 
Whitmeyer, David... 
Young, William A.., 



Young, William .... 
Yocnm, Joseph W 
Zellers, George 




Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. I3,'62 

— absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Killed at Gettysburg. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Missing in action at Spottsylvania C H., Va., 

May 12, '64 — disch. by G. O., June 17, '65. 
Tr. to Y.R.C.— disch. by G. O., Aug. 26, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

— not on muster-out roll. 
Killed at Gettysburg. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H.. Va., May 

12, '64 — absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Discharged bv General Order, May 15, '65. 
Tr. to V. R. C'— disch. by G. O., June 28, '65. 
Transferred to Co. E. June 2, '65. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

12, '64 — transferred to (_o. E, Jime 2, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Battery K. 4th U. S. Artillerj'. 
Missing in action at Fredericksburg. 
Died at City Point, Va., Sept. 27, '64. 
Prisoner from May 5, '64, to .April 21, '65 — 

wounded at Gettysburg — discharged by 

General Order, Aug. 11, '65. 
Transferred to Co. E, June 2. 65. 
Transferred to Co. I — date unknow-n. 
Transferred to Battery A, 4th U. S. Arlillerj . 



Company D. 



WilMam X Feet . 
Garret! Nowlen.. 



Louis J. Sacriste 



Jacob R. Moore 

Eugene Brady 

John C. Wright 

George L. Reilly 

William H. Bibighau 



.1 ist Lieut 

J .0 



Aug. 2^, 
Aug. 2, 


1E62 
1862 


1 


Sept. I, 


1K.2 


3 ' 


Aug. 5, 


1S62 


3 


Aug. 15, 


1&62 


3 


July 26, 


1862 


^i 


Aug. 25. 


1862 


3 


-Aug. 15, 


I&52 


3 



Resigned Feb. 28, '63. 

Promoted from .Adj., Xov. 21. '63 — 10 Bt. 
Maj , Aug. 25, '64 — wd. at Fredericksburg 
— ^killed at Reams Station. Va., .Aug. 25, '64 
— bu. in Laurel Hill Cem., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Promoted from 2d Lieut., Co. F, to 1st Lieut., 
Mar. 1/63 — to Adjt., Nov. 21, '63 — to Capt., 
Sept. 22, '64— to Bv. Maj. March 13, '65— 
wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 — mus- 
tered out with company. June 3, '65. 

Detailed on stafiF of Gen. Bimey — wounded 
at Gettysburg. 

Wd. at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63— pr. fr. 
Sgt., Nov. 21, '63 — killed at Five Forks, Va., 
Mar. 31. '65 — bur. in Cathedral Cemetery, 
Philadelphia. 

Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2. '64 — 
promoted from ist Sgt., May 17. '65 — mus- 
tered out with company, June 3. 1865. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
'62 — discharged Feb. 27, '63 

Promoted from ist Sgt., Co. C, March i, '63 
— died at Washington, D. C, .Aug. 6, '63 — 
bu. in Laurel Hill Cem.. Philadelphia. Pa. 



Three Years Service. 



Bernard McCahey , 



Richard E. Ker. 
Daniel Rogers... 



James Duffy 

James Cavanaugh. 



DATB OP 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



ISt Sgt. July 



do 

Sergeant 



June 24, 
Aug. 16, 



do... 

do... 



Joseph Slinker do., 

Peter Kelly ' do.. 



William L. Lott 

Robert J. Fitzgerald.. 



Josiah C. Randolph do.... 

Thomas Connard do.. . 

Morris Stowe I do ... 

Andrew E. Ker I do.... 



Alexander Edgar Corporal 

Joseph Murphy do 

George Allen do 



Thomas P. Crown do., 

Michael J. McKenna do., 

David Steen do.. 

Brian McLaughlin ' do.. 

John Adams do.. 

John H. Curry do.. 

John Hughes do.. 



John Martin 

Thomas Scarlett.. 
Thomas A, Dorw; 
R. J. Stephenson . 



do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 



Joseph Surrick do.. 

John Mc Kinney do.. 

Isaac Landis do.. 

Henry Miller do.. 

Andrew Hart do.. 

Nicholas Martin do.. 

Hugh McVey '■ do.. 



Alonzo Mahan Musician 

Robert Henry do 

Charles Gysei do 

Alexander, Chas. B Private 

Alexander, Albert do 

Ahem, Daniel I do 

Adams. Nathan do 

Allinghani, Robert , do 

Anderson, Thomas I do 

Altimus, John S I do 



Aug. 



Aug. I, 1862 

Feb. 25, 1864 

Aug. 2, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 

July 16, 1862 
Aug. 2, 1862 
July 7, 1862 
June 25, 1862 
July 8, 1862 
July 30, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 



, 1862 



Aug. , 
Aug. I] 
Mar. li 
Apr. ^ 



Mar, 8, 1864 
July 15, 1862 
Apr. 27, 1864 

July 28, 1862 
June 18, 1862 
Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug, 9, 1862 

July 12, 1862 
July 7, 1862 
Aug. 6, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 
July 24, 1862 



Aug. 13, 1862 

July 17, 1862 
June 28, 1862 
July 10, 1862 
Feb. 26, 1864 
Feb, II, 1864 

Aug. II, 1862 
July 29, 1863 



July 
Aug. 



Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 
18, '64 — promoted from Sgt., May 17, '65 — 
mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to 3d Reg., U. S. Cav., June, '63. 
Wounded at Chancellorsville, Va., May 3, '63 
— com. 2d Lieut., June i, '65 — not mus. — 
mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Chancellorsville and discharged 
in consequence— date unknown. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 
— promoted from private. Mar. i, 1865 — 
mustered out with company. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — 
trans, to Vet. Reserve Corps, Jan. 7, '64. 
Wounded at Petersburg Va., June 22, '64, 
and April 2, '65 — trans, to Co. I, Junes, '65. 
Killed at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64. 
Missing in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 

1863. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3. '65. 
Captured at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — 
promoted to Corporal, Mar. i, '65 — mus- 
tered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, March 17, '63. 
Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 14, '64. 
Transferred to Co. I. June 3. '65 — Vet. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — 
transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Killed at Wilderness, Va., iMay 5, '64. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 
— died October 28, '64, in prison. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. A— date unknown. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
'62 — transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Deserted at Harper's Ferry, Oct. 29, '62. 
Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63 — not 
on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, '63— not 
on muster-out roll. 

Disch. on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 17, '63. 
Transferred to Co. A, January 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Discharged by General Order, May 16, '65. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — 

transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan 26, '63, 



434 



The Story of the ii6th Reginient. 







DATE OF 






NAHS. 


RANK. 


MUSTER INTO 




REMARKS. 






SERVICE. 




Adema, William 


Private 


July 28, 1862 




Transferred to 4th Artiller\-, Oct. 26, '62, by 
Order 154, U. S. A. 


BuUinger, Christian. 


do 


Apr. 12, 1864 




Transferred to Co. I. June 3, '65. 


Brown, Isaac 


do 


July 9,1862 
Feb. 26, 1864 




Absent, sick, at muster out. 


Benson, John T 


do 




Killed at Wilderness, Va., May 5. '64. 


Browan, Benjamin 


do....". 


April 8, 1864 




Wounded at Po River, Va., May 10, '64— not 
on muster-out roll. 


Bradley, Wm. T 


. do 


June 18, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Binder, John E 


do 


June 30, 1862 
July 29, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Bakeoven, George 


do 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Bailey, Edward 


do 


Aug 21, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Bums, William 


do 


Aug. 22, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Boylan, John C 


do._... 


Aug. 28, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Caflfrcy, Stephen 


do.„... 


Apr. 24, 1864 




Discharged on Surgeon's certificate, Jan., '65. 


Carr,JohnH 


do 


Apr. 13, 1864 




Wd. at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64— tr. to 
V. R. C, Mar. 11, '65— dUch. Sept. 5, '66. 


Conway, James 


do 


Mar. 21, 1864 




Transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 


Cassady, George 


do 


Apr. 23, 1864 




Wounded at Petersburg. Va., June 16, '64— 
transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 


Condon, William 


do 


Mar. 12, 1864 




Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64— 
transferred to Co. 1, June 3, '65. 


Cole, John 


.:....do 


July 14, 1862 




Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 


CampbeU, WilUam. 


do 


Aug. 18. 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Conway, Robert 


do 


June 24, 1862 




Killed in Wilderness, May, 5, '64. 


Casey, James 


do.„... 


July 30. 1862 




Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13 ,'62 
— not on muster-out roll. 


Connelly. John 


do 


Aug. 2o, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Cotterell. John 


do 


Promoted to Hos.Stew.U.S. Army, Aug.2,'64. 


Doughertj-, Ew'd 


do._... 


Aug. 19, 1862 




Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 


Duffey, John „ 


do 


July 30, 1862 




Disch.on Surgeon's certificate,date unknown. 
Discharged July 7, for wounds received at 


Dunning, Hugh 


do._... 


Aug. 29, 1862 












Gettysburg, Pa , July 2, '63. 


De Luar, Albert 


do 


Feb. 12, 1864 




Transferred to U. S. Navy, March i, '64. 


Delaney, Finton 


do. 


Apr. 8, 1864 




Transferred to Co. I. June 3, '65. 


Donovan, John 


do._... 


Apr. 22, 1864 




Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64— 










transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 


DetwUer, Thomas 


do 


Aug. II, 1862 




Tran.'sferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 


Deihl, Jacob H..._ 


do.„... 


Aug. 21, 1862 




Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co, A, Jan. 26, '63. 


Devonshire, Jere'h 


do 


Aug. 4, 1862 




Dampman, Wm. H 


do._... 


June 28, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Davis. John 


do._... 


Aug. 29, 1862 
Aug. 4,1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Ellinger, Emanuel 


do 


Disch. on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 3, '63. 


Engle. Peter 


do._... 


Aug. 15, 1R62 




Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 


netcher, James 


do 


Aug. 29, 1862 




Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 


farreU, John A 


<^° 


Apr. 4,1864 




Wounfied at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64 — 
transferred to Co. I. June 3, '65. 


Foster, Samuel 


do 


June 17, 1862 




Transferred to Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery, 
Oct. 26, '64,Orderi54. 


Fox, Henrj' 


do 


June 17, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Garman, William. 




Aug. 4.1862 




Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64— 
discharged by General Order, June 20, '65. 


Guinan, Peter 


do..... 


July 9,1862 




Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 


Gallagher, Martin 


do 


Aug. 14, 1862 




Discharged for wounds rec. at Gettysburg, 
Pa., July 2, '63. 


Glasgow, Matthew 


do._... 


July 30, 1862 




Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, "64 
died at Philadelphia, Pa., Mar. 27, '65. 










Goldey, John „.. 


do._.. 


June 13, 1862 
June 23, 1862 




Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, '63. 


Green, William R 


do._... 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Gray. William 


do._... 


Aug. II. 1862 




Distharged for disability, Oct. 29, '62, at 
Harper's Ferry. 


Hanlon, William 


do 


Aug. 19, 1862 


3 


Wounded at Five Forks, Va., Mar. 31, '65— 
absent, in hospital, at muster out. 



Three Years Service. 



435 



Hayden, Patrick.... 
Harris, Francis M. 
Holt, George C 



Hansen, John R. 



Hughes, James.... 
Harker, Edward... 
Hilcar, Frederick. 
Hughes, John 



Huss, John 

Hanna, James. 



Private 

do 

do 



.do. 



...do..., 
...do... 
...do..., 

...do.... 



Heyle, Samuel 

Handline, George ... 
Harlem, William.. .. 

Hite, George 

Hathaway, Wm. E.. 



Jones, John 

Kunkle, George . 



King, James L... 
Kilpatrick, Jame 
Kinchner, John. 
Keiper, William 
Klopner, August 

Logue, Frank 

Logue, James 



Long, James 

Lloyd, Henry 

Logue, Daniel 

Lawrence, Henry D. 



Lyons, James . 



Lawson, Samuel 

Llewellyn, Samuel... 
Lawson, William S... 
Lemark, Woodman.. 

Lumadue, Lewis 

Lemark, Samuel 

Landes, William 

Le Bos, Charles 



Long, Charles... 
Martin, John.... 

Murphy, John... 
Merrick, Joseph 
Myers, John D.. 

Myers, John 



Merritt, Murtha ... 
Mulholland, John.. 

Morrissey, John... 



DATE OF 

lUSTBR INTO 

SERVICE. 



Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 15, 1862 
Mar. 25, 1864 

Apr. 4, 1864 

Mar. 6, 1865 
Apr. 24, 1864 
Apr. 13, 1864 
Mar. 23, 1864 



Mar. 29, 1864 

Apr. 12, 1864 
Aug. 12, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
July II, 1862 

July 22, 1862 
Aug. 4, 1862 

July 25, 1862 
Mar. 6, 1865 
July 29, 1862 
July 7, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 
July 21, 1862 
July 19, 1862 

Aug. 23, 1862 
Mar. 12, 1864 
Sept. 1, 1862 
Apr. 18, 1864 

Apr. II, 1864 

Aug. 20, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 
July I, 1862 
Aug. II, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 9, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Mar. 9, 1864 



Aug. 22, 1862 
Aug. 28, 1862 

Aug. IS, 1862 
Aug. 7, 1862 
July 9, 1862 



Apr. 
Apr. 



Apr. 



9, 1864 
25. 1864 



Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Discharged by General Order, May 26, '65. 
Wounded at Tolopotomy, Va., May 31, '64 — 

transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Five Forks, Va., Mar. 31, '65— 

transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to Co. I. June 3, '65. 
Died at Wilderness, Va., May 4, '64. 
Died at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 9, '64, of wounds 

received in action at Petersburg — buried in 

U. S. General Hospital Cemetery, No. 2. 
Died Nov. ii,'64, at Salisbury, N. C., Prison. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 

— died Nov. 5, '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Trans, to V. R. C. — wounded at Gettysburg — 

disch. on Surgeon's certificate, Mar. 14, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded and captured at Gettysburg, Pa., 

July 2, '63 — absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Transferred to Co. \, June 3, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

— absent at muster out. 

Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 16, '63. 
Disch. by General Order, May 25, '65. 
Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, Feb. 4, '63. 
Wd. at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, '64 

— transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 — 

transferred to Co. I, June 3, 65. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded and captured at Petersburg, Va , 

June 22, '64 — died at Andersonville, Ga., 

Sept 30, '64— grave, 10,091. 
Disch. on Surgeon's cert. — date unknown. 
Wd. at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 — 

mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 
Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 4, '63. 
Tr. to V. R. C, ^eb. 16, '64— discharged by 

General Order, June i, '65. 
Died July 22, '64, at Andersonville, Ga. — 

grave 3,765. 

Transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 
Captured at Reams Station, Aug. 25, '64 — 

transferred to Co. \, June 3, '65. 
Killed at Petersburg, Va , June 29, '64. 



436 



The Story of the ii6th Regimeyit. 



DATB OP 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



Moser, William..., 
Malinger, Simon.. 



MalloD, Edward 

Murphy, John 

Mills, Jacob 

McFadden, Thos 

McGonigle, Henry 

McQuaid, Thomas ... 
McCullough, David... 
McLaughlin, Chas ... 
McGovern, Edward. , 

McDowell, Andrew... 



Private Aug. 22, 1862 
.do July I, 1862 



July 5, 1862 
July 23, 1862 
Aug. i», 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
July 15, 1862 
Aug. 29, 1862 
Sept. I, 1862 
July 29, 1862 
Apr. 6, 1864 



do 

do._... 
.do._... 
.do 

do 



McMe 



in. Me 



Mclllhenny, John .... 
McLaughlin. Mich'l . 
McMahon, "Ihos. J... 

McGiviney, Wm 

Nichols, William 

Norcross, Eugene 

O' Brian, Thomas 

O' Brian, James 

Powers, John 

Perry, John 



Pinton, Alfred 

Pounds, Wm , 

Parker, Franklin B. , 
Quigley, Joseph B.._. 



..do Aug. 6, 1862 

..do I Feb. 3, 1864 

..do I Aug. 12, 1862 

..do I Aug. 9, 1862 

..do I July 3, 1862 

. do I Aug. 23, 1862 

. do ! June 30, 1862 

. do I June i, 1862 

do Aug. 29, 1862 

..do I June 22, 1862 

..do.„...i Aug. 29, 1862 

..do ! May 11, 1862 



J J. 



..do ! June 19, 1862 

..do j Aug. 18, 1862 

..do Aug. 21, 1862 

..do I iMay 4, 1864 



Quicksall, Wm 

kushworth, George 

Rodormell, Chas 

Robson, William .... 

Sweeney, John 

Sweeney, Michael.. 

Snyder, George P... 

Stone. Robert J 

Smith, William 

Smith, John A. ...... 



Sickles, Charles 

Shultz, William 

Smith, William A 

Sherin, Francis 

Smediev, William.... 

Tully, Patrick 

Twelves, Stephen 

Thompkins, John 

Wallace, William A. 
Whelan, James 



.do ' July 28, 1862 

.do July 15, 1862 

.do i Aug. 12, 1862 

do ! July 2, 1862 

.do j Aug. 19, 1862 

.do Aug. 23, 1862 

.do : Aug. 6, 1862 



..do., 
..do._ 



Wilson, John , 

Wallace, Thomas.. 

Wilson, David 

Wolf, August 



..do 

..do 

..do 

.do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do 



Apr. 4, 1864 
Mar. 18, 1864 
Apr. 12, 1864 

Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 9, 1862 
Aug. 21, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
June 16, 1862 
Aug. 4, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 
June 16, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 
Aug. 29, 1862 



Sept. I, 1864 

Aug. 7, 1862 

Aug. 7, 1862 

Apr. 9, 1864 



Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 

Wounded at Chancellorsville,, May 3, '63 — tr. 
to Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery, Oct. 26, '62. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, Jime 3, '65. 

Died on way to Gettysburg 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 

Wd. at Petersburg, Va , June 16, '64— disch. 
on Surgeon's certificate, Apr. 4, '65. 

Wd. at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64 — djsch. 
on Surgeon's certificate — date unknown. 

Wounded at Tolopotomy, Va.. May 31, '64 — 
transferred to Co. \, June 3, '65 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Disch. on Surgeon's certificate of disability. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Died at Philadelphia, Pa., Feb. 7, '65. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 

Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64 — 
transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Died at Philadelphia, Pa., Aug. 29, of wounds 
rec at Petersburg, Va., June i6,'64 — bu. rec , 
died at Portsmouth Grove, R. I , July 2, '64. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Chancellorsville, Va , May 3, '63. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, '65. 

Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64. 
absent, sick, at muster-out. 

Disch. on Surgeon's certificate. Mar. 3, '63. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Transferred to Co. I, June 3, '65. 

Died at Philadelphia, Pa., July 26,'64— burial 
record, Sept. 4, '64. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Missing in action at Gettysburg. 

Not on muster-out roll 

Killed at Gettysburg 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Disch. on burgeon's certificate, March i7,'63. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, June 3, 1865. 

Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H. Va., May 
10, '64 — transterredto Vet. Res. Corps — dis- 
charged by General Order, July 26, '65. 

Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, Feb ib, '63. 

Disch. Nov. 25, '63, for wds. rec. in action. 

Disch. on writ ol habeas corpus. May 25,'63. 

-Absent, sick, at muster out. 



Three Years' Service. 



437 







DATE OP 


3 




NAME. 


RANK. 


MUSTER INTO 


a 


REMARKS. 






SERVICE. 




Walker, Theodore A 


Private 


July 20, 1862 


^ 


Killed at Chancellorsville. Va., May 3, '63. 


Woodard.John 


do 


Aug. 16, i86a 




Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, '63. 


Whitus, Charles 


do 


Aug. 21, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Walton, F. C.V 


do 


Aug. 14. 1862 


3 


Wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13. '62 — 
not on muster-out roll. 


White, John 


do 


Aug. IS, 1862 


3 


Transferred to Battery A, 4th (J. S. Artillery, 
Oct. 26, '62— Order 154. 



Company E. 



John McNamara Captain 

Michael Schoales do 

Charles Cosslett do 



Joseph H. G. Miles., 
Robert J. Grogan..., 
Timothy A. bloan.., 



Robert T. Maguire . 

Henry Keil 

Silas Ycunkin 



Thomas Bowers . 
Patrick Welsh.... 



John Reed 

Edward W. Deshe 



Michael Cavanaugh. 

John Cassidy 

John Murray 



Henry Marshall 

Thomas Lacompte., 



Henry Kelly. 
Hugh Croll... 



James J. Byrne.. 
Martin Weiss 



ist Lieut. 

do 

.... do 



2d Lieut. 

do 

ist Sgt. 



do 

Sergeant 



Aug. 23, 
Mar. 3, 
Mar. 3, 


1862 
1864 
1864 


3 


Sept. 5, 
Mar. 3, 
Feb. 16, 


1862 
,864 
.864 




Aug, 23, 


1862 




Feb. 25, 


1864 


Aug. T5. 
Feb. 12, 


1S62 
1864 




Feb. 12, 


1864 




Feb. 13. 


1864 




Feb. 18, 


1864 




Feb. 15, 


1864 




Feb. 2o, 


1864 




Feb. 12, 
Feb. 12. 


1864 
1864 




Aug. s, 
Feb. IS, 


1862 
1864 




Feb. IS, 


1864 




Feb. 12, 


1864 





Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Resigned, May 17, '64. 

Wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5. at Cold 
Harbor, June 3, and wounded and captured 
at William's Farm, June 22, '64 — promoted 
from 2d. Lt., June 13, '64 — to Brevet-Major, 
March 13, '65— discharged on Surgeon's 
certificate, June 22, '65 

Discharged by Special Order, Jan. 27, '63. 

Resigned May 17, '64. 

Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — 
promoted from Sgt. to 2d Lt., June 13, '64 — 
to ist Lt., June 9, '65 — com. Capt , June 22, 
'65 — not mus. — mustered out with company, 
July 14, '6s. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 
— transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Promoted from ist Sgt. — killed at Spott- 
sylvania, May 12, '64. 

Promoted to Cor., Nov. i, '64 — to Sgt., May 
I, '65 — to ist Sgt , June 9, '65 — com. 2d Lt , 
July 1, '65 — not mustered — mustered out 
with company, July 14, '6s. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64 — 
promoted from private. May i, '65 — mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, '65. 

Promoted from private. May i, '6s — mustered 
out with company, July 14, '65. 

Wounded at Wilderness, Va , May s. '64 — 
promoted from private, July i, '65 — mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, '65 

Promoted to Cor., May 1, '65 — to Sgt,, July i, 
'65 — mus. out with company, July 14, '65. 

Wounded at Wilderness, Va , May s, '64 — 
absent, in hospital, at muster out. 

Captured at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 
12, '64— died at Andersonville, Ga. — date 
unknown. 

Absent, wounded, at muster out. 

Captured at Petersburg, Va., June 29, '64 — 
discharged by General Order, June 12, '65 

Died Sept., '62. 

Promoted to Sgt , May i, '64 — discharged by 
General Order, Slay 31, '65. 

Promoted to Sgt., May i, '64 — not on muster- 
out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 



438 



The Story of the Ii6ih Regiment. 



John H. Davis 

Gecrge W. Bentley.. 

Andrew Fisher 

Patrick Cosiello 

Andrew Murphy 

Lewis Rhole 



Henr>' Weadley 

Henry Dress 

John Ellis 



Sergeant 

do 

do 

do 

do 

I Corporal 



.do.. 



Lot Tumey. 



Thomas Sharp 

Aaron Tomlinson . 



Henr^- Masters 



S. G. Stotzenberg_.., 

Lewis Brown 

James Donagan 

William H. Litile_... 

Daniel Connelly 

William Clark 



do.. 

I do.. 



CO , 

! do 

^ do 



Augustus Lindsay 

John Parker 

Francb t. Crawford.. 

Thos. H. F. Brady 

Edward Buckley 

John Dagney 

Wm. J. Curley 

James Monahan 

Eiberson E. Little 

Adams. George 

Allen, Thomas W 

Anderson, Nicholas... 

Allen, Charles , 

Alcom, George 

Armstrong, Wm 

Baker, John 

Barth, Charles G 

Barrett, Richard 

Byarly, James 

Braddish, Stephen.... 
Bartlett, Thomas A..., 

Barker, Richard 

Brossen, Clement 

Brand, George 

Bagshaw, \\ alter 

Bishop, Charles 

Brosnahan, Tim 

Bowser. Levi 

Barlow, William 

Brj^an, Albert C 

Brown, Joseph £ 

Caldwell, James W... 



.do 

.do 



do 

Musician 

do 

do.-. 

do.-.. 

Private 

do._.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

.... do 

do 

do 

do 

do._.. 

do 

do 

do 

do._.. 

do 

do._.. 

do 

do 



DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SEKVICE. 



Feb. 17, 1864 
June 27, 1862 
June 14, 1862 
June 24, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 
Feb. 10, 1864 



Mar. 28, 1864 I 3 

Feb. 10, 1864 I 3 

Feb. 8, 1864 3 

Feb. 24, 1864 3 

Feb. 10, 1864 I 3 

Feb. 10, 1864 3 

Feb. 13, 1864 3 



Feb. 18, 1864 
Feb. 13, 1864 
Feb. 15, 1864 
July 7, 1862 
Aug. 12, 1862 
Aug. 7, 1862 



Aug. 12, 
July 19, 
Ju y T9, 
July 22, 
Aug. 13, 
Feb. 20, 
Feb. 12, 
Aug. 20, 
Ju'y 1, 
Feb. 10, 
Feb. 15. 
beb. 22, 
July 21, 
July 29, 
Aug. 20, 
Sept. 21, 
Feb. II, 
Keb. 13, 
Mar. 17, 
Mar. 29, 
Feb. 16, 
Feb. 24, 
Feb. 15, 
Feb. 17, 
Aug. 18, 
June 30, 
July 28, 
Aug. I, 
Aug. II, 
Aug. 18, 
June 14, 
Feb. 18, 



1862 
1862 
1862 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1862 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1862 
1862 
1862 
1864 
.864 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1864 
1861 



Not on muster-out roll 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan 26, '61 

Promoted to Com. Sergeant. Jan. 26, '63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Promoted to Corporal, May i,'65 — mustered 

out with company July 14, '65. 
Promoted to Corporal, May i, '05 — mustered 

out with company, July 14, '65. 
Promoted to Corporal, July i, '65 — mustered 

out with company. July 14, '65. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64, 

and in action, Oct. 16, '64 — discharged by 

General Order, June 2, '65. 
Promoted to Corporal, May 15, '64 — ^killed at 

Cold Harbor, Va , June 3, '64. 
Killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64. 
Died at Alexandria, Va., June 18, of wounds 

received at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 — 

grave 2,181. 
Promoted to Corporal, May 15, '64 — captured 

at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 — died at 

Salisburj', N. C , Nov. 13. '64. 
Pr. to Cor., June 1, '64 — dis. March i, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Wounded at Fredericksbiu-g,Va., Dec. 13, '62 

— transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26. '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Promoted to Q. M. Sgt., Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Absent, sick, at muster-out. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Missing in action, \\ilderness,Va., May 5,'64. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Drafted — mus. out with company, July 14, '65. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Disch. by General Order, May 15. '65. 

Killed at Spottsylvania C. H., May 18, '64. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, 63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Batterj' A, 4th U. S. Artillery. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, '6=. 



Three Years Service. 



Cosgrove, Edw. P.... 

Curran, Patrick 

Connelly, Austin 

Cannon, Bernard 

Carlin, James A 

Coates, Lawrence J.. 
Cummings, James .... 
Chambers, William... 

Curry, Patrick 

Collins, Thomas 

Cloud. Alfred J 

Daily, Terrence 

Donald, George 

Dodd, George A 

Davis, Joseph 

Dixon, John 

Dougherty, Samuel... 
Davidson, George .... 

Daisley, Thomas 

Dailey. John M 

Ellis, Samuel 

Elfert, Charles 



Elliott, George 

Klleman. Philip H 

Essert, Charles 

Klynn, James 

Glotfelty, James 

Goggiiis, Peter 

Gasper, Henry 

Graven, William 

Geddis, Alexander 

Hall, Joseph 

Holter, Michael 

Hughes, Lewis W 

Holden, Thomas N.... 

Howell, Edward 

Hendricks, Abraham. 



Johnston, Joseph W. 



James. Charles ... 

Jard, Jacob 

Kramer, Charles. 

Kelly. John 

Kennedy, Moses 
Lamer, Thomas. 
Luder, Charles ... 



Lachman, Tobias 

Lewders, Frederick.. 

Laycock, Hugh 

Logiie, John 



Private 

.... do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



DATE OP 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



Sept. 

Feb. 

Feb. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Feb 
Apr. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 

Aug. 
Keb. 
Feb. 



.do 

.do.-.. 



Law, Samuel ... 
Lincke, Henry. 



do.. 

do.. 



25. 1863 
16, 1864 
.5, 1864 

4, 1862 
18,1862 
ig, 1862 
24, 1862 
13, 1862 
23, 1862 

5, 1862 

15," 1864 
5. 1864 

20, 1864 
8, 1864 
17,1864 

II, 1864 

14', 1862 
13, 1862 
23, 1864 



.do Aug. 

.do Aug 

do ' 

do I Feb. 



Feb. 
Feb. 

Aug. 
July 
Aug. 
Feb. 
Feb. 

June 
July 
Aug. 



16, 1864 
24, 1864 
20, 1864 



17, 1862 
14, 1862 



June 
July 



4, 1862 
4, 1862 



Maf. 

Feb. 
Aug. 
Mar. 
Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 
July 



16, 1864 

20, 1864 
5, 1862 

21, 1865 
13, 1864 



13, 1864 
18, 1864 



8, 1864 



Drafted— mus. out with company Julyi4,'65. 

Absent, wounded, at muster out. 

Discharged by General Order, June 9, '65. 

Transferred to Co. H, Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Honorably discharged, disability, Dec. '62. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Discharged by General Order, June 10, '65. 

Killed at Wilderness, Va., May 6, '64 — buried 

in Wilderness burial grounds — erave ^ifi. 

Sec. C, Div. B 6 3J . 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Died May 6, '64, at Fredericksburg. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 
Wd. at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64— missing 

in action at Deep Bottom, Aug. 14, '64. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, 63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 20, '64. 
Tr. to Co. H, 16th reg., V. R. C, Jan. 25, '65 

— disch. by General Order, July 15, '65. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Died Jan. 15. '63, at Fredericksburg— grave, 

16, Sec. A, Div. D. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

— transferred to i6th reg., V. R. Corps. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Died Nov. 25, '64. 
Absent, wounded, at muster out. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Substitute — mustered out with Co. .July 14, '65. 
Wd. at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12 and. 

18, '64 — absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Wd. at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, '64 

— disch. by General Order, May 26, '65. 
Killed at Deep Bottom, Va., -Aug. 16, '64— bu. 

in Nat. Cein., Ft. Harrison. Sec. A, grave 83. 
Cap. at Petersburg, Va.. June 22, '64 — died at 

Andersonville.Ga., Aug. ii,'64 — grave 5,314. 
Died at Washington, D. C, Dec. 25, '64 — 

buried in National Cemetery, -Arlington, Va. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 



440 



The Story of the Ii6th Regimeyit. 



DATE OF 

MUSTBR INTO 

SERVICE. 



REMARKS. 



Link, Frederick Private : 

Murphy, Thos., ist do.„...i 



Murphy, Thos., 2d 



.do.. 



Megarj', Peter ' do 

Murray, Owen do 

Manning, James do 

Miller, James do 



Mooney, Owen J 

Murray, John 

Mohegan, David 

Miller, Christian 

MuUin, Patrick 

Middieton, Robert 



Maloney, William , 

McGranahan, James... 

McGinn, John H , 

McGonegal, Cornelius. 

McCuen, John 

McHugh, James 

McMahon, George 



do 

do 

do 



do 

do 



.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

do 



Feb. : 

Feb. : 

Feb. 

Feb. ; 

^eb : 

Aug. ; 

Aug 

Aug. 

June 

Aug. 

Aug. 



1862 



ag. 16, 



1864 



McCullough, Jno. H 1 do , 

Nelson, Albert I do , 



Au| 

Ft 

Feb. 

Feb. 5, 1864 

June 21, 1862 

Aug. 2, 1862 

Aug. 14, 1862 

Aug. 15, 1862 

Feb. 8, 1864 



O'Connor, Joseph D ' do Feb. 15,1864 

O'Rourke, Francis do Feb. 05, 1864 

O'Brien, John do Aug. 6,1862 

O'Callaghan, Wm do Aug. 15, 1862 

Perdy, Edward ^ do June 16, 1864 

Perdy, Benjamin do Feb. 23, 1864 

Pilkington, John do , Aug. 12, 1862 

Porter, Aubrey do Aug. 15, 1862 



Parmer, Watson G 

Patton, Neal 

Quinn, Michael 

Reed, Joseph 



Richard. David.... 

Rey, James 

Roberts, M'illiam.. 
Russell. Johr 
Ryan, John. 



.do.. 



...do 

....do.„... 



do 

do 

do „... 

do 

do 

Robson, John P 1....; do 

Richmond, Samuel G ' do 

Sherlin, Patrick I do 



Stuck, Peter 

Sharpe, Charles W„. 

Shannon, David 

Schmid. John L 

Storm. Jacob.. 

Smith, Thomas 

Sperling, Fred'k 

Sally. Patrick 

Stoke<i, Charles 

Shields, James 



.do. 



,. .. do., 

do.. 

do. 

do 

do.. 

do. 

do.. 

do., 

do.. 



July 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 
June 1, 1864 

Feb. 15, 1864 
Feb. 10, 1864 
Feb. 10, 1864 
June 24, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
June 27, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Feb. 25, 1864 

Feb. 10, 1864 



Feb. 24, 

Feb. 19, 
Feb. 24, 
Feb. 24, 
Feb. 13, 
Feb. 22, 
Aug. 13. 
July 7, 
July 14, 
Aug 15, 



Not on muster-out roll. 

Wd. at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64— tr. to 

V. R. C— disch. on Surg, cert., May 6, '6:;. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 

— died at Annapolis, Md.. Sept. 22, '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Batterj- A, 4th U. S. Artillery. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. i3,'62 

— not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Absent, wounded, at muster out. 
Absent, on detached service, at muster out. 
Disch on Surgeon's certificate, Oct 4, '64. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
I'ransferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25. '64 

— died at Andersonville, Ga. — date unknown 
Discharged by General Order, July 14, '65. 
Absent, sick, at muster-out. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va , Dec. 13, '62 

— transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B. Jan. 26, 63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64^ 

absent, in hospital, at muster-out. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63, 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred 10 Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Prisoner from Aug. 25 to Sept. 27,'64 — absent, 

sick, at muster out 
Wounded at William's Farm,Va., June 22, '64 

— absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64 — 

absent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Discharged by General Order, May 26, '65. 
Killed at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63 



3 Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
3 Transferred to Co. B, Tan. 26, '63. 
3 Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 



Three Years Service. 



441 



NAME. 


RANK. 


DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 


f 
7: 


REMARKS. 


Sharpe, Morris 


Private 
do 


July i8, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
July 17, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 


3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 

3 
3 

3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 


Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 




Smith. Thomas H 


do 


Shields, James W 


. do. 


Not on muster out roll 


Tharp Charles V 


do 






do 


Feb. 29, 1864 

Jan. 29. 1864 
Feb. 23, 1864 

Feb^ 23! 1864 

Feb 4. 1864 
Feb. 15, 1864 
Feb. 24, 1864 
Feb. 16, 1864 

Feb. 24, 1864 

Feb. 13, 1864 
Feb. 17, 1864 
Aug. 6, 1862 
June 26, 1862 
Mar. 17, 1864 
Feb. 13. 1864 


Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64— 
absent, in hospital, at muster out 
Discharged by General Order, June 17, '65. 
Killed at Cold Harbor, Va.. June 3, '64. 


Tully. Henry J 


do 


Turpin. Wilson 

Turner. William 


do 

do 


Wildoner, George 

Wilt, Georee 


.. do 


Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2.-64- 

mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 


Williams William 


do 




do 


Discharged by General Order, May 26, '65. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64- 

discharged by General Order, June 2, '65. 
Capt'dat William's Farm, Va., June 22/64— 

died at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 10, '64— 

grave, 10,632. 
Not on muster-out roll. 


Wright Joseph 


do 


Wiley. John M 


do 


Wardlow, Richard 

Wallace, George W.. 


do 

do... 


Watling, Charles 

Warner. Henry 

Young. William 


do 

.... do 

.. do . 


Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 


Yard, Jacob 


do 


Died at Washington, D. C, Nov. 25, '64. 
Wounded at Wilderness, IMay 5, '64-capt'd 
and died in prison at Salisbury, N. C. 
Killed at Po River, Va., May 10, '64. 




do 


Feb. II. 1864 







Company F. 





Captain. 
do 

ist Lieut. 
do 


Feb. 23. 1864 
Feb. 23, 1864 

July 17, 1862 

Feb.' 19! ^864 

Sept. I, 1862 
Feb. 19, 1864 

Aug. 7, ,862 
Feb 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19. 1864 


3 
3 

3 
3 
3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 

3 


Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, June 27. '64. 
Promoted from 2d Lieut , Jan. 17, '65— disch. 

by Special Order, June 14, '65. 
Resigned Dec. 4, '62. 

Disch. on Surgeon's certificate, June 2, '64. 
Wd at\ViIderness,Va., May 8,'64— pr.fr.Sgt., 

Feb. 14. '65— com. Capt., June 15, '65— not 

mus.— mus. out with company, July 14, '65. 
Promoted to ist Lieut. Co. D. Mar. i, '63. 
Wd. at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25. '64— 

mus. out with company, July 14, '65— Vet. 
Discharged for disability. Feb. 11, '63. 
Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va.. June 2, '64— com. 

2d Lieut., July i, '65— not mustered— mus. 

out with company. July 14, '65— Vet. 
Mus out with company, July 14, '65 — Vet. 
Pr. to Sergeant, Feb. i, "65- mustered out 

with company, July 14, '65— Vet. 
Missing in action, at Spottsylvania C. H.. 

Va.. May 12, '64. 
Died, 1863. at Fredericksburg, Va,— grave 37. 

Sec. A. Div. D, Nat. Cem., Fredericksburg. 
Promoted to Corp., July i. '64— mustered out 

with company. July 14, '65— Vet. 


Wm. A.Shoener 

Joseph B. Kite 




George Reber 

Louis J.Sacriste 


do 

2d Lieut, 
ist Sgt. 

. ...do 

Sergeant 

do 

do 

do 


Edward S Kline 


Robert Scarlett 

Wm. M. Wagner 


Horace B. Klock 

Charles Maurer 


James Dempsey 


do... 


Levi P. Miller 


Corporal 


Feb. 19, 1864 





442 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



William L. Hu 



Solomon Kamp 

Wm. H. Webber .... 

Franklin Wagner 

Solomon Everly 

Chris. Dieffenderfer.. 

Adam Wagner , 

William Moser 



William Emrich. 



Dan B. Berkheiser., 
Jacob Shrader 



Aikman, William. 
Adams, David M.. 



Berger, John A. 
Berkheiser, Benj. 



Berger, Henry A... 
Brigel, Franklin.... 

Brummer, D. H.... 

Baxter, John.. 

Bright, Philip F 

Corloy, John 

Cummings, John... 
Collins, William.... 
Charters, Thomas , 

Camden, John 

Diizler, Thomas ... 

Dry, William 

Ditzler, Elias 

Day, James 



Derulf, Elam. 



Dohrman. John F 

Dolan, Michael 

Dyson, Freeman 

Duffy, James F 

Dougherty, Thomas., 

Dougherty Patrick 

Dempsey, James B.... 
Everly, Moses 



Corporal 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 

.do 

.do... 



.do.. 



do 

Musician 



Private 
, ...do 



...do., 
...do.. 



.do.. 



.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

do 

.do 





\ 


DATE OF 




MUSTER INTO 




SERVICE. 




Feb 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


teb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 


3 
3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 


3 

3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 
Apr. 12, 1864 


3 

3 


Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 


3 
3 


Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 


3 
3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Aug. 12, 1862 
July 30, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
July 12, 1862 
July ^i|. ^862 

Feb. 19, 1864 
Mar, 13, 1865 
Feb 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 

3 


Feb. 19, 1864 


3 


Feb. 19, 1864 
Aug. 5. 1864 
Aug. 6, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 
Aug. 28, 1862 
Aug. 30, 1862 
Sept. 2, 1862 
Feb. 19, 1854 


3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



Wounded at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, '62, 

while member of Co. K, 127th Pa. Vols. — 

wd. at Deep Bottom, Aug 18, '64 — wd. at 

Five Forks, March 31, '65 — mustered out 

with company. 
Promoted to Corp., Feb. i, '65 — mustered out 

with company, July 14, '65 — Vet. 
Promoted to Corp., May i, '65 — mustered 

out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Promoted to Corp., June i, 1865 — mustered 

out with company, July 24, 1865. 
Wounded at Tolopotomy River, Va., May 

31, 64 — absent, sick, at muster out — Vet. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, 

'64 — died at Salisbury, N. C , Nov. 4, '64. 
Killed at Petersburg. Va., June 14, '64 — \ et. 
Died at Alexandria, Va., June 14, of wounds 

received at Cold Harbor, June 3 1864 — 

buried in National Cemetery, Arlington. 
Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H., 

Va., May 12, 1864— Vet. 
Killed at Reams Sta., Va., Aug. 26, '64 — Vet. 
Prisoner from Aug. 25, '64, to March, '65 — 

mus. out with company, July 14, '65 — Vet. 
Wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64 — 

mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Discharged by General Order, June 16, '65. 
Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H., 

Va., May 12, 1864. 

Killed at Cold Harbor, Va , June 3, 1864. 
Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H., 

Va , May 12, 1864. 
Killed at Po River, Va., May 10, 1864. 
Missing in action at Reams Station, Va., 

Aug. 25, 1864— Vet. 
Missing in action at Po River. Va., May 10, 

1864. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Va , Dec. 13, '62. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865, 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, 

1864 — died at Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 4, '64 

— burial record, Dec. 20, 1864. 
Missing in action at Reams Station, Va , 

Aug. 25, 1864. 

Mis. in action at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64. 
Absent, in arrest, at muster out. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26. 1863. 
Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — 
mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 



Three Years' Service. 



443 



DATE OP 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



Eckman. Owen 

Evely, Joshua 

Emsley. Willi 
Ellis. Samuel 
Faust. Semaria 
Freeze. Gideon 
Freeze. John 
Fahl, Daniel, 

Garth. Johns 
Green. John.. 
Gorman, Samuel 
Hahn, John G -. 



Hendricks, A. W 
Henny, Daniel .... 



Hoffman, Peramus 
Herring, Levi 

Heinback. Lewis.. 
Houck, Charles T 
Johnson. Joseph M 
Kramer. Francis S. 
Kamp, Reuben 

Kramer, Samuel 

Knapp, Cyrus 

Kramer, Thomas S, 
Koch, Isaiah 

Kramer. Francis 
Kramer, George, 
Kramer, Daniel, 

Knight, Thomas,. 
Kelley, Henry C , 
Kite, William S., 

Kanady, Thomas 
Kalaher, Charles 
Lawrence, Jeremiah 

Labone, Jonathan ... 

Lynn, Daniel 

Lister, Thomas J 
Lister, William 
Lynch. James.... 
Moyer. June 

Moyer. Lewis E , 

Morgan, Joseph P.., 

Murphy, Daniel, 




REM.\RK:^ 



Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

12, '64 — tr. to Vet. Res. Corps. Jan. 27. "65. 
Killed at Tolopotomy River, Va., May 31, 

1864— Vet. 
Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, July 14. 1863. 
Mustered out with company. July 14. 1865. 
Died at City Point, Va.. June 27. 1864. 
Missing in action at Petersburg. Va.. June 

16, 1864. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Five Forks. Va., March zi'(>r,— 

wounded at Reams Station, Aug. 25. "64 — 

disch. .-Vug. 7. to date July 14, 1865 — Vet. 
Brigade Hospital Steward — mustered out 

with regiment. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., .-^ug. 25, '64. 

wounded at Wilderness— discharged by 

General Order, June 22, 1865. 
Died at Brandy Station, Va.. April 20. '64 — 

buried in Military Asylum Cemetery. D. C. 
Died at Annapolis, Md., Oct. 14. 1864. 
Died at Washington, D. C. Sept, 13. '64— bu. 

rec. buried in Cypress Hill Cem.. L. L 
Killed at Petersburg, Va., June 16, 1864. 
Killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3. 1864. 
Killed at Po River, Va., iMay 10. 1864. 
Mustered out with company, July 14. 1865. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. — Vet. — prisoner. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Wounded at Wilderness. Va.. May 5, '64— 

discharged by General Order, June 27, '65. 
Died at Annapolis, Md., March 13, '65— Vet. 
Missing in action at Reams Station, Va., 

Aug, 25, 1864. 
Mustered out with company. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor. 
Wounded at Wilderness — mustered out with 

company. 
•Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va.. Dec. 13, 

'62— transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company. July 14, '65 — 

Vet. 
Wounded at Po River. Va.,May 10. '64— mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, '65— Vet. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, "65 — 

wounded June 16, 1864. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mus out with company, July 14, '65 — Vet. 
Mustered out with company, July 14. 1865. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — 

mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Mus. out with company, July 14, 1865 — Vet. 



444 



77/1? Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



Miller, Tobias W... 

Miller, Lewis M ... 
Moyer, Albert L.... 
Mengle, Reuben... 
Moyer, Charles H. 



Moyer, Charles 

Murray, Matthew . 
Mills, Charles 

Miller, Thomas .. .. 



Moore, Jesse , 

McNamara, Matthew. 

McCready, James 

McGlensey, Charles ... 

McCutcheon, John 

McGinty, Hugh , 

McDonnell, James 

Neyer, Isaac 

Peteas, Robert 

Rahn, Jacob 

Reppert, Henry 

Reber, Franklin 

Reinheimer, A. L 



Reber, Joseph B. 



Reppert, Amos.. 
Raush, Nathan. 



Reichert, Charles K 
Reichert, Christian .. 



Robinson, Joseph H. 
Shoener, Morgan 



Smith, Clayton 

Shoener, Richard ... 
Sacriste, Sebastian. 
Stewart, William.... 

Smith, John 

Stevens, Charles.... 
Stait, Daniel 

Titlow, Abr'mS.... 
Thompson, John.... 

Updyke, Amos 

Ubele, Joshua 

Ubele, JMoses 

Woollis, Willoug'y. 

Webber. Franklin., 



....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 



DATE OF 
USTER INTO 
SERVICE. 



Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19. 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 
July 26, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 

July 12, 1862 

Aug. 30. 1862 
July 29, 1862 
Aug. II, 1862 
Aug. 18, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Feb. 19, 1864 
July 12, 1862 
feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 



.do j Feb. 19, 1864 

-"- Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 



Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 

Mar. 24, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 

Apr. 12, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 
July 30, 1862 
July 26, 1862 
Aug. 8, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Aug. 22, 1862 

Aug. 30, 1862 
Mar. 24, 1864 
July 12, 1862 



Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 



3 I Discharged Jan. 19, '65, for wounds received 

at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, 1864. 
3 I Discharged by General Order, May 31, 1865. 
3 j Discharged by General Order, May 15, 1865. 
3 Discharged by General Order, July 6, 1865. 
3 Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H., 
Va., May 12. 1864. 
Missing in action, Po River, Va., May io,'64. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 
— transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 
Wounded at Gettysburg— transferred to Bat- 
tery A, 4th U. S. Artillery. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
3 Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Discharged by General Order, June 5, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 
18, '64— mus. out with company, July 14, '65. 
3 Prisoner from May 14, '64, to .\pr. 12, '65 — 
discharged by General Order, June 22, '65. 
3 Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va.. June 2, '64 — 
transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 28, '65, 
discharged by General Order. July 24, 1865. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va.,Aug.2S,'64 — 
died at Salisburv, N. C, Jan. 26, '65 — Vet. 
Died at New York, Oct. 27, 1864. 
Died July 22, of wounds received at Peters- 
burg, Va., June 16, '64 — buried in Cyp. Hill 
Cemetery, L. I. 
3 Died June 20, of wounds received at Cold 

Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864. 
3 Missing in action at Reams Station, Va.. Aug. 
25, 1864. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Prisoner from May 5 lo Dec, '64 — mustered 
out %vith company, July 14, 1865. — Vet. 
Transferred to Vet. Kes. Corps— discharged 
on Surgeon's certificate, June 7, 1865. 
Killed at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64— Vet. 
3 ! Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
3 I Transferred to Battery A, 4th U.S. .Artillery. 
3 j Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 I Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

I — not on muster-out roll. 
3 I Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 
3 Not on muster-out roll. 

3 ! KilledMay3o.'64, at Tolopotomy Creek, Va. 
3 I Wounded at Cold Harbor, June 3. 1864. 
3 [ Woundedat Spottsylvania C.H.,\ a. .May 12, 
i 1864 — mustered out with Co., July 14, 1864. 
3 ' Woundedat Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64— 
tr. to Vet. Res. Corps, June 6, 1865. 



Three Years' Service. 



NAMB. 


RANK. 


DATE OF 

MISTER INTO 

SERVICE. 


f 
< 

> 


REMARKS. 


Wanner William 


Private 
do 


Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 

Feb. 19, 1864 
Feb. 19, 1864 

uly 26, 1862 
July 26, 1862 
Mar. 28, 1864 


3 

3 

3 
3 

3 

3 

3 
3 
3 
3 


Died at Washington, D. C, Jan 5, '65— bu. 

record, Feb. 6, '65 — buried in Nal. Cem., 

Arlington, Va.— \ et. 
Captured at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

12, '64— died at .AndersonviUe, Ga., Sept. 7, 

1864— grave, 8.081. 
Killed at Wilderness, Va., May 3, 1864. 
Died July 17, of wounds received at Peters- 
burg, Va., June 22, '64— bur. in Nat. Cem., 

Arlington-Vet. 
Died Jan. 7, 1865. 
Missing in action at Po River, Va., .May 10, 

1864-Vet. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 


Webber. John 


White. James 

Wagner. Joseph 


do 

do 

do 


Wagner. Martin M 


do 


Wadsworth. Job 




Wright. John C 


do 


WilHams, James :.. 

Webber, Wm. H 


do 

.... do. 


Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company. 









Company G. 



Lawrence Kelley.. 
Frank R. Leib 



Francis McGuigan 

S. G. Vanderheyden., 



Edmund Randall.. 
Garrett Nowlen... 



William A. Klock. 



Edward J. Rogers., 

Israel Seitzinger 

George A. Cook 

James F. Kressley.. 

Charles M. Garber.. 

Jas. M. Seitzinger .. 



Charles Shelley 

Wm. H. Harman.... 
George H. Bunting... 
Thomas McKelvey.. 

John C. Marley 

Amos F. Butler 



H. M. Seitzinger . 



Captain 
do 



.do 

.do 



ist Lieut. 
....do 



Sgt. 



Sergeant 



.. do.. 
...do.. 
...do.. 



do 

Corporal 



Aug. 2, 1862 
Mar. 9, 1864 



-Aug. 12, 1862 
Mar. 9, 1864 

July 8, 1862 
-Aug. 2, 1862 

Feb. 29, 1864 

June 17, 1864 

-Apr. 5, 1864 
Feb. 10, 1864 

Mar. 3, 1864 

Mar. 9, 1864 

Apr. 5, 1864 




Mar. 10, 1864 



Discharged by special order, Jan. 27, 1863. 

Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864— Bv. 
Major, Mar. 13, 1865 — discharged by G. O., 
Oct. 3. 1864. 

Pr. fr. priv. Co. B to ist Lt., -Apr. 4, '64 — to 
Capt. Jan. 9, '65 — dis. by G. O., June 3, '65. 

Wd. at Spottsylvania C. H.,Va., May 18, '64. 
— pr. fr. 2d to ist Lt. Jan. o, '65 — to Capt., 
June 12, '65— mus. out with Co., July 14, "65 

Discharged by special order. Jan. 27, 1863. 

Wd. at Fredericksburg, Va.. Dec. 13, '62 — 
disc, as 2d Lt., Jan. 27, '63— com. ist Lt., 
Feb. 27, '63 — promoted to Adj. Mar. i, '63. 

Wd. at Petersburg, Va., June 16, "64 — pr. to 
ist Sgt., Jan. I, '65 — com. ist Lt.,June6. 65 — 
not mus.— mu; out with Co., July 14, '65 — Vet 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — not on muster-out roll. 

flustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Wounded at Petersburg, June 16, 1864 — 

mustered out with company, July 14, 1863. 

Promoted to Sgt.. June ist, '65 — mustered 
out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Promoted to Sgt., June i, 1865— mustered 
out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Promoted to Sgt., June 3. '64— wounded at 
Reams Station, Va., -Aug. 25, 1864 — disch. 
by General Order, May 31, 1865. 

Promoted to Com. Sgt. June 11. '65 — Vet. 

Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va.. Dec. 13, 1862. 

Promoted to Corporal, July 26, '64 — mustered 
out with company, July 14, 1865 — Vet. 

Promoted to Corporal, July 26, 1864 — mus- 
tered out with company July 14, 1865. 



446 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 









5 










DATE 


3F 




MUSTER 


INTO 












> 
















v 


Mar 


7. 


r864 


3 


Mar 


24 


1864 


3 


Mar. 


10, 


864 


3 


Mar. 


-- 


X864 


3 


Mar 


31. 


1864 


3 


Mar. 


10, 


1864 


3 


Mar. 


5. 


1864 


3 


Feb. 


2q. 


1864 


3 


July 


2q. 


1862 


3 


16, 


1862 




June 


16, 


1862 


3 


June 
June 


24. 


1862 


3 


24. 


1862 


3 


July 


29. 




3 


Aug. 


I. 


1862 


3 


luly 


8, 


1862 


3 


Mar. 


IS. 


1864 


3 


lune 


26, 


1862 


3 


June 


26. 


1862 


3 


Mar. 


19. 


1864 


3 


Tuly 


2S. 


1862 


3 


Keb. 


2Q, 


1864 


3 


teb. 


29. 


1864 


3 


Feb. 


20, 


1864 


3 


Mar. 


24, 


1864 


3 


Mar. 


10 


1864 


3 


March. 


1864 


3 


July 


8. 


1862 


3 


June 


28, 


1862 


3 


June 


^0, 


1862 


3 


June 


27. 


1862 


3 


I'eb. 


29, 


1864 


3 


Mar. 


10, 


1864 


3 


Mar 


S. 


1864 


3 


Aug. 


18, 


1862 


3 


July 
Feb. 


12, 

29, 


1862 


3 

3 


Aug, 


J 


1862 


3 


luly 


10. 


1862 


3 


luly 


2^, 


1862 


3 


July 
June 




1862 


3 


t6, 


1862 


3 


Aug. 


28, 




3 
3 

3 


Mar. 


10. 


1864 


Alar. 




1864 


3 



John McKinsey 

N. M. Bretzieus 

Halley Barr 

Benjamin Dewalt..., 

Ephraim W. Ney., 
Henry R. Quinter.. 
Abraham Foust , 



Samuel S. Kramer... 
Charles Gallagher ... 
Frederick Wagner... 
William H. Milner. 



Francis Adams., 
Samuel White.... 
James Byrnes. . 



Charles Kleeplatt 

John McCormick....... 

Edward Harris 

James Kelley 

Henry Adams 

Adams, Cassius 

Allen, John 

Berger, George 

Boyer, Ellas 

Barr, John 

Buchner, Adam 

Becker, William H 

Bretzius, Nathan 

Brocklehurst, Robert. 

Barr, Dennis 

Brown, James 

Busby, Samuel 

Chambers, Morgan.... 

Christ, Charles 

Cooper, Thomas 

Cook, John G 

Cole, Neil 

Deitzler, Henry 



De Bowman, Chas.. 

Dennis, John 

Dorsey, l^ennis 

Doyle, William 

Dunn, John, ist 

Dunn, John, 2d 

Edmonston, Robert.. 

Fennel, William 

Freeby, George 



Corporal 

.... do 

do 



I 
.1 do.. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do.... 

do 

do 



do 

do 

Musician 

do 

do 

Private 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

d.. 

do.... 

do 

do .... 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



....do 

....do 

do 

....do 

....do.... 

do 

....do 

do 

....do 



Promoted to Corporal, Oct. 25, '64 — mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Promoted to Corporal, Apr. 15, 1865 — mus- 
teied out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Promoted to Corporal, June i, 1865 — mus- 
tered out with company, July 14. 1865. 

Wounded at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, 
'64 — promoted to Corporal, June 1, 1865 — 
mustered out with company, July 14. 1865. 

Promoted to Corporal, June i, 1865 — mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, '65 — Vet. 

Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64 — 
disc, by General Order — date unknown. 

Wd. and cap. at Spottsylvania C.H.,Va.,May 
12, '64 — died at Richmond — date unknown. 

Missing at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64 — Vt. 

Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 

Pr. to Hospital Steward — date unknown. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862 — not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 
1862— not on muster-out roll- 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Tr. to Battery A, 4th U. S. Artillery— killed. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. B — date unknown. 

Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 22. '64 — 
discharged by General Order, June 15, '65. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Wounded at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64 — 
tr. to Vet. Reserve Corps — date unknown. 

Died .May 25. 1864. 

Captured at Po River, May 10, '64 — died at 
Andersonville, Ga., July 27, '64 — gr. 4,084. 

Missing in action, July 26, 1864. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26. 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wounded in action, Sept. 25, 1864 — absent, 
in hospital, at muster out. 

Disch. by General Order, date unknown. 

Killed at Petersburg, Va., June 22, 1864. 

Died Nov. 7, '62 — bu. in Mil. Asy.Cem.,D.C. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Captured at Reams Station, Aug. 25, 1864. — 
died Mar. 28, 1865 — buried in Nat. Cem., 
Loudon Park, Baltimore, Md. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Discharged by special order. Mar. 18, 1864. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Dis. on surgeon's certificate, Dec. 18, 1864. 



Three Years' Service. 



447 



Fields, John 

Franks, Frank B.. 

Gearing, John 

Goodman, George. 
Green, Jesse 



Gebbert, Edm'd L.... 



Giltman, John 

Green, Win 

German, Wm 

Gorman, Bernard. 

Gibbs, James , 

Gravell, George.... 

Giger, John 

Gedds, Alexander 
Heater, Hranklin... 
Hasler, Frederick. 



Hoffman, John H. 
Heinback, Wm. B 



Ha 



Francis.. 



Private 

do 

do 

do 

.... do 



do..., 



DATE OF 

MUSTF.R INTO 

SERVICE. 



Harren, Edward 

Herring, Isaac do., 

Harker, John W ! do., 

Heinback, Wm do,. 

Heinback, John do.. 



Hummel, Jacob. 



Herring, Paul 

Hummel, Jonathan , 



Hoffman, Henry. 



Hibbs, Joseph H..., 
Heinback, S 



.do. 



do.. 

do.. 



...do.. 
...do.. 



Hutchinson, Wm do.. 

Hare, William do.. 

Hendricks, Albert W I do.. 

Johnston, Wm. H I do.. 

Johnston, David do.. 

Jones, William do,. 

Jones, Frank do.. 

Kramer, Isaac ' do.. 

Kissmer, Wm. H I do.. 

Koch, George W do., 

Kramer, George do.. 



Krouse, Gottleib do., 

Krewson, Alban's L do.. 

Kavanaugh, Peter do.. 



June 13, 1862 
June 30, 1862 
Mar. 24, 1864 
Apr. 18, 1864 
Apr. 5, 1864 

Feb. 29, 1864 

July 12, 1862 
July 8, 1862 
July 21, 1862 
July 25, 1862 
July 29, 1862 
Aug. I, 1862 
Aug. 13, 1862 
Aug. 14, 1862 
Mar. 17, 1864 
Mar. 3, 1864 

Mar. 5, 1864 
Feb. 29, 1864 

Mar. 17, 1864 

Mar. 25, 1864 

Feb. 29, 1864 

Feb. 29, 1864 

Feb. 29, 1864 

Feb. 29, 1864 

Mar. 5, 1864 



Feb. 29, 1864 
Feb. 29, 1864 



Mar. 10, 
Aug. 12, 



June 24, 1862 
June 24, 1862 
iVIarch, 1864 
June 24, 18612 
March, 1864 
June 24, 1862 
July 15, 1862 
Mar. 10, 1864 
Mar. 31, 1864 
Jan. 3, 1865 
Feb. 19, 1864 



Mar. 31, 1864 
June 13, 1862 
July 29, 1862 



Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 
— discharged by General Order, July 7, '65. 
Died at Washington, D. C., Oct. 16, '64— 

bur. in Nat. Cemetery, Arlington, Va. 
Transferred to Company A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Company A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Company A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Wd. at Reams Station, Va , Aug. 25, '64 — 

mus. out with company, July 14, 1865 — Vet. 
Mustered out with company, July 14. 1S65. 
Wd. at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, 

'64— absent in hospital, at muster out. 
Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va , June 2, 1864— ab- 
sent, in hospital, at muster out. 
Wd. at Spottsylvania C H., Va., May i8,'64 

— discharged by Gen. Order, July 6, 1865. 
Pris. from Aug. 25, 1864, to Feb. 28, 1865 — 

disch. by General Order, June 21, 1865. 
Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, 1864— tr. 

to Vet. Res. Corps — date unknown. 
Capt'd at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, 

'64 — died at Andersonville, Ga. — date unk. 
Capt'd at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64— died 

at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 12, '64 — grave 

10,814. 
Capt'd at Reams Station, Va , Aug 25, '64 — 

died at Andersonville, Ga. — date unknown 

-Vet. 

Mis. in action at Reams Station. 
Pris. from July 27, '64, to Mar. i, '65 — disch. 

by General Order, June 29, 1865. 
Missing in action, at Reams Station, Va., 

Aug. 25, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Died Aug. 14, 1864, at Andersonville, Ga.— 

grave 5,688. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Mustered out with company. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Absent, sick, at muster out. 
Capt'd at Petersburg, Va., June 22, 1864— 

died at Andersonville, Ga., Oct. 30, 1864 — 

grave 11,645. 

Mis. in act'n at Petersburg, Va., June 22, '64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 



448 



The Story of the ii6lh Regiment. 



Kell}', James.... 
Long, Lewis D., 



Lawler, John 

Matz, Leon D , 

Meyer. William.... 

Miller, John 

Miller, Ihomas 



Moyer, Michael 

Moyer, Jonathan Y. 

Marberger, John C... 



Moyer, James F .. 
Markland, James.. 
Monaghan, Felix.. 
Miles, Edward E.. 

Martin, Hugh 

Moxley, William... 
Manning, Mark.... 
McCafferty, John.. 



Rehring, Moses 

Robinson, Joseph A., 

Roth, Jacob 

Ruck, Cyrus , 



Private 
do 



do 

do 

do 



.... do. 
do... 



McVey, William 

McSorley, Patrick.... 

McLane, John 

McCullow, John 

McGrickin, Michael. 

McCiirty, James 

McGinley. Charles.... 
McLaughlin, Uaniel 

McNulty, Henry 

McGuire, Thomas 

Norman, Francis 

Norton. Thomas 

O'Harra, Henry 



O'Conner, John 

O'Reeson, William 

Poffenberger, Fran 

Purdy, Thomas 

Price. Henry D 

Porter, Michael 

Quinn, Terrence 

Reber, Franklin 



do.. 

.... do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do . 

do.. 



.do., 



do.. 

do., 

do., 

do.. 

do.. 

do. 

.. ..do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

do. 

do.. 

do.. 

do.. 

. .do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
... do.. 
....do. 



DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 



July 30, 1862 
Feb. 29, 1864 

Mar. 12, 1864 
Apr. 3, 1865 
Mar. 3, 1864 

Apr. 5, 1864 

Feb. 2o, 1864 

Mar. s, 1864 



Mar. 5, 1864 
June 13, 1862 
June 13, 1862 
June 30, 1862 
July 12, 1862 
July 31, 1862 
Aug. I, 1862 
Feb. 25, 1864 

Sept. 28, 1864 



Ross, John ' do . 



July 9, 


1862 


July 28, 


1862 


July .".9, 


1862 


June 13. 


18O2 


July 14, 


1862 


. uly 19, 


1862 


July 1, 
July 22, 


1862 


1862 


June 30, 
March, 


1862 


1864 


Mar. 31, 


1864 


July 7, 


1862 


July 7. 


1862 


Aug. I, 


1862 


Mar. 5, 


1864 


July 29, 




July 5, 


1862 


July 22, 


1862 


Aug. 28, 


1862 


Mar. 10, 


1864 


Mar. 25, 


1864 


March, 


1864 


Mar. 3, 


1864 


Mar. 25, 


1864 


July 12. 


,862 



Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 1862, 

Wd. at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 12, 
1864— disch. by Gen. Order, Aug. 7, 1865. 

Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64— tr. 
to Vet. Res. Corps— date unknown. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wd. at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64 — must, 
out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Wd. at Wilderness, Va., ftlay 5, '64 — absent 
in hospital, at muster out. 

Tr. to Vet. Res. Corps— date unknown — 
disch. by General Order, Aug. 23, 1865. 

Died at White House, Va., Aug. 12, of 
wounds received at Cold Harbor, June 3, 
'64 — buried in Nat'l Cemetery, Arlington. 

Died at Washington, D. C, Sept. 8, of wds. 
rec. at Reams station, Va., Aug 25, 1864 — 
buried in National Cemetery, Arlington. 

Died at Washington, D. C, June 26, 1864. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, '64 — mus. 
out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Trans, to Vet. Res Corps— date unknown — 
discharged by General Order, June 28, '63. 
Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wd. at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 — 

transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Kiird at Spottsylvania C. H.,Va., May i8,'64. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. B — date unknown. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Wd. at Wilderness, Va., May 5, '64 — dis- 
charged by General Order, May 3, 1865. 
Prisoner from June 23, '64, to April 29, '65 — 

discharged by General Order, June 27, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Trans, to Vet Res. Corps — date unknown. 
Capt'd at Petersburg, Va., June 22, 1864 — 

died at Lynchburg, Aug. 17, '64 — buried in 

Poplar Grove National Cem , division E, 

section E, grave 331. 
Not on muster-out roll. 



Three Years Service. 



449 







DATE OP 


2 




NAMB. 


RANK. 


MUSTER INTO 


1, 


REMARKS 






SERVICE. 


> 

X 




Ryan Martin V 


Private 






Died July 21. '64. at Louisville, Ky. grave 
63. sec. H, div. 4. 








Reader. Timothy 


do 


July 31, 1862 


■^ 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Siegfried. John 


do 


Mar. 10, 1864 


^ 


Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 


Sherff. Henry 


do 


Feb. 29, 1864 


^ 


Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 
Wd. at Spottsylvania, C. H., Va.. May 12, 


Schelthorn, Jacob 


do 


Mar. 17. 1864 


3 










'64, and at Five Forks, March 31, '65- 










mus. out with company, July 14, 1865. 


Smith. Adam S 


do 


Mar. 17, 1864 


3 


Mus. out with company, July 14, '65— Vet. 


Sellers Jacob 


do.. 


Apr. 5, 1864 
Mar. 10, 1864 


3 

3 


Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Wd. at Cold Harbor, Va., June 2, •64-dis- 


Stout, Daniel 


do 










charged by General Order, June 26. 1865. 


Smith. Georges 


do 


Feb. 24, 1864 


3 


Prisoner from Aug. 25. '64, to Mar. 12, '65— 
discharged by General Order, June 22, '65. 
Disch. on Surgeon's certificate. July 28, 1864. 


Snyder. Peter 


do 


Mar. 5, 1864 


3 


Sherman. Adam 


do 


Feb. 20, 1864 


3 


Killed at Cold Harbor, Va , June 3, '64- 
burial record, June 12, '64— buried in Nat- 
ional Cemetery, Arlington. 


Sherman. John 


do 


Mar. lo, 1864 


3 


Died at Washington, D. C, June 30. '64— 
buried in National Cem., Arlington, Va. 


Smith. Samuel 


do 


Mar. 10, 1864 


3 


Missing in action, July 26, 1864. 


Schor. Paul 


do 


July 31, 1862 
July 23, 1862 


3 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Seed, Joseph 


do 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Smith, Josiah 

Scott. Joseph B 


do 


June 16, 1862 


3 


Transferred to Co A, Jan. 26, 1863. 


do 


July s, 1862 


3 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Sayer. John 


do 


ISUr. ^3', I864 


3 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Steigwalt, Lewis 


do 


3 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Trumbo. Henry H 


do 


Feb. 20, 1864 




Kill'd at Spottsylvania C.H..Va.,May I2,'64 


Tucker, William 


do 


Mar. 3.1864 


3 


Died at Washington. D. C, Aug. 5. 1864— 
buried in National Cem., Arlington, Va. 








Tavlor. Francis 


do 


June 13, 1863 




Transferred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 


Turner, George 


do 


Aug. 22, 1862 


3 


Transferred to Co. A. Jan. 26, 1863. 


Tonner. William 


do 


Aug. I, 1862 


3 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Torrins. Wm. ist 


do 






Not on muster-out roll. 


Torrins, Wm. 2d 


do 


June 30, 1862 


3 


Not on muster-out roll. 


Thompson. John 


do 


March. 1864 




Not on muster-out roll. 


Thornton. William 


do 


June 28, 1862 






Vannata. Squire H 


... . do 






Died Dec. 25. 1864— buried at U. S. General 
Hosp. Cemetery. Annapolis, Md. 






Mar. 3, 1864 
Feb. 29, 1864 


3 
3 


Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Died at Annapolis, Md., Dec. 25, '64— grave 

756. 
Captu'dat Reams Station, Va.. Aug. 25, '64 


Wanner. Franklin 


....do 


Wilson, .Andrew 


do 


Feb. 29, 1864 


3 










—died at Salisbury, N. C, Feb. 10, 1865. 


Wmtermouth. George.... 


do 


Mar. 10, 1864 


3 


Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H., 
Va.. May 12, 1864. 


Wilson, Ambrose O 


do 


June 24, 1862 


3 


Translerred to Co. A, Jan. 26, 1863. 


WilHams, John 


do 


July 10, 1862 




Not on muster-out roll. 


White, Thomas J 


do 


July 14, 1862 


3 


Killed at Wilderness, May 5, 1864. 


Walls, John 


do 


July I, 1862 


3 


Died of wounds at Fredericksburg, Va., 
Dec. 13. 1862. 


Zanes. William 


do 




3 


Wounded at Five Forks, Va., March 31, '65 
mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 



450 



The Story of the ii6th Reghnent. 



Company H. 



NAME. 


RANK. 


DATE OF 

MUSTER INTO 

SERVICE. 


1 


REMARKS. 


John Smith 


Captain 


Sept. 1,1862 

Mar. 2, 1864 
Feb. 23, 1864 

June II, 1862 
Sept. I, 1862 

Feb. 22, 1864 

Aug. 8, 1862 

Mar. 2, 1864 
Feb. II, 1864 

Feb. 15, 1864 

July 15, 1862 
Feb. 25, 1864 

Feb. 6,1864 
Feb. 25, 1864 

Feb. 8, 1864 

Feb. 8, 1864 

Feb. 27, 1864 

July 10, 1862 
July 7.1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Feb. 8, 1864 

Oct. 14, 1864 

Feb. 6,11864 

Feb. 16, 1864 

Feb. 22. 1864 

Feb. 23, 1864 

Feb. 8,1864 


3 

3 
3 

3 


Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 




'62— disch. by special order, Jan. 27, 1863. 




do 


Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 




ist Lieut. 
do 

do 


12, '64— pr. from ist Lt., Feb. 13, '65— com. 
Major, June 3. and Lt. Col., June 4, '65— 
not mustered — mustered out with company, 
July 14, 1865. 
Pr. from 2d Lt., Sept 2,'62— dis. Nov. 22, '62. 


Francis T. Quinlan 


Pr. from ist Sergeant, Sept. 16, '62 — to Cap- 
tain Co. B, March 7, 1863. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 5, '64— 




2d Lieut. 

do 

ist Sgt. 

do 


pr. from Sergt. to ist. Sergt., July i, '64—10 
ist Lt., Feb. 14, '65— mustered out with 
company, July 14, 1865. • 
Promoted from Q. M. Sergeant, Nov. i, '62 


Thompson W. Smith 

Robert P. Brown 


—to Q. M., Jan. 26, 1863. 
Disch'd on Surgeon's certificate, Oct. 8, '64. 
Pr. from Sergeant, Feb. 14, 1865 — mustered 




out with company, July 14, 1865— Vet. 
Died in Alexandria, June 18, of wounds re- 


John Farley 


do 


ceived at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864— 
grave 2,135. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec 13, '62. 




Sergeant 

do 

do 


Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., May 18 


David C. Jackson 


'64 — pr. from Corporal, July i, '64 — mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, '65— Vet 
Promoted from Corporal. Dec. i, '64— mus- 
tered out with company, July 14, '65. 


John A Gray 


.. .. do 


geant, Dec. i, 1864— mustered out with 
company, July 14, 1865— Vet. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., May 12, 


Frederick Shawn 


do 


'64 — promoted from Corporal, Aug, i, '64 — 
mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Died July 31, of wounds received at Peters- 




Sergeant 

do 

do 

do 


burg, Va., June 24, '64— buried in National 
Cemetery. Arlington. 
Died Aug. 13. of wounds received at Spott- 


Bernard McCahey 

William Keiper 


sylvania C. H., Va., May 12, '64— bur. in 

National Cemeterj', Arlington. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan 26, 1863 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 


William Kelly 


do 






Corporal 
do 




John Ward 


out with company, July 14, 1865 
Promoted to Corporal, Dec. i, 1864 — mus- 


Frederick D. Rasp 


do 

do 


tered out with company, July 14, 1865 
Promoted to Corporal, Jan. i, 1865— mus- 
tered out with company, July 14 1865. 


John Robbins 

James T. Tompkins 

William H. Barker 


do 

do 

do 


tered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Promoted to Corporal. June 6, 1865— mus- 
tered out with company, July 14. 1865. 

Wounded at Petersburg, Va , June 16. '64— 
absent, in hospital, at muster out— Vet 

Mustered out with company, July i4,'65— Vt. 



Three Years Service. 



451 



William Wallace. 

John Lutton , 

William Wertz.... 



George Seip 

John DufFey 

Alexander Edgar 

Robert J. Fitzgerald. 

John D. Myers 

Horace Greenleaf 

Nicholas Martin 

Chas. J. Dougherty.. 

Thomas McNeice 

James Slavin 

Alexander Mahan 

Anderson, Robert .... 



Anderson, Joseph... 
Anderson, George P. 
Atkinson, Franc. C 

Awes, Lewis 

Berwick, Alex 

Brown, John 

Black. Josiah B 

Bennett, James 

Beaty. Samuel. 



Corporal 



do 

do 

do 

do 

... .do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Musiciar 
Private 



r, Rudolph | do.. 



Beilhartz, John.. 



Bowser. James W... 

Buckley, Michael J.. 

Brown, Isaac 

Brewer, George C... 

Barris, William 

Boyle, Michael 

Caine, George W 



Clifford. Charles 

Carroll, James 

Curry, John H 

Cumraings, John.. . 

Casey, John M 

Cutinar, Charles... 
Clementine, John.. 
^ewisC 



Cook, Lev 

Cox, Richard 

Devine, Dennis 

Door, John, 

Delaney, Patrick.... 

Dubois, George 

Daly. Roderick 

Davis, James 

Develin, Michael ... 
Develin, Thomas ... 
Dawson, John , 







H 








UATB 


OF 




MUST BR 


INTO 


y 


SERVICE. 


H 












^ 


Feb. 26. 


1864 


3 


Feb. 13. 


i?64 


3 


Heb. 13, 


1864 


3 1 


Feb. 24, 


1864 




July 30, 


1862 




July 8, 

July 13. 


1862 




1862 




July 9. 

July 8, 


1862 


3 


1862 




July 24, 


1862 




July 25, 


1862 




Aug. 31, 


1862 


3 1 


Aug. 29, 


1862 


3 i 


July .7, 
Feb. 4, 


1862 




1864 




July II, 


1862 




July 26, 


1862 




Aug iq. 


1862 




Feb. 18, 


1K64 




Feb. 26, 


1864 




Feb. II, 


1864 




Feb, 25, 


1864 




Aug. 2, 


1864 




Mar. 31, 


1864 




Feb, II, 


.864 




Feb. 27. 


1864 




Feb. IS, 


1864 


3 


Feb. 25, 


1864 




July 9, 
July 11, 


1862 


3 1 


1862 




July 22, 


1862 




Mar. 7, 


1864 




Feb, 9, 


1864 




Feb. 22, 


1864 




Feb. 18, 


,864 




July 15, 


1862 




Aug. 19, 


1862 




Feb. 15. 


1864 




».S: 


1862 
1864 




Feb. 24, 


1864 




Feb. II, 


1864 




Feb. 4, 


1864 




Feb. 15, 


1864 




July 9, 


1862 




July 12, 


1862 




July 8, 


1862 




July 21, 


1862 




July 25, 


1862 




Aug. 13, 


1862 




Feb. 23, 


i8b4 





Promoted to Corporal, Dec. i, 1864 — disch. 

by General Order, June 3, 1865. 
Promoted to Sergeant Major, June 6, 1865. 
Killed at Spottsylvania C. H.. Va., May 

18, 1864. 
Captured at Reams Station. Va., Aug. 25, 

'64 — diedat Salisbury, N. C, Nov. 8. '64. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan, 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co D, Jan 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
I Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, 1862. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Prisoner from Aug. 25. '64. to Mar. 4, 1865 — 

discharged by General Order, Aug. 7, '65. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out toll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, '65 — Vt. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 — 

died of wounds, June 23, 1864. 
Died June 23. of wounds received at Cold 

Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864 — buried in Nat. 

Cemetery, Arlington. 
Captured at William's Farm, Va., June 22, 

1864 — died at Andersonville, Oct. 14, 1864 — 

grave 10,943. 
Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H., 

Va., May 12, 1864. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 — 

absent, in hospital, at muster-out. 
Promoted to Sergeant Major, June 4, 1865. 
Miss, in action at Petersbg, Va., June 16, '64. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to Co. F — date unknown. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Died at City Point, Va., Feb. 15, 1865. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 



452 



The Story of the Ii6th Regiment. 



DATE OF 

MUSTER IJtTO 

SEJtVICE. 



Diebold. Peter 

Emanuel, Johii_ 

Eagan, James _.. 

Fence, NV Qliam ,. 

Kence, Suffley 

Freidle. John S..._ .. 



Fletcher, James 

Foster, John W 

Fisher, Joseph ,... 

Frazier, George F„. 

Ford, Jeremiah „ 

Gibbons, Richard... 
Gillespie, Samuel 5- 
Guinan, Peter 



Private 
do._.. 



Feb. 3,1864 
Feb. 3, 1864 



..do._... Feb. 22, 1864 

..do ( Feb. 2j, 1864 

....do„... Feb. 22, 1864 

....do Feb. 27, 1864 



Aug. 29, 1862 
July 10, 1862 
Aug. 5. '862 
Feb. 22, 1864 
Feb. IS, 1864 
Feb, 4.1864 
Sept. 21, 1864 
July 9, 1862 



do 
.do._... 



Glasgow, Matthew 

Gorman, William. 

Geary, William 

Gates, John „ 

Colder, John 

Gunk, Conrad „.. 

Hamilton, Thomas A , 

Hausburg, Joseph S.. 

Harlan, John _... 

Haugby, John , 



Hathaway, Wm. E 

Himes, James 

Hewiu, Charles 

HaJTon, William ... 
Hayden. Patnclt_. 

Holmes, James , 

Johnston, Alex 



do, 

do 

do._... 



.do._.. 
.do.-.„ 
.do 



.do._... 

do 

do_... 

do 

.do., 
.do. 



Keeney, Patrick... 
Kelley, MichaeL. 



Kinchner, John .... _ 

Kendel, Jacob „. 

KeUey, Chartes 

Lefevre, Calvin J..., 



Leonard, Frank 

Logue, Frank „.. 

Lott, William L 

Lutz, John L. 

Liver, John P 

Mink, Andrew J 

Mercer, William 

MOler, Winficld S.... 

Manl, Alexander...... 

Medsker, George. , 



Feb. 16, 1864 

July 21, 1862 

do Aug. 2, 1862 

do._... July 14, 1862 

do Aug. 14, 1862 

do , Jan. 13, 1864 

do I Feb. 6, 1864 

do. Feb. 15, 1864 

do [ Feb. 15, 1864 

do ..._^ Feb. 39, 1864 



July 30, 1862 
Aug. 4, 1862 ; 
Juiy 21, 1862 j 
July 21, 1862 ( 
Aug 19, 1862 
1-eb. 15, 1864 
Feb. 10, 1864 

Feb. 5. 1864 
Feb. 6, 1864 
Feb. II. 1864 

July II, 1862 
Aug. 16, 1862 
July 21, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Aug. 23, 1862 
Feb. 20, 1864 
Feb. 17, 1864 

Feb. 18, 1864 
Feb. II, 1864 

July 29, 1862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Feb. 24, 1864 
Feb. 10, 1864 



Woonded at Petersborg, Va., June 16. 1864. 
Wounded at Petersburg, Va., June 16, '64 — 

discharged by General Order, June 16, '65. 
Not on musier-out roll . 
Mustered out with company, July 14, '65 
Discharged on Surgeon's certific'e,Jan.7,'63. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, 

'64 — died at Salisbury, N. C., Dec. 25, '64. 
Transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-oiu roll. 
Not on muster-out rolL 
Not on muster-out rolL 
Not on muster-out rolL 
Mustered out with company, July 14, '65 
Killed at Five Forks, Va.. March 31, 1865. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg. Va.. Dec 13 '62 

— transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roil. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wotmded at Cold Harbor, Va . June 2, '64 — 

mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 
Discharged by General Order, May 15, 1865. 
Died JiJy 25, of wounds received at Cold 

Harbor, June 3, 1864. 
Transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out rolL 
Not on muster-out rolL 
Not on muster-out roll 
Transferred to company D, Jan 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out ruU. 
Wounded at Petersburg, Va., April 2, 1865 — 

discharged by General Order, June 3. 1&65. 
\fustered out with company, Juiy 14, '65. 
Wounded at Spottsylrania C. H., Va„ May 

12, '64 — discharged by G. O , June 7, 1865. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wotuided at Spotts;^lTania C. H., ilay 12, 

'64 — transferred to Co. C, i4lh reg. V. R.C. 

— died at Washington, D. C, July 4, 1865. 
Captured at Petersburg. Va.. June 22, 1864 — 

died at Lynchlmrg, Sept. 10, 1864. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan, 26, '63. 
Transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-oiu roll. 
Absent, sick, at muster-out. 
Absent, sick, at muster-out — ^wounded at 2d 

battle of Spottsylvania. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H-, Va. May 

18, '64 — absent, in hospital, at muster-out. 
Wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., Va., May 

18, '64 — adsent, in hospital, at muster-out. 
Prisoner from June 22, '64, to March 30, '65 

— discharged by G. O., July 24, 1865. 



Tin 



Years Service. 



453 



Marshall, Alex Private Feb. 9, 1864 

Murphy, John . do Aug. 15, 1862 

^ph 



DATE OF 
USTHR INTO 
SBKVICE. 



Murphy, J^ 

Morris, Owen 

Mills, Charles. 

Mclntyre, Stephen- 



McLaughlin, J. B 

McCarty, Charles 

McCuUough, David 



McQuaid, Thomas 

McGonigal, Henry.... 

McNight, Henry 

McMullin, James 

McGinty, Hugh 

McCarty, Daniel 

McGurick, Laurence. 
McFarland. Peter .... 
McGuire, Thomas.... 

Niblo, George 

Polly, John 

Puhl, John 



Puhl. Nicholas , 



Pack, Jacob 

Parker, Robert.... 
Quinn, Charles A. 
RiUey, Philip 



Ritchie, Edward 

Rosier, Edward H... 
Ralston, William G.. 
Ross, William A 



Rushworth, George.. 

Rodgers, Willets 

Russell, Lewis 

Stark, Robert C 

Shields, John 

Steenburg, Charles.., 

Stewart, Robert 

Shultz, Isaac , 



Swisher, John 

Seifritz, Matthias.... 



Shaeffer, Joseph 

Stevens, John L 

Shannon, Thomas.... 
Simpson, Stephen E. 

Small, John E 

Shinn, Thomas .A. 

Smith Charles 



do July 30, 1862 

do I July 29 1862 

do i Aug. 22, 1862 

do t Feb. 18. 1864 



.do Feb. 17, 

.do Feb. 8, 

.do ! Sept I, 



Aug. 29, 
July 15, 
Aug. .6, 
Aug. 10, 
Aug. 22, 
Aug. 30, 
Aug 29, 
Feb. 5, 
Feb. 6, 
Aug. 19, 
P"eb. 14, 
Feb 8, 



do.. 

do . 

do.. 

do.. 

do . 

.... do. 

do.. 

.... do.. 
do.. 

do.. 



1862 
1862 
1862 
1862 
1864 
1864 

1864 



....do. 
....do. 
...do 
....do. 



.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 



do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

do 

..do 



.do. 

do 

.do. 
do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Feb. 25, 1864 

Feb. 12, 1864 
Aug. 9, 1B62 
Aug. 10, 1862 
Feb. 25, 1864 

Feb. 29, 1864 
Mar. 7, 1864 
Sept. 21, 1864 
Feb. 16, 1864 

July IS, J862 
Aug. 19, 1862 
Aug. 5, 1862 
Feb. 16, 1864 
Mar 26, 1864 
Feb. I, 1865 
Apr. 15, 1864 
Feb. 10, 1864 



Mar. 
Feb. 



1864 



July 15, 1862 

July 10, 1862 

July 10, 1862 

July IS, 1862 

July 31, 1862 

Aug. 13, 1862 

July 14, 1862 



Missing in action at Spottsylvania C. H. 

May 12, 1864 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, 

'62 — transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26. 1863. 
Transferred to company D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Tolopotomy, Va., May 31, '64, 

and at Five Forks, March 31, 1865— absent,. 

in hospital, at muster out. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64. 

— discharged by G. O., May 26, 1865. 
Captured at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, 

'64 — died at Salisbury, N.C., Jan. 10, 186,. 
Wounded at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62 

^transferred to Co D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Killed at Fredericksburg, Dec. 13. 1862, 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
W^ounded at Five Forks, Va., March 31, '65 

— discharged by General Order. June 5, '65: 
Prisoner from Aug. 18, 1864, to Feb. 28, '6s. 

— discharged by G. O., June 16, 1865. 
Miss, in action at Petersburg, Va., June is,'64- 
Not on muster out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Wounded at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 — 

mustered out with company, Juty 14, '65. . 
Absent, sick, at muster-out. 
Absent, sick, at muster-out. 
Discharged by General Order, June 3, i86s. 
Transferred to Vet: Re. Corps, Sept. 2, 1864 

— discharged by Gen. Order, July 31, 1865. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, '63. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Mustered out with company, July 14. '65. 
Absent, sick, at muster-out. 
Discharged by General Order, Aug. 9, 1865. 
Ab.sent, wounded, at muster-( ut 
Killed near Darbytown Road, Va., Oct.8, 

'64 — bur. record, Oct. 18, '64 — bu. in Nat.' 

Cem., City Point, sec. E, div. 2, grave 151. 
Died at Philadelphia, Pa , July 31, of wds. 

received at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64 - 
Died at Alexandria, Va., Sept. 8, of wounds 

received at Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, '64. ■ 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on mUster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 



454 



The Story of the ii6th Regiment. 



Stephenson, \Vn 
Shaffer, Thomas, 
Stewart, Wm. H, 
Sikes, Samuel 
Stetzler, C 
Thomas, Alonzo C. 
Tompkins, John W, 
Torpie, John 

Worsenborger, I 
Walker, Theodore A, 

Whelan, James 

Willoughby, E. B 
Wood, George H. 
Wilson, David. 
Wood, Charles, 

Wall, James 

Webb, William H 




Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Not on muster-out roll. 

Died Nov. 6, 1864, at Beverly, N. J. 

Absent, sick, at muster out. 

Discharged by General Order, May 24, 1865. 

Missing in action at Cold Harbor, Va., June 

3, 1864. 
Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Transferred to Co. D, Jan. 26, 1863. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 
Not on muster-out roll. 



Company I. 



Samuel Taggart.... 
Wm. O'Cahaghan. 

Joseph W. Yocum. 



Captain 
do 



Robert J. Taggart. 



John Stephens 

R. B. Montgomery. 
John A. Dickson .... 



ist Lieut. 
2d Lieut, 
ist Sgt. 



Thomas J Murlha 

Peter Kelly 

George L. Northrop., 

Henry Mullen 

Joseph Guiller 

Thomas McKnight.... 

James E. Craig 

Daniel Reen.... 

George Cole.... 

David Steen 

John Adams 

Brian McLaughlin 

William Devereau 



.. ..do... 

do.., 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

Corpor 

do.. 

do... 

do... 



Apr. 14, 


1864 


3 


Aug. 15, 


1862 


3 


Aug 25, 


1862 


3 


May 25, 


1864 


3 


Sept. 18, 
Sept. 19, 
Feb. 29, 


1862 
1862 
1864 


3 
3 
3 


July 24, 
Keb, 25, 
Jan. 9, 


1862 
1864 
1865 


3 

3 
3 


Mar. 2,, 
Mar. 9, 
July 12, 
July 22, 

m. 

Mar. 8, 
Apr. 4, 
Feb. 7. 


1864 
1864 
1862 
1862 

ii: 
1864 
1864 
186s 


3 
3 

3 
3 
3 

3 
3 
3 
3 



Killed at Reams Station, Va., Aug. 25, '64 — 
buried in Allegheny Cem., Pittsburg, Pa. 

Piomoted from 2d Lt.C o. B to ist Li., May 
2, '64— to Capt., Sept. 22, '64 — discharged 
by special order, Feb. 16, 1865. 

Promoted to 2d Lt., May 3, '64 — to ist Lt., 
Oct. 14, '64 — to Capt. March 4, 1865 — to Bv. 
Maj., Mar. 13, '65 — wd. at Petersburg, Va., 
June 16 and at William's Farm, June 22, '64 
— disch. by special order. May 19, 1865. 

Promoted to Sgt., April 25, '64 — to ist Sgt., 
Sept. I, '64 — to ist Lt., March 4, '65 — to 
Capt., June 9, '65 — com. Major, June 4, '65 
— not mustered — mustered out with com- 
pany, July 14, 1865. 

Discharged May 12, to date Jan 27, 1863. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. 

Promoted to Sgt , April 25, '64 — to ist Sgt , 
Mar. 4, '65— wd at Five Forks, Va., Mar. 
31, '65 — absent, in hospital, at muster out — 
Vet. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Pr. to Corp., Mar. 1 '65 — to Sgt., July i,'65 
— mustered out with company, July 14, '65. 

Absent, sick at muster out — Vet. 

Discharged by General Order, June 17, '65. 

Transferred to Co B, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Transferred to Co. B, Jan. 26, 1863. 

Killed at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 13, '62. 

Mus. out with company, July 14, '65 — Vet. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Mustered out with company, July 14, 1865. 

Promoted to Corp , July i.'6s — mustered out 
with company, July 14, 1865. 



Three Years' Service. 



456 







DATE OF 






NAME. 


RANK. 


MISTER INTO 
SERVICE. 




KEMARKK. 


William R. Cowl 


Corporal 


Apr. 13, 1864 


3 


Promoted to Corp., April 25, '64 — wounded 




at Spottsylvania C. H., May 12, '64— trans- 










to Co. b, i8th Reg. Vet. Res. Corps— dis. 










charged by General Order, July 19, 1865. 


Patrick J. Carrigan 


do 


Mar. 26, 1864 


3 


Promoted to Corp., April 25, '65 — prisoner 
from June 22, '64, to April, '65— discharged 
by General Order, June 3, 1865. 
Wou